Summary: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.

Top Publications

  1. Li J, Olsen J, Vestergaard M, Obel C, Baker J, Sørensen T. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight. Obes Facts. 2012;5:881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged ..
  2. Heazell A, McLaughlin M, Schmidt E, Cox P, Flenady V, Khong T, et al. A difficult conversation? The views and experiences of parents and professionals on the consent process for perinatal postmortem after stillbirth. BJOG. 2012;119:987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of perinatal pathologists to staff education and parental decision-making would be invaluable. ..
  3. Chan C, Wang C, Ho A, Qu Z, Wang X, Ran M, et al. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among bereaved and non-bereaved survivors following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26:673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of a child was a significant predictor of psychopathological symptoms. The results suggested that effective and sustainable mental health services were required, especially for bereaved single-child parents. ..
  4. Khashan A, Wicks S, Dalman C, Henriksen T, Li J, Mortensen P, et al. Prenatal stress and risk of asthma hospitalization in the offspring: a Swedish population-based study. Psychosom Med. 2012;74:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the risk of offspring asthma was increased with any prenatal exposure to bereavement in any exposure period (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.20 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.03-1.39])...
  5. King M, Vasanthan M, Petersen I, Jones L, Marston L, Nazareth I. Mortality and medical care after bereavement: a general practice cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52561 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we did not confirm increased mortality in cohabitees of people dying from cancer. ..
  6. Liang H, Olsen J, Cnattingus S, Vestergaard M, Obel C, Gissler M, et al. Risk of substance use disorders following prenatal or postnatal exposure to bereavement. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to examine whether prenatal maternal bereavement, as the indicator of prenatal stress, was associated with an increased risk of SUD in offspring...
  7. Zhu J, Olsen J, Sørensen H, Li J, Nohr E, Obel C, et al. Prenatal maternal bereavement and congenital heart defects in offspring: a registry-based study. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined this association using bereavement around the time of conception as an indicator of maternal exposure to stress in a large registry-based study...
  8. Kaplow J, Layne C, Pynoos R, Cohen J, Lieberman A. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations. Psychiatry. 2012;75:243-66 pubmed publisher
    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an ..
  9. Shah S, Carey I, Harris T, Dewilde S, Victor C, Cook D. The effect of unexpected bereavement on mortality in older couples. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1140-5 pubmed publisher
    We sought to determine whether unexpected bereavement has a greater impact on mortality in the surviving partner than death of a partner with preexisting chronic disease or disability...

More Information


  1. Pilling J, Thege B, Demetrovics Z, Kopp M. Alcohol use in the first three years of bereavement: a national representative survey. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2012;7:3 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between bereavement and alcohol consumption accounting for time and gender differences on a nationally representative sample from ..
  2. Class Q, Abel K, Khashan A, Rickert M, Dalman C, Larsson H, et al. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal and postnatal maternal bereavement stress. Psychol Med. 2014;44:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar ..
  3. Rostila M, Saarela J, Kawachi I. The forgotten griever: a nationwide follow-up study of mortality subsequent to the death of a sibling. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The least-studied familial relationship in the bereavement literature is that of siblings, although loss of a sibling may also involve health consequences...
  4. Shah S, Carey I, Harris T, Dewilde S, Victor C, Cook D. Do good health and material circumstances protect older people from the increased risk of death after bereavement?. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:689-98 pubmed publisher
    An increased risk of death in persons who have suffered spousal bereavement has been described in many populations. The impact of modifying factors, such as chronic disease and material circumstances, is less well understood...
  5. Simeonova E. Marriage, bereavement and mortality: the role of health care utilization. J Health Econ. 2013;32:33-50 pubmed publisher
    There is ample evidence that bereavement is associated with heightened mortality. Regardless of whether this strong association is truly causal, little is known about the factors contributing to it...
  6. Breeze A, Statham H, Hackett G, Jessop F, Lees C. Perinatal postmortems: what is important to parents and how do they decide?. Birth. 2012;39:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..related to altruism, which is, improving medical knowledge and helping other parents experiencing similar bereavement. Among the lowest scoring issues were potential barriers, such as concerns about cultural or religious ..
  7. Kristensen P, Weisæth L, Heir T. Bereavement and mental health after sudden and violent losses: a review. Psychiatry. 2012;75:76-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The review shows gaps in the literature on grief and bereavement after sudden and violent deaths. Still, some preliminary conclusions can be made...
  8. Hamdan S, Mazariegos D, Melhem N, Porta G, Payne M, Brent D. Effect of parental bereavement on health risk behaviors in youth: a 3-year follow-up. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.52; P < .04), even after taking into account correlates of bereavement and of HRBs, such as youth aggression, as well as antisocial and anxiety disorders of the deceased parent...
  9. Buckley T, Sunari D, Marshall A, Bartrop R, McKinley S, Tofler G. Physiological correlates of bereavement and the impact of bereavement interventions. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14:129-39 pubmed
    ..of increased mortality and morbidity for the surviving spouse or parent, especially in the early months of bereavement. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence to date to identify physiological changes in the early ..
  10. Hudson P, Remedios C, Zordan R, Thomas K, Clifton D, Crewdson M, et al. Guidelines for the psychosocial and bereavement support of family caregivers of palliative care patients. J Palliat Med. 2012;15:696-702 pubmed publisher
    Support for family caregivers, including bereavement follow-up, is a core function of palliative care...
  11. Galatzer Levy I, Bonanno G. Beyond normality in the study of bereavement: heterogeneity in depression outcomes following loss in older adults. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    Studies of individual differences in bereavement have revealed prototypical patterns of outcome. However, many of these studies were conducted prior to the advent of sophisticated contemporary data analytic techniques...
  12. Zisook S, Corruble E, Duan N, Iglewicz A, Karam E, Lanouette N, et al. The bereavement exclusion and DSM-5. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29:425-43 pubmed publisher
    ..and Statistical Manual), a series of studies demonstrated that major depressive syndromes were common after bereavement and that these syndromes often were transient, not requiring treatment...
  13. Wright A, Zhang B, Ray A, Mack J, Trice E, Balboni T, et al. Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment. JAMA. 2008;300:1665-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary outcomes included patients' mental health and caregivers' bereavement adjustment. One hundred twenty-three of 332 (37...
  14. Cerel J, Padgett J, Conwell Y, Reed G. A call for research: the need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2009;39:269-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we pose several questions for researchers to consider as they work with survivors to develop a research agenda that sheds more light on the experiences of survivors and the help provided by survivor support groups. ..
  15. Holland J, Currier J, Gallagher Thompson D. Outcomes from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) program for bereaved caregivers. Psychol Aging. 2009;24:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that different preloss interventions might be warranted depending on a caregiver's unique clinical presentation and combination of risk factors. ..
  16. Christakis N, Allison P. Mortality after the hospitalization of a spouse. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:719-30 pubmed
    ..Such interpersonal health effects have clinical and policy implications for the care of patients and their families. ..
  17. Feigelman W, Gorman B, Beal K, Jordan J. Internet support groups for suicide survivors: a new mode for gaining bereavement assistance. Omega (Westport). 2008;57:217-43 pubmed
    ..Unable to find ready comfort and support from their personal communities, Internet users-and especially highly depressed survivors-sought and obtained valuable help from the Internet support resource. ..
  18. Kessing L, Bukh J, Bock C, Vinberg M, Gether U. Does bereavement-related first episode depression differ from other kinds of first depressions?. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010;45:801-8 pubmed publisher
    It has never been investigated whether first depression differs in patients who have experienced bereavement compared to patients who have not...
  19. Wood K, Chase E, Aggleton P. 'Telling the truth is the best thing': teenage orphans' experiences of parental AIDS-related illness and bereavement in Zimbabwe. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:1923-33 pubmed
    ..For several reasons, AIDS-related bereavement is likely to be especially complicated and difficult to accommodate...
  20. Szanto K, Shear M, Houck P, Reynolds C, Frank E, Caroff K, et al. Indirect self-destructive behavior and overt suicidality in patients with complicated grief. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:233-9 pubmed
    ..Notably, 13% of this group made at least 1 suicide attempt, and 44% engaged in indirect self-destructive behavior. Given its frequency, this behavior should be included in assessment of bereaved people. ..
  21. Walker W. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions. Nurs Stand. 2010;24:50-6; quiz 58 pubmed
    ..sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults...
  22. Kristjanson L, Cousins K, Smith J, Lewin G. Evaluation of the Bereavement Risk Index (BRI): a community hospice care protocol. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2005;11:610, 612-8 pubmed
    to test the validity, reliability and feasibility of using a modified version of Parkes' (1993) Bereavement Risk Index (BRI) and bereavement support protocol in an Australian home hospice care setting...
  23. Boyle P, Feng Z, Raab G. Does widowhood increase mortality risk?: testing for selection effects by comparing causes of spousal death. Epidemiology. 2011;22:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are highly consistent and suggest that this is a causal effect, rather than a result of selection. ..
  24. Wakefield J, Schmitz M, Baer J. Did narrowing the major depression bereavement exclusion from DSM-III-R to DSM-IV increase validity?: evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:66-73 pubmed publisher
    The DSM's major-depression "bereavement exclusion" eliminates bereavement-related depressive episodes (BRDs) from diagnosis unless they are "complicated" by prolonged duration or certain severe symptoms...
  25. Shear M, Simon N, Wall M, Zisook S, Neimeyer R, Duan N, et al. Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28:103-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Bereavement is a severe stressor that typically incites painful and debilitating symptoms of acute grief that commonly progresses to restoration of a satisfactory, if changed, life. Normally, grief does not need clinical intervention...
  26. Gilbar O, Ben Zur H. Bereavement of spouse caregivers of cancer patients. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2002;72:422-32 pubmed
    This study assessed bereavement aspects among 69 widowed spouses (mean age = 61.1; 36.2% men) of deceased cancer patients. They completed questionnaires related to psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R...
  27. Aoun S, Connors S, Priddis L, Breen L, Colyer S. Motor Neurone Disease family carers' experiences of caring, palliative care and bereavement: an exploratory qualitative study. Palliat Med. 2012;26:842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..commitment, yet little research has examined the experiences and needs of carers for palliative care and bereavement care...
  28. Rostila M, Saarela J, Kawachi I. Mortality in parents following the death of a child: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66:927-33 pubmed publisher
    ..15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.29). Bereavement effects among fathers were more attenuated and chiefly found after >8 years of follow-up...
  29. McGrath P, Holewa H, McNaught M. Surviving spousal bereavement--insights for GPs. Aust Fam Physician. 2010;39:780-3 pubmed
    Spousal bereavement is documented as a highly stressful event. This article presents findings from research that explored bereavement survivors' perspectives on what support factors were most helpful to them...
  30. Fang F, Höglund C, Arck P, Lundholm C, Långström N, Lichtenstein P, et al. Maternal bereavement and childhood asthma-analyses in two large samples of Swedish children. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27202 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the association between maternal bereavement shortly before and during pregnancy, as a proxy for prenatal stress, and the risk of childhood asthma in the ..
  31. Guldin M, Vedsted P, Zachariae R, Olesen F, Jensen A. Complicated grief and need for professional support in family caregivers of cancer patients in palliative care: a longitudinal cohort study. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:1679-85 pubmed publisher
    ..assessment of the relatives' grief reaction with measured levels of CG and depression, and to assess the use of bereavement support...
  32. Hauksdóttir A, Steineck G, Fürst C, Valdimarsdottir U. Towards better measurements in bereavement research: order of questions and assessed psychological morbidity. Palliat Med. 2006;20:11-6 pubmed
    ..Psychological morbidity is assessed as higher when questions appear in the end, rather than the beginning, of a bereavement-related questionnaire...
  33. Kavanaugh K, Moro T. Supporting parents after stillbirth or newborn death: There is much that nurses can do. Am J Nurs. 2006;106:74-9 pubmed
  34. Agnew A, Manktelow R, Taylor B, Jones L. Bereavement needs assessment in specialist palliative care: a review of the literature. Palliat Med. 2010;24:46-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Bereavement needs assessment for specialist palliative care services has been highlighted as important by NICE guidance on palliative care for adults with cancer...
  35. Torges C, Stewart A, Nolen Hoeksema S. Regret resolution, aging, and adapting to loss. Psychol Aging. 2008;23:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the authors examined the role of regret resolution during bereavement by assessing whether (a) regret resolution would aid in adapting to the death of a loved one and (b) older ..
  36. Somhlaba N, Wait J. Psychological adjustment to conjugal bereavement: do social networks aid coping following spousal death?. Omega (Westport). 2008;57:341-66 pubmed
    This research sought to investigate the role of social networks in coping and adjustment to spousal bereavement. A total of 198 Xhosa-speaking participants, drawn from the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, took part ..
  37. Li J, Vestergaard M, Obel C, Christensen J, Precht D, Lu M, et al. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement. Pediatrics. 2009;123:1102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to examine whether prenatal stress exposure after maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of autism later in life...
  38. Kreicbergs U, Valdimarsdottir U, Onelov E, Henter J, Steineck G. Anxiety and depression in parents 4-9 years after the loss of a child owing to a malignancy: a population-based follow-up. Psychol Med. 2004;34:1431-41 pubmed
    ..The risk of anxiety and depression was higher in the period 4-6 years after bereavement than in the 7-9 years period, during which the average excess risks approached zero...
  39. Mausbach B, Aschbacher K, Patterson T, von Kanel R, Dimsdale J, Mills P, et al. Effects of placement and bereavement on psychological well-being and cardiovascular risk in Alzheimer's caregivers: a longitudinal analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2007;62:439-45 pubmed
    We examined the impact of Alzheimer caregiver transitions (i.e., placement and bereavement) on psychological outcomes and on plasma D-dimer levels, an end product of the coagulation cascade associated with increased cardiovascular risk...
  40. Milberg A, Olsson E, Jakobsson M, Olsson M, Friedrichsen M. Family members' perceived needs for bereavement follow-up. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008;35:58-69 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to quantitate perceived bereavement needs and to qualitatively describe these needs...
  41. Murphy F, Cochran D, Thornton S. Impact of a Bereavement and Donation Service incorporating mandatory 'required referral' on organ donation rates: a model for the implementation of the Organ Donation Taskforce's recommendations. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:822-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bolton NHS Trust has addressed the problem of low rates of organ donation by amalgamating Bereavement and Donation Services and introducing a trigger to refer automatically all potential organ donors to the ..
  42. Kutner J, Kilbourn K. Bereavement: addressing challenges faced by advanced cancer patients, their caregivers, and their physicians. Prim Care. 2009;36:825-44 pubmed publisher
    Physicians who work with advanced cancer patients need to be aware of the process of grief and bereavement not only in terms of how it may impact the patient and family, but in how it can affect their own emotions and behavior...
  43. Li J, Olsen J, Vestergaard M, Obel C, Baker J, Sørensen T. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11896 pubmed publisher
    ..In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age...
  44. Feigelman W, Gorman B, Jordan J. Stigmatization and suicide bereavement. Death Stud. 2009;33:591-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Suicide survivors reported little differences in stigmatization from other-traumatic-death survivors, a result consistent with other recent studies, suggesting more convergence between these two populations than divergence. ..
  45. Ajdacic Gross V, Ring M, Gadola E, Lauber C, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, et al. Suicide after bereavement: an overlooked problem. Psychol Med. 2008;38:673-6 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effect of time on suicide after bereavement among widowed persons. The data were extracted from Swiss mortality statistics for the period 1987-2005...
  46. Pivar I, Field N. Unresolved grief in combat veterans with PTSD. J Anxiety Disord. 2004;18:745-55 pubmed
    ..The latter finding suggested that in fact higher levels of grief stemmed from interpersonal losses during the war and was not simply an artifact of current general distress level. ..
  47. Onrust S, Cuijpers P. Mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood: a systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2006;10:327-34 pubmed
    ..During the first year of bereavement, almost 22% of the widowed were diagnosed as having MDD; almost 12% met diagnostic criteria for Post Traumatic ..
  48. Nagraj S, Barclay S. Bereavement care in primary care: a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61:e42-8 pubmed publisher
    Over half a million people die in Britain each year and, on average, a GP will have 20 patients die annually. Bereavement is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but the research evidence on which GPs and district nurses ..
  49. Michael S, Snyder C. Getting unstuck: the roles of hope, finding meaning, and rumination in the adjustment to bereavement among college students. Death Stud. 2005;29:435-58 pubmed
    The relationships between hope, bereavement-related rumination, and finding meaning (making sense and benefit finding) were examined in 158 college students who experienced the death of a loved one within the latter half of their lives...
  50. Khanfer R, Lord J, Phillips A. Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEAS ratio in bereaved older adults. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1182-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Bereavement is a common life event for older adults and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, though the underlying reasons for this link are poorly understood...
  51. Bermejo J, Sundquist J, Hemminki K. Risk of cancer among the offspring of women who experienced parental death during pregnancy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:2204-6 pubmed
  52. Griffin J, Koch K, Nelson J, Cooley M. Palliative care consultation, quality-of-life measurements, and bereavement for end-of-life care in patients with lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest. 2007;132:404S-422S pubmed
    ..guidelines for application of palliative care consultation, quality-of-life measurements, and appropriate bereavement activities for patients with lung cancer...
  53. Currier J, Holland J, Neimeyer R. The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: a meta-analytic review of controlled outcome research. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007;36:253-9 pubmed
    ..This study used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the general effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children...