Summary: A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.

Top Publications

  1. Robbins J, Krueger J. Social projection to ingroups and outgroups: a review and meta-analysis. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2005;9:32-47 pubmed
    Social projection is the tendency to expect similarities between oneself and others...
  2. Van Boven L, Loewenstein G. Social projection of transient drive states. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29:1159-68 pubmed
    ..the direction of their current drive states, we hypothesized that mentally trading places would lead to social projection of transient drive states...
  3. Kawada C, Oettingen G, Gollwitzer P, Bargh J. The projection of implicit and explicit goals. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;86:545-59 pubmed
    In 3 studies, the authors analyzed whether projection occurs for both conscious and nonconscious goals...
  4. Ben Shahar O, Zucker S. Geometrical computations explain projection patterns of long-range horizontal connections in visual cortex. Neural Comput. 2004;16:445-76 pubmed
    ..findings suggest that collinear or association field models of good continuation dictate particular projection patterns of horizontal connections to guide this integration process, significant evidence of interactions ..
  5. Maner J, Kenrick D, Becker D, Robertson T, Hofer B, Neuberg S, et al. Functional projection: how fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005;88:63-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, participants with chronic self-protective and mate-search goals exhibited similar biases. Findings are consistent with a functionalist, motivation-based account of interpersonal perception. ..
  6. St Jacques P, Conway M, Lowder M, Cabeza R. Watching my mind unfold versus yours: an fMRI study using a novel camera technology to examine neural differences in self-projection of self versus other perspectives. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:1275-84 pubmed publisher
    Self-projection, the capacity to re-experience the personal past and to mentally infer another person's perspective, has been linked to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
  7. Van Boven L, Judd C, Sherman D. Political polarization projection: social projection of partisan attitude extremity and attitudinal processes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012;103:84-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This "polarization projection" was demonstrated in 3 studies in which people estimated the distribution of others' political attitudes: ..
  8. Wikström B. Intuition and visual art: student nurses' projection into experiences of elderly women. Aust J Holist Nurs. 2002;9:24-31 pubmed
    ..It could be concluded that nurse educators concerned with finding new directions to develop intuition skills might consider visual art of considerable value. ..
  9. Loewenstein G. Projection bias in medical decision making. Med Decis Making. 2005;25:96-105 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ames D. Strategies for social inference: a similarity contingency model of projection and stereotyping in attribute prevalence estimates. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;87:573-85 pubmed
    ..perceivers infer the widespread attitudes and qualities of social groups revolve around either the self (social projection, false consensus) or stereotypes (stereotyping)...
  2. Rasmussen B, Salhani D. A contemporary Kleinian contribution to understanding racism. Soc Serv Rev. 2010;84:491-513 pubmed
    ..and structure to the concept of unconscious racism; and (3) highlighting a range of Kleinian concepts, such as projection, projective identification, splitting, developmental positions, envy, and reparation, that contribute to ..
  3. Andrade V. Affect and the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis. Int J Psychoanal. 2005;86:677-97 pubmed
    ..Interpretation--the method used to the exclusion of all others for a century--is only partial; when used in isolation it does not meet the demands of modern broad-spectrum psychoanalysis, as the clinical material presented illustrates. ..
  4. Knowles K, Bridge L. The mirror. Alta RN. 2007;63:13 pubmed
  5. Radoszewska J. [Perception manner of mother of obese persons in adolescence]. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2007;13:155-8 pubmed
  6. Bocchi R, Egervari K, Carol Perdiguer L, Viale B, Quairiaux C, De Roo M, et al. Perturbed Wnt signaling leads to neuronal migration delay, altered interhemispheric connections and impaired social behavior. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1158 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient downregulation of Wnt signaling in migrating, callosal projection neurons results in delayed positioning in layer 2/3...
  7. Krueger J, Clement R. Inferring category characteristics from sample characteristics: inductive reasoning and social projection. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1996;125:52-68 pubmed
    ..When salience increased, projection decreased among nonmembers but not among members...
  8. d Acremont M, Van der Linden M. Memory for angry faces, impulsivity, and problematic behavior in adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2007;35:313-24 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that a memory bias for angry faces favors disruptive behavior but that a good ability to control impulses may moderate the negative impact of this bias. ..
  9. Feng M, Jia X, Wang J, Feng S, Zheng T. Global Calibration of Multi-Cameras Based on Refractive Projection and Ray Tracing. Sensors (Basel). 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..the cameras on the other side are influenced by the refraction of glass checkerboard, and the direct use of projection model will produce a calibration error...
  10. Salo F. Recognizing the infant as subject in infant-parent psychotherapy. Int J Psychoanal. 2007;88:961-79 pubmed
    ..Change may therefore be longer lasting than psychoanalytic theory presently conceives. The approach is relevant in an outpatient setting: gains were maintained long term in 90% of out-patient cases. ..
  11. Urlic I, Agius M. The patient with schizophrenia and his father. The father's role and personality traits in the dynamics of the family with a son suffering from schizophrenia. Psychiatr Danub. 2007;19:154-72 pubmed
    ..Among the conclusions reached, the phenomenon of "dead father" is emphasized as one of the main factors in the onset and development of schizophrenic disorder/disturbance. ..
  12. La Farge L. On knowing oneself directly and through others. Psychoanal Q. 2008;77:167-97 pubmed
    ..Detailed clinical material from the analysis of a woman who came to analysis feeling shadowy and insubstantial illustrates the value of attention to both storylines and to the changing relationship between them. ..
  13. Marcinko D, Skocić M, Saric M, Popović Knapić V, Tentor B, Rudan V. Countertransference in the therapy of suicidal patients - an important part of integrative treatment. Psychiatr Danub. 2008;20:402-5 pubmed
    ..In this paper we have illustrated important factors for understanding psychiatrist's countertransference reactions when working with suicidal patients. ..
  14. Cooper S. An elusive aspect of the analyst's relationship to transference. Psychoanal Q. 2010;79:349-80 pubmed
    ..To clinically illustrate his points, the author summarizes the case of a patient whose transference fantasies and attributions engendered quite contrasting reactions by two different analysts. ..
  15. Böhmer M. "Communication by impact" and other forms of non-verbal communication: a review of transference, countertransference and projective identification. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2010;13:179-83 pubmed
    ..The author reviews - amongst others - the work of the analysts Casement, Gabbard, Goldstein, Ogden and Symington. ..
  16. Theeuwes H, van Der Ende B, Potters J, Kerver A, Bessems J, Kleinrensink G. The course of the radial nerve in the distal humerus: A novel, anatomy based, radiographic assessment. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186890 pubmed publisher the distal 20 cm of the humerus in relation to bony landmarks; medial epicondyle and capitellum-trochlea projection (CCT). Analysis was done with ImageJ and Microsoft Excel software...
  17. Hall W, Callery P. Enhancing the rigor of grounded theory: incorporating reflexivity and relationality. Qual Health Res. 2001;11:257-72 pubmed
  18. Pinheiro R, Sousa P, Da Silva R, Horta B, De Souza R, Fleming M. Cocaine addicts and their families. An empirical study of the processes of identification. Int J Psychoanal. 2001;82:347-60 pubmed
  19. Shapiro E. Joining a group's task: the discovery of hope and respect. Int J Group Psychother. 2005;55:211-27 pubmed
    ..The shared internal context both contains and defines the pair within a task and set of values that can be used to transcend apparent conflict. ..
  20. Cramer P. Defense mechanisms, behavior, and affect in young adulthood. J Pers. 2002;70:103-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast, extensive use of projection was related to a suspicious, hyperalert personality style, including anxiety and depression, in men, but to a ..
  21. Bornstein R. A process dissociation approach to objective-projective test score interrelationships. J Pers Assess. 2002;78:47-68 pubmed
    ..Implications of the process dissociation framework for personality assessment and test development are discussed. ..
  22. Nystrom M, Dahlberg K. Pre-understanding and openness - a relationship without hope?. Scand J Caring Sci. 2001;15:339-46 pubmed
    ..Finally the possibility of increased openness in the process of research was discussed. (Such openness is related to knowledge about the structure of pre-understanding.) ..
  23. Rubino I, Verucci M, Savino M, Hadjichristos A, Saraceni F, Hadjichristos C. Percept-genetic codings of defense in chronic schizophrenia. Percept Mot Skills. 1996;82:483-93 pubmed
    ..In a further comparison of a subgroup of 16 women schizophrenic patients and a matched group of melancholic inpatients, the findings on regression, introjection, and repression were replicated. ..
  24. Gunter M. Induction, identification or folie à deux? Psychodynamics and genesis of Munchausen syndromes by proxy and false allegations of sexual abuse in adolescents. Med Law. 1998;17:359-79 pubmed
    ..This paper presents considerations on the object relation dynamics as well as on the intrapsychic dynamics of the children and adolescents in question. Related forensic psychiatric problems are discussed. ..
  25. Cho J, Knowles E. I'm like you and you're like me: social projection and self-stereotyping both help explain self-other correspondence. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013;104:444-56 pubmed publisher
    Social projection and self-stereotyping are rival explanations for self-other correspondence, in which people tend to perceive a high degree of similarity between themselves and others...
  26. Sá W, Stanovich K. The domain specificity and generality of mental contamination: accuracy and projection in judgments of mental content. Br J Psychol. 2001;92:281-302 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, projection was efficacious in the opinion prediction task but not in the knowledge prediction task...
  27. Zimmer R. Three psychic organizations and their relation to certain aspects of the creative process. Psychoanal Q. 2010;79:629-63 pubmed
  28. Henry C. Aggression, containment, and treatment enactments in the psychodynamics of limit setting. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2010;38:341-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential enactments that occur during the treatment of limit testing patients will be examined. Case material of the treatment of a child with a disruptive behavior disorder will be used to elaborate the discussion. ..
  29. Ward J, Li R, Salih S, Sagiv N. Varieties of grapheme-colour synaesthesia: a new theory of phenomenological and behavioural differences. Conscious Cogn. 2007;16:913-31 pubmed
    ..In doing so, we attempt to bring the synaesthesia literature closer to current models of non-synaesthetic perception, attention and binding. ..
  30. Rizq R. Ripley's Game: projective identification, emotional engagement, and the counselling psychologist. Psychol Psychother. 2005;78:449-64 pubmed
  31. Klosinski G, Yamashita M. [Assessment of "self and other perception" of parents in family court disputes based on the Giessen Test]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003;52:707-18 pubmed
    ..The role-characteristics attributed to the former partner can be described as dominant, under-controlled, hypomanic, and inaccessible. Family- and psychodynamic aspects of these results are discussed. ..
  32. de Castro F. Psychoanalytic research using longitudinal studies: an inquiry on the developmental impact of early maternal projections. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2007;55:243-53 pubmed
  33. Joksimovic L, Wöller W, Kunzke D. [Basic thoughts on psychopharmacological interventions through psychotherapy of severe forms of post-traumatic stress disorder: a case study]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2013;59:378-84 pubmed
    ..Using a case study, we discuss problems in this field against the background of psychodynamic and psychotraumatological theories. We also present strategies for the appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in the psychotherapy of PTSD. ..
  34. de Tychey C, Vandelet E, Laurent M, Lighezzolo Alnot J, Prudent C, Evrard R. Child Sexual Abuse, Baby Gender, and Intergenerational Psychic Transmission: An Exploratory, Projective Psychoanalytic Approach. Psychoanal Rev. 2016;103:221-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Avenues for using this tool and model in future quantitative, comparative studies are suggested. ..
  35. Petrov K. The art of dying as an art of living: historical contemplations on the paradoxes of suicide and the possibilities of reflexive suicide prevention. J Med Humanit. 2013;34:347-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The traditional projection of suicide on the 'Other', reinforced by modernity's bio-political suppression of death, has inhibited ..
  36. DiDonato T, Ullrich J, Krueger J. Social perception as induction and inference: an integrative model of intergroup differentiation, ingroup favoritism, and differential accuracy. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100:66-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Two minimal-group experiments using a crossed-categorization paradigm support the model and provide new evidence for underlying psychological processes. ..
  37. Martín Rubio A, Romero Fernández A, Medrano Pérez J. [On burnout syndrome in anesthesiology]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2007;54:61-2; author reply 62-3 pubmed
  38. Gilbert D, Brown R, Pinel E, Wilson T. The illusion of external agency. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:690-700 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that belief in omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent external agents, such as God, may derive in part from people's failure to recognize that they have generated their own satisfaction. ..
  39. Rucker D, Petty R. Effects of accusations on the accuser: the moderating role of accuser culpability. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29:1259-71 pubmed
    ..When an individual possesses no faults, accusations can actually damage the individual's reputation. ..
  40. Kraus M, Chen S. Striving to be known by significant others: automatic activation of self-verification goals in relationship contexts. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2009;97:58-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for research on self-evaluative goals, the relational self, and the automatic goal activation literature are discussed, as are consequences for close relationships. ..
  41. Li S, Kumar T P, Joshee S, Kirschstein T, Subburaju S, Khalili J, et al. Endothelial cell-derived GABA signaling modulates neuronal migration and postnatal behavior. Cell Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..While radial glia act as guide rails for projection neuron migration, pre-formed vascular networks provide support and guidance cues for GABAergic interneuron ..
  42. Wessel J, Endrikat J, Kastner R. [Projective identification and denial of pregnancy--considerations of the reasons and background of unrecognized pregnancy also undiagnosed by a physician]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2003;207:48-53 pubmed
    ..Through projection, the pregnant woman is capable of manipulating the physician so that he perceives her, according to her wishes, ..
  43. Lemay E, Clark M. How the head liberates the heart: projection of communal responsiveness guides relationship promotion. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94:647-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that those who care for partners often project that care and that this projection guides their relationship promotion.
  44. Schultze N. Success factors in internet-based psychological counseling. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9:623-6 pubmed
    ..A number of special effectiveness factors of internet counseling are described, which represent advantages over face-to-face counseling. These factors were explored in a large-scale internet counseling project that ran for several years. ..
  45. Zhang M, Wang G, Zhang L. Precise Aperture-Dependent Motion Compensation with Frequency Domain Fast Back-Projection Algorithm. Sensors (Basel). 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, a frequency domain fast back-projection algorithm (FDFBPA) is introduced to deal with strong azimuth-variant motion errors...
  46. Moreno J. Scapegoating in group psychotherapy. Int J Group Psychother. 2007;57:93-104 pubmed
    ..Several case vignettes are detailed for illustration. ..
  47. Markin R. Mentalization-based psychotherapy interventions with mothers-to-be. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article explores how mentalizing techniques may be used in psychotherapy to help mothers-to-be to mentalize their emerging identity as a mother, their unborn child, and their developing relationship to the fetus. ..
  48. Boschen M, Curtis S. Investigating a critical evaluation tendency in social anxiety. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008;39:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..One potential source for these expectancies is generalization or projection of an individual's own critical evaluation tendencies...
  49. Guido G, Peluso A, Provenzano M. Influence of brand personality-marker attributes on purchasing intention: the role of emotionality. Psychol Rep. 2010;106:737-51 pubmed
    ..e., when they are emotionally interesting). These findings have several implications for people involved in developing strategies for advertising. ..
  50. Victor G. Projection and transference in fundamentalist thinking as factors in the Holocaust. Psychoanal Rev. 2003;90:537-64 pubmed
  51. Loffler Stastka H. [Psychotherapy research--implications for psychiatric treatment]. Psychiatr Danub. 2007;19:317-26 pubmed
    ..Acknowledgement and recognition of externalizing and projective mechanisms should be trained in the psychiatric routine treatment in order to establish a stable working alliance with psychiatric patients. ..
  52. Fan Y, Wang T, Qiu Z, Peng J, Zhang C, He Y. Fast Detection of Striped Stem-Borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) Infested Rice Seedling Based on Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging System. Sensors (Basel). 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..wavelengths were selected from the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images by the successive projection algorithm (SPA)...
  53. Proner B. Re: 'Projective transidentification: an extension of the concept of projective identification', International Journal of Psychoanalysis. J Anal Psychol. 2006;51:596-8 pubmed