Summary: Fury; violent, intense anger.

Top Publications

  1. Bhatt S, Bhatt R, Zalcman S, Siegel A. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:224-33 pubmed publisher
    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
  2. Bhatt S, Zalcman S, Hassanain M, Siegel A. Cytokine modulation of defensive rage behavior in the cat: role of GABAA and interleukin-2 receptors in the medial hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2005;133:17-28 pubmed
    Defensive rage behavior is a form of aggressive behavior occurring in nature in response to a threatening stimulus...
  3. Mann R, Smart R, Stoduto G, Adlaf E, Ialomiteanu A. Alcohol consumption and problems among road rage victims and perpetrators. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65:161-8 pubmed
    Road rage has generated public concern; however, data on the causes of this behavior have not been available. We examine the alcohol consumption correlates of road rage victimization and perpetration based on a population survey of adults...
  4. Cubells J, Deoreo E, Harvey P, Garlow S, Garber K, Adam M, et al. Pharmaco-genetically guided treatment of recurrent rage outbursts in an adult male with 15q13.3 deletion syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..3DS, epilepsy, intellectual impairment, psychosis, and recurrent episodes of aggressive rage. We hypothesized that the patient's aggressive behavior reflected deficits in ?7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (..
  5. Gregg T, Siegel A. Differential effects of NK1 receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray upon defensive rage and predatory attack in the cat. Brain Res. 2003;994:55-66 pubmed
    ..methods to determine the role of NK(1)-Substance P receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in defensive rage behavior in cats...
  6. Bhatt S, Siegel A. Potentiating role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) upon defensive rage behavior in the cat: role of neurokinin NK(1) receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2006;167:251-60 pubmed
    Feline defensive rage is a form of aggression occurring in nature in response to a threatening condition and is elicited under laboratory conditions by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)..
  7. Potegal M, Carlson G, Margulies D, Basile J, Gutkovich Z, Wall M. The behavioral organization, temporal characteristics, and diagnostic concomitants of rage outbursts in child psychiatric inpatients. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009;11:127-33 pubmed
    ..Outbursts of children with anxiety diagnoses showed significantly more distress relative to anger. Outbursts were not especially associated with our small sample of bipolar diagnoses. ..
  8. Yankovsky A, Veilleux M, Dubeau F, Andermann F. Post-ictal rage and aggression: a video-EEG study. Epileptic Disord. 2005;7:143-7 pubmed
    Post-ictal rage and aggression have been mentioned in the literature but have rarely been documented by video-EEG recording. We studied a patient with dramatic, episodic, seizure-related rage and violence...
  9. Storch E, Jones A, Lack C, Ale C, Sulkowski M, Lewin A, et al. Rage attacks in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: phenomenology and clinical correlates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:582-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...

More Information


  1. Berenson K, Downey G, Rafaeli E, Coifman K, Paquin N. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role ..
  2. Zalcman S, Siegel A. The neurobiology of aggression and rage: role of cytokines. Brain Behav Immun. 2006;20:507-14 pubmed
    ..regions functionally linked through reciprocal anatomical connections--in the regulation of feline defensive rage. A paradigm involved cytokine microinjections into either medial hypothalamus and elicitation of defensive rage ..
  3. Kaplan B, Crawford S, Gardner B, Farrelly G. Treatment of mood lability and explosive rage with minerals and vitamins: two case studies in children. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2002;12:205-19 pubmed
    ..2001; Popper 2001). During pilot work, two medication-free boys with mood lability and explosive rage were studied in an open-label treatment followed by reversal and retreatment...
  4. Ito Y, Bhawal U, Sasahira T, Toyama T, Sato T, Matsuda D, et al. Involvement of HMGB1 and RAGE in IL-1?-induced gingival inflammation. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expressed in gingival inflammatory tissues was explored...
  5. Hassanain M, Bhatt S, Siegel A. Differential modulation of feline defensive rage behavior in the medial hypothalamus by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. Brain Res. 2003;981:201-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have established that the expression of defensive rage behavior in the cat is mediated over reciprocal pathways that link the medial hypothalamus and the dorsolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (..
  6. Gottlieb R. Maurice Sendak's trilogy: disappointment, fury, and their transformation through art. Psychoanal Study Child. 2008;63:186-217 pubmed
    ..Art was Sendak's means of "recovery" from his own childhood; his published works represent his gift to all children. ..
  7. Butters J, Smart R, Mann R, Asbridge M. Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;80:169-75 pubmed
    ..of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage ..
  8. Smart R, Mann R. Deaths and injuries from road rage: cases in Canadian newspapers. CMAJ. 2002;167:761-2 pubmed
  9. Lansky M. Unbearable shame, splitting, and forgiveness in the resolution of vengefulness. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2007;55:571-93 pubmed
    ..Shame-rage cycles, described and investigated by Lewis and her followers, are discussed: unacknowledged or bypassed shame ..
  10. Smart R, Stoduto G, Adlaf E, Mann R, Sharpley J. Road rage victimization among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41:277-82 pubmed
    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously...
  11. Chang K. Course and impact of bipolar disorder in young patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:e05 pubmed publisher
    The presentation of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents may vary from its presentation in adults. Rage, irritability, and long episodes are common manifestations of mania in young people with bipolar disorder...
  12. Fierro I, Gómez Talegón T, Alvarez F. [Road-rage in the general population]. Gac Sanit. 2010;24:423-7 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years...
  13. Mimura M. [Role of the orbitofrontal cortex in moral judgment]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2010;50:1007-9 pubmed
    ..Two representative cases with OFC damage were reported, both presented with extreme rage against others' offensive behaviors...
  14. Gonzalez A, Nutt D. Gamma hydroxy butyrate abuse and dependency. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:195-204 pubmed
    ..The management of patients dependent on GHB is rather complicated due to the high doses of medication that they require to control withdrawal symptoms. ..
  15. Smart R, Mann R, Zhao J, Stoduto G. Is road rage increasing? Results of a repeated survey. J Safety Res. 2005;36:195-201 pubmed
    We report on trends in road rage victimization and perpetration based on population survey data...
  16. Shengold L. The dreaded promise of Christmas and the New Year. Psychoanal Q. 2007;76:1351-60 pubmed
    ..But, for some, happy expectations evoking change have in the past been succeeded by bad ones, and the revival of predominant dread can be cruel and repetitive. ..
  17. King C, Knox M, Henninger N, Nguyen T, Ghaziuddin N, Maker A, et al. Major depressive disorder in adolescents: family psychiatric history predicts severe behavioral disinhibition. J Affect Disord. 2006;90:111-21 pubmed
    ..Inventory--Adapted, Adolescent Aggressive Incidents Interview (AAII), Measure of Aggression, Violence, and Rage in Children, Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-JR...
  18. Lusthof K, Oosting R, Maes A, Verschraagen M, Dijkhuizen A, Sprong A. A case of extreme agitation and death after the use of mephedrone in The Netherlands. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;206:e93-5 pubmed publisher
    A 36-year old man, having injured himself severely by smashing windows in a rage of fury, was arrested by the police. He died despite resuscitation attempts...
  19. Graeff F. Neuroanatomy and neurotransmitter regulation of defensive behaviors and related emotions in mammals. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1994;27:811-29 pubmed
    ..These defense reactions may be related to rage and panic, respectively...
  20. Jerome L. Road rage: old wine in a new bottle. Can J Psychiatry. 2004;49:709-10; author reply 710-1 pubmed
  21. Skarderud F. [Voice of shame--silence, eloquence and rage in the therapeutic relationship]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001;121:1613-7 pubmed
    ..to silence the article describes "the psychopathology of normalcy", hesitation, depression, alexithymia, rage, envy, contempt, grandiosity and shamelessness...
  22. Dooley J, Brna P, Gordon K. Parent perceptions of symptom severity in Tourette's syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1999;81:440-1 pubmed
    ..When present, episodic rage was the most impairing symptom...
  23. Terr L. Childhood traumas: an outline and overview. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:10-20 pubmed
    ..Type II trauma includes denial and numbing, self-hypnosis and dissociation, and rage. Crossover conditions often occur after sudden, shocking deaths or accidents that leave children handicapped...
  24. Asbridge M, Smart R, Mann R. The "homogamy" of road rage: understanding the relationship between victimization and offending among aggressive and violent motorists. Violence Vict. 2003;18:517-31 pubmed
    The issue of "road rage" has received increasing media and scholarly attention in recent years. Using a representative sample of 2610 adults from Ontario, involvement with road rage was surveyed across demographic subgroups...
  25. Smith S. The testosterone connection. Kans Nurse. 2003;78:16-8 pubmed
  26. Stümpfig S. [Diagnosis: boy! The neglected sex]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2007;26:223-5 pubmed
  27. Meloy J. Spousal homicide and the subsequent staging of a sexual homicide at a distant location. J Forensic Sci. 2002;47:395-8 pubmed
    ..psychological interview, and psychological testing indicated that the murder was the result of a narcissistic rage reaction during which the subject beat his wife to death with a paint can, a clothing iron, and a rock...
  28. O Donovan C, Garnham J, Hajek T, Alda M. Antidepressant monotherapy in pre-bipolar depression; predictive value and inherent risk. J Affect Disord. 2008;107:293-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment-emergent "mixed" symptoms (two or more symptoms of DSM IV mania, mood lability, irritability/rage with co-existing depression) and in particular, "serious symptoms" (treatment emergent or increased ..
  29. Gao X, Zeng Y, Liu S, Wang S. Acute stress show great influences on liver function and the expression of hepatic genes associated with lipid metabolism in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:118 pubmed publisher
    The theory of Chinese medicine believes rage harms normal liver function, namely 'raged impairing liver' in short. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of acute stress on liver lipid metabolism in rats...
  30. Sansone R, Lam C, Wiederman M. Road rage: relationships with borderline personality and driving citations. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2010;40:21-9 pubmed
    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of self-reported road rage in a primary care sample; (2) the relationship, if any, between road rage and borderline personality disorder (BPD); and (3) whether those with ..
  31. Bhatt S, Bhatt R, Zalcman S, Siegel A. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following ..
  32. Fierro I, Morales C, Alvarez F. Alcohol use, illicit drug use, and road rage. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011;72:185-93 pubmed
    ..article examines the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs and the experience of road-rage victimization and perpetration among drivers and nondrivers in the general population...
  33. LaMothe R. Political humiliation, object use, and psychological changes in the life of Malcolm X. Psychoanal Rev. 2012;99:103-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Malcolm X's suffering and psychosocial changes are framed in terms of object relating and use, as well as by his search for a transformational object that would restore and secure his self-worth and efficacy. ..
  34. Cavacuiti C, Ala Leppilampi K, Mann R, Govoni R, Stoduto G, Smart R, et al. Victims of road rage: a qualitative study of the experiences of motorists and vulnerable road users. Violence Vict. 2013;28:1068-84 pubmed
    To gain an in-depth understanding of road rage incidents from the victims' perspectives. The data consisted of 30- to 60-min in-depth semistructured phone interviews with 29 self-identified victims of road rage...
  35. Jiménez I. [Between tears, rage and gratitude. Parents of premature infants on the intensive care unit. An analysis]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2007;26:374-80 pubmed
  36. Renshaw D. Rage 2002. Compr Ther. 2002;28:123-7 pubmed
    b>Rage is the rage today. New phrases continue to make the headlines: sky rage, road rage, school rage, workplace rage, sports rage, parent sport observer rage, prayer rage, courtroom rage and more...
  37. Blum H. The "exceptions" reviewed. The formation and deformation of the privileged character. Psychoanal Study Child. 2001;56:123-36 pubmed
    ..The paper re-examines Freud's and later formulations in the context of contemporary psychoanalytic thought. ..
  38. Savard G, Bhanji N, Dubeau F, Andermann F, Sadikot A. Psychiatric aspects of patients with hypothalamic hamartoma and epilepsy. Epileptic Disord. 2003;5:229-34 pubmed
    Uncontrolled rage, while long associated with hypothalamic hamartoma, has not been as extensively studied as the epilepsy. Rage can be more detrimental to quality of life than seizures...
  39. Carlson G, Potegal M, Margulies D, Basile J, Gutkovich Z. Liquid risperidone in the treatment of rages in psychiatrically hospitalized children with possible bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnostic information and history of prior rage outbursts were obtained at admission. In hospital, a first rage was treated with seclusion...
  40. Blum H. Clinical and developmental dimensions of hate. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1997;45:358-75 pubmed
    ..b>Rage precedes hate developmentally, though later the two are amalgamated both developmentally and clinically...
  41. Porter B, Berry T. A nationwide survey of self-reported red light running: measuring prevalence, predictors, and perceived consequences. Accid Anal Prev. 2001;33:735-41 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we recommend traffic safety experts pursue interventions that apply immediate and consistent negative consequences to violators to change the public's red light running perceptions and behavior. ..
  42. Sagar R, Mehta M, Chugh G. Road rage: an exploratory study on aggressive driving experience on Indian roads. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013;59:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Drivers who are high on anger have a significantly higher risk of experiencing anger triggered by a variety of individual and environmental factors on Indian roads and are more susceptible to engage in aggressive driving behaviour. ..
  43. Rizzo R, Gulisano M, Calì P, Curatolo P. Long term clinical course of Tourette syndrome. Brain Dev. 2012;34:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Disorder (OCD), the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the presence of anxiety and depression, rage attacks, self injuries behavior...
  44. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D, Solop F. 'Road rage' in Arizona: armed and dangerous. Accid Anal Prev. 2002;34:807-14 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that, at least among Arizona motorists, having a gun in the car is a strong marker for aggressive and illegal behavior behind the wheel. ..
  45. Lüthi U. [Addictive disorders. Power and helplessness of addicted patients]. Krankenpfl Soins Infirm. 2003;96:10-3, 36-9, 60-2 pubmed
  46. Butters J, Mann R, Smart R. Assessing road rage victimization and perpetration in the Ontario adult population: the impact of illicit drug use and psychiatric distress. Can J Public Health. 2006;97:96-9 pubmed
    To investigate the association among illicit drug use, psychiatric distress and road rage victimization and offending. Particular attention is given to the most serious forms of road rage behaviour...
  47. Mann R, Zhao J, Stoduto G, Adlaf E, Smart R, Donovan J. Road rage and collision involvement. Am J Health Behav. 2007;31:384-91 pubmed
    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement...
  48. Fauteux K. De-escalating angry and violent clients. Am J Psychother. 2010;64:195-213 pubmed
    ..While I do not claim to know why this is happening, in the course of 20 years of practice, I have developed insights into managing the angry and violent and de-escalating these situations. ..
  49. Hoggan B, Dollard M. Effort-reward imbalance at work and driving anger in an Australian community sample: is there a link between work stress and road rage?. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:1286-95 pubmed
    Both workplace stress and road rage are reported to be on the increase...
  50. McNamara S. Seduction and revenge in Virginia Woolf's Orlando. Psychoanal Q. 2011;80:619-41 pubmed
    ..Vita's betrayal into a monument of revenge, defending against disorganizing feelings of humiliation, powerlessness, rage, and loss by creating her own scathing portrait of Vita...
  51. Ambrosio G. The analyst at work. Nina. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83:1233-8 pubmed
  52. Hemenway D, Vriniotis M, Miller M. Is an armed society a polite society? Guns and road rage. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:687-95 pubmed
    While concerns about road rage have grown over the past decade, states have made it easier for motorists to carry firearms in their vehicles...
  53. Benavidez D, Flores A, Fierro I, Alvarez F. Road rage among drug dependent patients. Accid Anal Prev. 2013;50:848-53 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder...