child rearing


Summary: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.

Top Publications

  1. Engert V, Buss C, Khalili Mahani N, Wadiwalla M, Dedovic K, Pruessner J. Investigating the association between early life parental care and stress responsivity in adulthood. Dev Neuropsychol. 2010;35:570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Results supported the two-mediator model. We propose that early life parental care impacts on an individual's developing brain and personality, which consequently contribute to the shaping of neuroendocrine stress responsivity. ..
  2. Grusec J, Davidov M. Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: a domain-specific approach. Child Dev. 2010;81:687-709 pubmed publisher
  3. Petrowski K, Berth H, Schmidt S, Schumacher J, Hinz A, Brahler E. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009;9:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well. ..
  4. Akazawa K, Kinukawa N, Shippey F, Gondo K, Hara T, Nose Y. Factors affecting maternal anxiety about child rearing in Japanese mothers. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:428-30 pubmed
    ..Factors concerning demographic characteristics, delivery and child rearing practice were used in multivariate logistic regression analysis...
  5. Aruna M, Vazir S, Vidyasagar P. Child rearing and positive deviance in the development of preschoolers: a microanalysis. Indian Pediatr. 2001;38:332-9 pubmed
    ..their needs, were consistent in their interaction with them and were also emotionally stable during specific child rearing situations were those identified as "positive deviants" with regard to their development...
  6. Naerde A, Tambs K, Mathiesen K. Child related strain and maternal mental health: a longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;105:301-9 pubmed
    ..Changes in maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression appear to be influenced by changes associated with children's behaviour, their medical status and child care-taking arrangements. ..
  7. Ferrari A. The impact of culture upon child rearing practices and definitions of maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 2002;26:793-813 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that ethnicity is a complex factor, one demanding further examination with regard to its components. ..
  8. Schor E. Family pediatrics: report of the Task Force on the Family. Pediatrics. 2003;111:1541-71 pubmed
    ..The composition of children's families and the time parents have for their children affect child rearing. Consequent to the increase in female-headed households, rising economic and personal need, and increased ..
  9. Goto A, Quang Vinh N, Thi Tu Van N, Huu Phuc T, Nghiem Minh P, Yabe J, et al. Maternal confidence in child rearing: comparing data from short-term prospective surveys among Japanese and Vietnamese mothers. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:613-9 pubmed
    To investigate the confidence women feel about child rearing in Japan and Vietnam...

More Information


  1. Pardeshi G, Bhattacharya S. Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:288-95 pubmed
    ..The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children. ..
  2. Holden G, Miller P. Enduring and different: a meta-analysis of the similarity in parents' child rearing. Psychol Bull. 1999;125:223-54 pubmed
    ..and characteristics believed to reflect consistent, enduring qualities of parenting--the similarity in child rearing. This review evaluates the evidence for similarity and differences among 3 types of child-rearing data and ..
  3. Stein Z. A woman's age: childbearing and child rearing. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121:327-42 pubmed
  4. Krikken J, Veerkamp J. Child rearing styles, dental anxiety and disruptive behaviour; an exploratory study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008;9 Suppl 1:23-8 pubmed
    ..The parents of 100 children, referred to a secondary dental care clinic were asked to fill out the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Child Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS) on behalf of their children and an additional ..
  5. Hayslip B, Kaminski P. Grandparents raising their grandchildren: a review of the literature and suggestions for practice. Gerontologist. 2005;45:262-9 pubmed
    ..We also discuss directions for research and practice concerning custodial grandparents. ..
  6. Naerde A, Tambs K, Mathiesen K, Dalgard O, Samuelsen S. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among mothers of pre-school children: effect of chronic strain related to children and child care-taking. J Affect Disord. 2000;58:181-99 pubmed
    ..The risk and protective factors found here may have implications for prevention and intervention. ..
  7. Daggett J, O BRIEN M, Zanolli K, Peyton V. Parents' attitudes about children: associations with parental life histories and child-rearing quality. J Fam Psychol. 2000;14:187-99 pubmed
    ..These attitudes were related to provision of lower quality home environments. Results support a constructivist approach to understanding parental social cognitions and behavior. ..
  8. Kadesjö C, Stenlund H, Wels P, Gillberg C, Hägglöf B. Appraisals of stress in child-rearing in Swedish mothers pre-schoolers with ADHD. A questionnaire study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;11:185-95 pubmed
    ..The questionnaire is suggested to be useful in clinical work and research projects on problematic child-rearing situations. ..
  9. Goto A, Yasumura S, Yabe J, Reich M. Addressing Japan's fertility decline: influences of unintended pregnancy on child rearing. Reprod Health Matters. 2006;14:191-200 pubmed
    ..b>Child rearing is often viewed as a burden...
  10. Horn I, Joseph J, Cheng T. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:1162-8 pubmed
    ..However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. ..
  11. Bender S. Three cases of adolescent childbearing decision-making: the importance of ambivalence. Adolescence. 2008;43:861-79 pubmed
    ..Such information may also be of benefit in sex education courses and in counseling pregnant girls. ..
  12. Uttal L. Liminal cultural work in family childcare: Latino immigrant family childcare providers and bicultural childrearing in the United States, 2002-2004. Paedagog Hist. 2010;46:729-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The liminal cultural work that immigrant family childcare workers do is both for themselves and for the children and the families for whom they provide care. The providers experience a process of ongoing liminal cultural work. ..
  13. Deater Deckard K, Wang Z, Chen N, Bell M. Maternal executive function, harsh parenting, and child conduct problems. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53:1084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal executive function is critical to minimizing harsh parenting in the context of challenging child behavior, but this self-regulation process may not operate well in chaotic environments. ..
  14. Mori E, Liu C, Otsuki E, Mochizuki Y, Kashiwabara E. Comparing child-care values in Japan and China among parents with infants. Int J Nurs Pract. 2012;18 Suppl 2:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Chinese couples believed that parents should share housekeeping and child-care, and obtained public and private support from their community. Findings suggest that parents of infants need community and health-care support. ..
  15. Dunn J. Commentary and challenges to Grusec and Davidov's domain-specific approach. Child Dev. 2010;81:710-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The challenge to their account posed by models of family environments that include effects not shared by siblings merit attention. ..
  16. Gershoff E, Lansford J, Sexton H, Davis Kean P, Sameroff A. Longitudinal links between spanking and children's externalizing behaviors in a national sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families. Child Dev. 2012;83:838-43 pubmed publisher
  17. Lau A. Physical discipline in Chinese American immigrant families: An adaptive culture perspective. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2010;16:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings illustrate how heritage cultural influences and current ecological demands may converge to shape parenting in immigrant families. ..
  18. Webber L, Cooke L, Wardle J. Maternal perception of the causes and consequences of sibling differences in eating behaviour. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:1316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Guidance to parents on healthy feeding needs to acknowledge the nuanced and interactive nature of feeding practices. ..
  19. Yang F, Zhao H, Wang Z, Tao D, Xiao X, Niu Q, et al. Age at onset of recurrent major depression in Han Chinese women - a replication study. J Affect Disord. 2014;157:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MD with earlier AAO in Han Chinese women shows a distinct set of clinical features which are similar to those reported in Western populations. ..
  20. Davis R, Davis M, Freed G, Clark S. Fathers' depression related to positive and negative parenting behaviors with 1-year-old children. Pediatrics. 2011;127:612-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. ..
  21. Hogg R, Worth A. What support do parents of young children need? A user-focused study. Community Pract. 2009;82:31-4 pubmed
    ..Social isolation was highlighted as the main cause of difficulty. Establishing new social networks appeared important for many parents to learn childrearing skills and as a source of emotional support. ..
  22. Veldhuijzen van Zanten S, Coates C, Hervas Malo M, McGrath P. Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:100 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ± 17.6 min/day compared to controls 12.6 ± 10.7 min/day, (p < 0.0001). Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns. ..
  23. Kizuki N. [The role of a day care center for sick children in the convalescent stage to enable female medical practitioners to successfully continue their careers]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 2013;114:336-9 pubmed
    From my experience of child rearing difficulties, when I decided to start a private practice, I planned to have a day care center for sick children in the convalescent stage in the same building to help working mothers, especially those ..
  24. Raval V, Martini T. "Making the child understand:" socialization of emotion in urban India. J Fam Psychol. 2011;25:847-56 pubmed publisher
  25. Ghiassi V, Dimaggio G, Brune M. Dysfunctions in understanding other minds in borderline personality disorder: a study using cartoon picture stories. Psychother Res. 2010;20:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the quality of parental care during early childhood plays a role in the development of mentalizing skills in BPD. ..
  26. Cohen R, Kuvalanka K. Sexual socialization in lesbian-parent families: an exploratory analysis. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2011;81:293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..g., how children were conceived), and has potential implications for family researchers, practitioners, and, perhaps, all parents. ..
  27. Poole J, Willer K, Mendelson C, Sanders M, Skipper B. Perceived parenting ability and systemic sclerosis. Musculoskeletal Care. 2011;9:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mothers with SSc report difficulty with parenting, which can be related to the severity of the symptoms. The findings suggest that interventions to reduce pain and fatigue may improve perceived parenting ability. ..
  28. Galloway A, Farrow C, Martz D. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1330-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood. ..
  29. Semple C, McCance T. Experience of parents with head and neck cancer who are caring for young children. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66:1280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Oncology nurses are in an excellent position to offer support and guidance to parents with cancer who have children, and should encourage them to explore with the family the best way of managing role change during treatment. ..
  30. Pluess M, Belsky J. Prenatal programming of postnatal plasticity?. Dev Psychopathol. 2011;23:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..If this proves true, it will be consistent with the conclusion that early developmental plasticity is a function of both nature and nurture and may be evolutionarily adaptive, a further possibility considered in the discussion. ..
  31. Barnett M, Scaramella L, Neppl T, Ontai L, Conger R. Grandmother involvement as a protective factor for early childhood social adjustment. J Fam Psychol. 2010;24:635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the relevance of moving beyond the nuclear family to understand factors linked to social adjustment during early childhood. ..
  32. Smeyers P. Child rearing in the "risk" society: on the discourse of rights and the "best interests of a child". Educ Theory. 2010;60:271-84 pubmed
    ..Smeyers argues that "risk" thinking, and the technologization that goes with it in the context of child rearing, naturally leads to the rights discourse, but that thinking about the relation between parents and children in ..
  33. Raman S, Hodes D. Cultural issues in child maltreatment. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012;48:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The model for cultural competency in child health and child protective services incorporates four domains for advocacy and action - individual, professional, organisational and systemic. ..
  34. Meehan C, Roulette J. Early supplementary feeding among central African foragers and farmers: a biocultural approach. Soc Sci Med. 2013;96:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of evolved caregiving patterns and the role of others in feeding practice will enhance public health outreach. ..
  35. Olson S, Lopez Duran N, Lunkenheimer E, Chang H, Sameroff A. Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind, and parenting. Dev Psychopathol. 2011;23:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the need for family-directed preventive efforts during the early preschool years. ..
  36. Bornstein M, Putnick D. Cognitive and socioemotional caregiving in developing countries. Child Dev. 2012;83:46-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. ..
  37. Yurdusen S, Erol N, Gençöz T. The effects of parental attitudes and mothers' psychological well-being on the emotional and behavioral problems of their preschool children. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings demonstrate that the importance of maternal anxiety is above and beyond the importance of rejecting the maternal role when it comes to preschool problems in children. ..
  38. Hohashi N, Honda J. Family functioning of child-rearing Japanese families on family-accompanied work assignments in Hong Kong. J Fam Nurs. 2011;17:485-510 pubmed publisher
  39. Kumnig M, Hofer S, Huber A, Messner C, Renn D, Mestel R, et al. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2013;59:356-68 pubmed
    ..The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups. ..
  40. Brotman L, CALZADA E, Huang K, Kingston S, Dawson McClure S, Kamboukos D, et al. Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities. Child Dev. 2011;82:258-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of sessions attended was related to improvements in parenting. Study findings support investment in and further study of school-based family interventions for children from underserved, urban communities. ..
  41. Brüne M, Walden S, Edel M, Dimaggio G. Mentalization of complex emotions in borderline personality disorder: The impact of parenting and exposure to trauma on the performance in a novel cartoon-based task. Compr Psychiatry. 2016;64:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the quality of parental care and the experience of childhood trauma negatively impact on mentalization in BPD, even in an experimental "offline" task. ..
  42. Choi H, Dancy B, Lee J. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2013;20:508-13 pubmed publisher
  43. Golombok S, Badger S. Children raised in mother-headed families from infancy: a follow-up of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers, at early adulthood. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are of relevance to the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology (2008) Act. ..
  44. Fournier E, Christophe V, Vanlemmens L. [Assessing the quality of life of young women and their partners: a pertinent approach to the study of breast cancer]. Bull Cancer. 2009;96:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a tool could be useful in a clinical setting within the context of the care of these young women with particular profiles. ..
  45. Côté S, Doyle O, Petitclerc A, Timmins L. Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study. Child Dev. 2013;84:1191-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Effect sizes were larger among children whose mother had low education. Propensity score matching and multiple imputation revealed significant findings undetected using regression and complete-case approaches. ..
  46. Arditti J, Grzywacz J, Gallimore S. A demedicalized view of maternal distress: conceptualization and instrument development. Psychol Serv. 2013;10:386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses testing the relationship between maternal distress and depressive symptoms, guilt, child rearing stress, and community needs variables suggested that the maternal distress inventory had convergent, ..
  47. Mikami A, Jack A, Emeh C, Stephens H. Parental influence on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Relationships between parent behaviors and child peer status. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38:721-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed. ..
  48. Turiel E. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development. Child Dev. 2010;81:720-6 pubmed publisher
  49. Tirella L, Tickle Degnen L, Miller L, Bedell G. Parent strategies for addressing the needs of their newly adopted child. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2012;32:97-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Although many families described their adoptive child as having challenges with multiple daily life activities, parents reported being able to create effective strategies to address many of these challenging behaviors. ..
  50. Suzuki A, Matsumoto Y, Shibuya N, Sadahiro R, Kamata M, Goto K, et al. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism modulates the effects of parental rearing on personality traits in healthy subjects. Genes Brain Behav. 2011;10:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates the effects of parental rearing, especially maternal care, on harm avoidance and self-directedness in healthy subjects. ..
  51. Hernandez Martinez C, Canals Sans J, Fernandez Ballart J. Parents' perceptions of their neonates and their relation to infant development. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37:484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the contribution of parents' neonatal perception on infant development and may have social implications regarding the role of fathers in the parenting of their children. ..
  52. Pérez Padilla J, Menéndez S, Lozano O. Validity of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form in a Sample of At-Risk Mothers. Eval Rev. 2015;39:428-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, PSI-SF may be a useful instrument for researchers and practitioners who work with at-risk families. ..
  53. WATAMURA S, PHILLIPS D, Morrissey T, McCartney K, Bub K. Double jeopardy: poorer social-emotional outcomes for children in the NICHD SECCYD experiencing home and child-care environments that confer risk. Child Dev. 2011;82:48-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest policies aimed at the cross-context influences of protective and risky settings. ..