stereotyped behavior


Summary: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.

Top Publications

  1. Stowers L, Logan D. Olfactory mechanisms of stereotyped behavior: on the scent of specialized circuits. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2010;20:274-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on these non-VNO receptors and neurons, and evaluates their potential for mediating stereotyped olfactory behavior in mammals. ..
  2. Campbell D, Dallaire J, Mason G. Environmentally enriched rearing environments reduce repetitive perseveration in caged mink, but increase spontaneous alternation. Behav Brain Res. 2013;239:177-87 pubmed publisher
  3. Malmkvist J, Jeppesen L, Palme R. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison): a focus on adrenocortical activity. Stress. 2011;14:312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level...
  4. Hemmann K, Raekallio M, Kanerva K, Hanninen L, Pastell M, Palviainen M, et al. Circadian variation in ghrelin and certain stress hormones in crib-biting horses. Vet J. 2012;193:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is therefore needed to determine the relationship between crib-biting and ghrelin concentration. ..
  5. Kang S, O Reilly M, Rojeski L, Blenden K, Xu Z, Davis T, et al. Effects of tangible and social reinforcers on skill acquisition, stereotyped behavior, and task engagement in three children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..g., stereotypy, repetitive behavior) with their preferred items given as reinforcers. Considering the stereotyped behavior is a core characteristic of ASD aimed to reduce, it is necessary to identify alternative reinforcers that ..
  6. Jijun L, Zaiwang L, Anyuan L, Shuzhen W, Fanghua Q, Lin Z, et al. Abnormal expression of dopamine and serotonin transporters associated with the pathophysiologic mechanism of Tourette syndrome. Neurol India. 2010;58:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower expression in DAT, concomitant with higher expression in SERT could participate in the pathophysiology of TS. ..
  7. Dallaire J, Meagher R, Díez León M, Garner J, Mason G. Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment. Behav Brain Res. 2011;224:213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation...
  8. Muehlmann A, Lewis M. Abnormal repetitive behaviours: shared phenomenology and pathophysiology. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:427-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of testing such hypotheses should generate pharmacological strategies that may prove efficacious in reducing SIB. ..
  9. Budygin E. Dopamine uptake inhibition is positively correlated with cocaine-induced stereotyped behavior. Neurosci Lett. 2007;429:55-8 pubmed
    ..on freely moving rats was used to determine whether a correlation exists between the increase in stereotyped behavior and dopamine (DA) uptake inhibition following cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) administration...

More Information


  1. Watt N, Wetherby A, Barber A, Morgan L. Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38:1518-33 pubmed publisher
    ..RSB in the second year appear to be important for early identification and prediction of developmental outcomes. ..
  2. South M, Ozonoff S, McMahon W. The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repetitive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum. Autism. 2007;11:437-51 pubmed
    ..Further research on repetitive behaviors in autism may benefit from a focus on narrow behavioral and cognitive constructs rather than general categories. ..
  3. Taylor J, Rajbhandari A, Berridge K, Aldridge J. Dopamine receptor modulation of repetitive grooming actions in the rat: potential relevance for Tourette syndrome. Brain Res. 2010;1322:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results have implications for understanding how dopamine receptors facilitate particular stereotypies manifest in animal models of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. ..
  4. Shen X, Purser C, Tien L, Chiu C, Paul I, Baker R, et al. mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice are insensitive to methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicated that the mu-opioid system is involved in modulating the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  5. Tanimura Y, Yang M, Lewis M. Procedural learning and cognitive flexibility in a mouse model of restricted, repetitive behaviour. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the applicability of the deer mouse model of spontaneous stereotypy to a wider range of restricted, repetitive behaviour (e.g., insistence on sameness) typical of neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
  6. Parker M, Redhead E, Goodwin D, McBride S. Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus). Behav Brain Res. 2008;191:137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. ..
  7. Liu X, Wang Y, Li D, Ju X. Transplantation of rat neural stem cells reduces stereotypic behaviors in rats after intrastriatal microinfusion of Tourette syndrome sera. Behav Brain Res. 2008;186:84-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that transplantation of NSCs intrastriatum may have therapeutic potential for TS. ..
  8. Jadhav S, Gaikwad R, Gaonkar R, Thorat V, Gursale S, Balsara J. Dose-dependent response of central dopaminergic systems to buspirone in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:704-14 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that drugs which influence the activity of central serotonergic systems modulate the intensity of buspirone induced cage climbing behaviour and catalepsy. ..
  9. King B, Hollander E, Sikich L, McCracken J, Scahill L, Bregman J, et al. Lack of efficacy of citalopram in children with autism spectrum disorders and high levels of repetitive behavior: citalopram ineffective in children with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00086645. ..
  10. Pytte C, Gerson M, Miller J, Kirn J. Increasing stereotypy in adult zebra finch song correlates with a declining rate of adult neurogenesis. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1699-720 pubmed
    ..We propose that age-related changes in the stereotypy of syllable acoustic structure and HVC neuron addition are functionally related. ..
  11. Richler J, Bishop S, Kleinke J, Lord C. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:73-85 pubmed
    ..On average, children with ASD had more RSM behaviors. Behaviors that loaded on the IS factor were relatively uncommon and did not differ in prevalence or severity across groups. ..
  12. Lecca D, Cacciapaglia F, Valentini V, Acquas E, Di Chiara G. Differential neurochemical and behavioral adaptation to cocaine after response contingent and noncontingent exposure in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;191:653-67 pubmed
    ..Stereotyped and non-stereotyped behavior was recorded during the sessions...
  13. Lewis M, Tanimura Y, Lee L, Bodfish J. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism. Behav Brain Res. 2007;176:66-74 pubmed
    ..As mutant mouse models continue to proliferate, there should be a number of promising genetic models to pursue. ..
  14. Blundell J, Blaiss C, Etherton M, Espinosa F, Tabuchi K, Walz C, et al. Neuroligin-1 deletion results in impaired spatial memory and increased repetitive behavior. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2115-29 pubmed publisher
  15. Levy S, Mandell D, Schultz R. Autism. Lancet. 2009;374:1627-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed. ..
  16. Weiner S, Woods W, Starks P. The energetic costs of stereotyped behavior in the paper wasp, Polistes dominulus. Naturwissenschaften. 2009;96:297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that maintaining reproductive dominance is not very energetically expensive for the dominant and that the dominant foundress expends energy at a lower rate than the subordinate foundress. ..
  17. Martin L, Ashwood P, Braunschweig D, Cabanlit M, Van de Water J, Amaral D. Stereotypies and hyperactivity in rhesus monkeys exposed to IgG from mothers of children with autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:806-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This research raises the prospect of prenatal evaluation for neurodevelopmental risk factors and the potential for preventative therapeutics. ..
  18. Silverman J, Tolu S, Barkan C, Crawley J. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:976-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism. ..
  19. Lepekhina L, Tsitsurina E. Stereotyped behavior in the ontogeny of rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;144:349-51 pubmed
    The ontogenetic development of stereotyped behavior induced by activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors with apomorphine was studied in rat pups (1st month of life) and adult rats (2nd-12th months of life)...
  20. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:613-27 pubmed
  21. Wang W, Sun M, Li H, Wang W, Yan M. The delivery of tyrosine hydroxylase accelerates the neurorestoration of Macaca Rhesus model of Parkinson's disease provided by Neurturin. Neurosci Lett. 2012;524:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although both groups displayed neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons finally, the addition of TH genuinely accelerated animal behavior recovery, which showed great potential for clinical application. ..
  22. Pomerantz O, Paukner A, Terkel J. Some stereotypic behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are correlated with both perseveration and the ability to cope with acute stressors. Behav Brain Res. 2012;230:274-80 pubmed publisher
  23. Kovalevich J, Corley G, Yen W, Kim J, Rawls S, Langford D. Cocaine decreases expression of neurogranin via alterations in thyroid receptor/retinoid X receptor signaling. J Neurochem. 2012;121:302-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study provide the first evidence for a direct effect of cocaine abuse on TR/RXR signaling, RA metabolism, and transcriptional regulation of Ng, a gene essential for adult neuroplasticity. ..
  24. Breece E, Paciotti B, Nordahl C, Ozonoff S, VAN DE WATER J, Rogers S, et al. Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;31:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. ..
  25. Teixeira D, Miranda de la Lama G, Villarroel M, Garcia Belenguer S, Sañudo C, Maria G. Effect of straw on lamb welfare, production performance and meat quality during the finishing phase of fattening. Meat Sci. 2012;92:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Affiliative interactions were greater in lambs without straw. Results suggest that straw can be considered an effective environment-enriching tool to improve welfare. ..
  26. Jacquelin C, Lalonde R, Jantzen Ossola C, Strazielle C. Neurobehavioral performances and brain regional metabolism in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:92-100 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a crucial participation of the basal ganglia in the functional phenotype of ataxic Dab1(scm) mutants. ..
  27. Josko J, Drab J, Jochem J, Nowak P, Szkilnik R, Korossy Mruk E, et al. Ontogenetic serotoninergic lesioning alters histaminergic activity in rats in adulthood. Neurotox Res. 2011;20:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..From the above, we conclude that an intact central serotoninergic system modulates histamine H(3) receptor antagonist effects on the dopaminergic neurons in rats. ..
  28. Yang M, Perry K, Weber M, Katz A, Crawley J. Social peers rescue autism-relevant sociability deficits in adolescent mice. Autism Res. 2011;4:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel paradigm may prove useful for discovering factors that are essential for effective behavioral treatments, and biological mechanisms underlying effective behavioral interventions. ..
  29. Pina Camacho L, Villero S, Fraguas D, Boada L, Janssen J, Navas Sánchez F, et al. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:1326-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad. ..
  30. Enman N, Unterwald E. Inhibition of GSK3 attenuates amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and sensitization in the mouse. Behav Brain Res. 2012;231:217-25 pubmed
    ..These data support a role for GSK3 in acute amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and the development of sensitization to amphetamine-induced stereotypy. ..
  31. Pritchard L, Hensleigh E, Lynch S. Altered locomotor and stereotyped responses to acute methamphetamine in adolescent, maternally separated rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..During adolescence (approximately PN 40), all rats were tested for locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior in response to acute methamphetamine administration (0, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.)...
  32. Bayliss A, Kritikos A. Brief report: perceptual load and the Autism Spectrum in typically developed individuals. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011;41:1573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with recent findings in individuals with autism spectrum conditions, and supports the idea that the cognitive style of the autistic brain is reflected in a broader phenotype across the population. ..
  33. Gilbert S, Swencionis J, Amodio D. Evaluative vs. trait representation in intergroup social judgments: distinct roles of anterior temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:3600-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas early sensory regions represent race in an apparently invariant manner, representations in higher-level regions are multi-componential and context-dependent. ..
  34. Csorba J, Radványi K, Regényi E, Dinya E. A study of behaviour profiles among intellectually disabled people in residential care in Hungary. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:1757-63 pubmed publisher
  35. Aroian K. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents. J Sch Nurs. 2012;28:206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention. ..
  36. Wolgin D. Amphetamine stereotypy, the basal ganglia, and the "selection problem". Behav Brain Res. 2012;231:297-308 pubmed publisher
  37. Fordahl S, Cooney P, Qiu Y, Xie G, Jia W, Erikson K. Waterborne manganese exposure alters plasma, brain, and liver metabolites accompanied by changes in stereotypic behaviors. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012;34:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide putative biomarkers for Mn-neurotoxicity and suggest that Mn disrupts the circadian cycle in rats...
  38. Wathuta J. Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J AIDS Res. 2016;15:55-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The empowerment and engagement of both women and men as agents of change would need to be dealt with more creatively. ..
  39. Hudry K, Aldred C, Wigham S, Green J, Leadbitter K, Temple K, et al. Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:3400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study. ..
  40. Sha J, Han S, Marlena D, Kee J. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2012;15:358-71 pubmed
    ..When food-based enrichment for social nonhuman primates is implemented, the most appropriate methods to alleviate undesirable behavior without additional negative effects such as increased group aggression should be considered. ..
  41. Ward F, Tharian P, Roy M, Deb S, Unwin G. Efficacy of beta blockers in the management of problem behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:4293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for more robust research into the use of beta blockers for people with intellectual disabilities who show problem behaviours. ..
  42. Pandy V, Narasingam M, Vijeepallam K, Mohan S, Mani V, Mohamed Z. The ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit exhibits a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system in mice. Exp Anim. 2017;66:283-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice...
  43. Morani A, Schenk S, Prisinzano T, Kivell B. A single injection of a novel ? opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A attenuates the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, prodepressive effects were also produced and these effects may limit the therapeutic potential. ..
  44. Feenders G, Bateson M. The development of stereotypic behavior in caged European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Dev Psychobiol. 2012;54:773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to observations from mammals, our results show that stereotypies are more common in wild-caught starlings. ..
  45. Amodeo D, Jones J, Sweeney J, Ragozzino M. Differences in BTBR T+ tf/J and C57BL/6J mice on probabilistic reversal learning and stereotyped behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2012;227:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BTBR T+ tf/J mice can serve as a model to understand the neural mechanisms underlying alterations in behavioral flexibility, as well as to test potential treatments in alleviating these symptoms. ..
  46. Sucksmith E, Roth I, Hoekstra R. Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century. Neuropsychol Rev. 2011;21:360-89 pubmed publisher
  47. Chung S, Verheij M, Hesseling P, van Vugt R, Buell M, Belluzzi J, et al. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system modulates behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19286 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data present the MCH system as a regulator of sensorimotor gating, and provide a new rationale to understand the etiologies of schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders. ..
  48. Leekam S, Prior M, Uljarevic M. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders: a review of research in the last decade. Psychol Bull. 2011;137:562-93 pubmed publisher
  49. Iezhitsa I, Spasov A, Kharitonova M, Kravchenko M. Effect of magnesium chloride on psychomotor activity, emotional status, and acute behavioural responses to clonidine, d-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Nutr Neurosci. 2011;14:10-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of Mg salts and pyridoxine hydrochloride can be effective at treating some behavior form of primary Mg deficiency. ..
  50. Nevalainen N, af Bjerkén S, Lundblad M, Gerhardt G, Stromberg I. Dopamine release from serotonergic nerve fibers is reduced in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. J Neurochem. 2011;118:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the dopamine overflow produced from the serotonergic nerve fibers appears not to be the major cause of dyskinetic behavior. ..
  51. Alvarez Fischer D, Fuchs J, Castagner F, Stettler O, Massiani Beaudoin O, Moya K, et al. Engrailed protects mouse midbrain dopaminergic neurons against mitochondrial complex I insults. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Engrailed is both a survival factor for adult mDA neurons and a regulator of their physiological activity. ..
  52. Joseph L, Thurm A, Farmer C, Shumway S. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years. Autism Res. 2013;6:584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time. ..
  53. Demorest A, Popovska A, Dabova M. The role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences. J Pers. 2012;80:187-218 pubmed publisher
    ..g., Agreeableness was correlated with the script Affiliation-Joy but not with the scripts Fun-Joy or Affiliation-Love). ..