escape reaction


Summary: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.

Top Publications

  1. Barbosa Júnior A, Alves F, Pereira A, Ide L, Hoffmann A. Behavioral characterization of the alarm reaction and anxiolytic-like effect of acute treatment with fluoxetine in piauçu fish. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, fluoxetine treatment caused an anxiolytic-like effect following CAS exposure. Thus, the alarm reaction in piauçu can be a useful model for neuroethological and pharmacological studies of anxiety-related states. ..
  2. Blanchard D, Griebel G, Pobbe R, Blanchard R. Risk assessment as an evolved threat detection and analysis process. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An especially intriguing possibility is that mirror neurons may respond to some of the same types of situational differences that are analyzed during risk assessment, suggesting an additional functional role for these neurons. ..
  3. Miguel T, Pobbe R, Spiacci Junior A, Zangrossi Junior H. Dorsal raphe nucleus regulation of a panic-like defensive behavior evoked by chemical stimulation of the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray matter. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..However, both compounds fully blocked the escape reaction generated by intra-DPAG injection of the excitatory amino acid d,l-homocysteic acid (DLH)...
  4. Bosiger Y, Lonnstedt O, McCormick M, Ferrari M. Learning temporal patterns of risk in a predator-diverse environment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34535 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first experimental demonstration of a mechanism by which prey in a complex, multi-predator environment can learn and respond to daily patterns of predation risk. ..
  5. Simmons P, Rind F, Santer R. Escapes with and without preparation: the neuroethology of visual startle in locusts. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:876-83 pubmed publisher
  6. Gish M, Dafni A, Inbar M. Mammalian herbivore breath alerts aphids to flee host plant. Curr Biol. 2010;20:R628-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pea aphids' highly adaptive escape behavior uniquely demonstrates the strength of the selective pressure large mammalian herbivores impose on insect herbivores. ..
  7. Nascimento J, Zangrossi H, Viana M. Effects of reversible inactivation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus on panic- and anxiety-related responses in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010;43:869-73 pubmed
    ..These data corroborate previous evidence suggesting that the DMH is specifically involved in the modulation of escape. Dysfunction of this regulatory mechanism may be relevant in the genesis/maintenance of panic disorder. ..
  8. Domenici P, Blagburn J, Bacon J. Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2474-94 pubmed publisher
  9. Lim L, Blokland A, van Duinen M, Visser Vandewalle V, Tan S, Vlamings R, et al. Increased plasma corticosterone levels after periaqueductal gray stimulation-induced escape reaction or panic attacks in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011;218:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that PA or escape response activates the HPA axis and it remains difficult to anticipate the mechanism underlying HPA axis during PAs and its relationship with 5-HT drugs. ..

More Information


  1. Dupuy F, Casas J, Body M, Lazzari C. Danger detection and escape behaviour in wood crickets. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:865-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, neither antennae nor eyes seem to be used for detecting approaching objects, as their inactivation did not reduce their detection and escape abilities in the presence of cerci. ..
  2. Canteras N, Resstel L, Bertoglio L, Carobrez A, Guimarães F. Neuroanatomy of anxiety. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:77-96 pubmed
    ..In addition, recent neuroimaging studies also suggest dysfunctions in these systems are probably related to anxiety disorders in humans. ..
  3. Fotowat H, Gabbiani F. Collision detection as a model for sensory-motor integration. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2011;34:1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological experiments has unraveled many of the cellular and network mechanisms underlying this behavior. ..
  4. Hemmi J, Pfeil A. A multi-stage anti-predator response increases information on predation risk. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By concentrating on sensory limitations, we can quantify such information deficits and investigate how improving risk assessment helps prey optimise the balance between predation risk and escape costs. ..
  5. Hartbauer M. Collective defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae) against natural enemies. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10417 pubmed publisher
    ..This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all. ..
  6. Fotowat H, Harrison R, Gabbiani F. Multiplexing of motor information in the discharge of a collision detecting neuron during escape behaviors. Neuron. 2011;69:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, three distinct features that are multiplexed in a single neuron's sensory response to impending collision-firing rate threshold, peak firing time, and spike count-probably control three distinct motor aspects of escape behaviors...
  7. Meager J, Rodewald P, Domenici P, Fernö A, Jarvi T, Skjaeraasen J, et al. Behavioural responses of hatchery-reared and wild cod Gadus morhua to mechano-acoustic predator signals. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1437-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that experience plays a role in shaping the behavioural response of fishes to MA stimuli. ..
  8. Gish M, Dafni A, Inbar M. Avoiding incidental predation by mammalian herbivores: accurate detection and efficient response in aphids. Naturwissenschaften. 2011;98:731-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The accurate and efficient defense mechanism of U. sonchi emphasizes the significance of incidental predation as a danger to plant-dwelling invertebrates...
  9. Domenici P, Blagburn J, Bacon J. Animal escapology I: theoretical issues and emerging trends in escape trajectories. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2463-73 pubmed publisher
  10. Card G. Escape behaviors in insects. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012;22:180-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Mobbs D, Yu R, Rowe J, Eich H, FeldmanHall O, Dalgleish T. Neural activity associated with monitoring the oscillating threat value of a tarantula. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20582-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings fractionate the neurobiological mechanisms associated with basic fear and potentially illuminate the perturbed reactions that characterize clinical phobias. ..
  12. Marras S, Killen S, Claireaux G, Domenici P, McKenzie D. Behavioural and kinematic components of the fast-start escape response in fish: individual variation and temporal repeatability. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:3102-10 pubmed publisher
  13. Oswald M, Rymarczyk B, Chatters A, Sweeney S. A novel thermosensitive escape behavior in Drosophila larvae. Fly (Austin). 2011;5:304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This response is highly reproducible and directly applicable to genetic and neural circuit analysis of a simple escape behavior. ..
  14. Pirri J, Alkema M. The neuroethology of C. elegans escape. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012;22:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans, enables a comprehensive neuroethological analysis of behavior. In this review we discuss the neuronal mechanisms and the ecological significance of the C. elegans touch response. ..
  15. Javůrková V, Sizling A, Kreisinger J, Albrecht T. An alternative theoretical approach to escape decision-making: the role of visual cues. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32522 pubmed publisher
  16. Koyama M, Kinkhabwala A, Satou C, Higashijima S, FETCHO J. Mapping a sensory-motor network onto a structural and functional ground plan in the hindbrain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Many different specialized hindbrain networks may arise similarly from a simple early patterning. ..
  17. Broell F, Noda T, Wright S, Domenici P, Steffensen J, Auclair J, et al. Accelerometer tags: detecting and identifying activities in fish and the effect of sampling frequency. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:1255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..If battery and/or data storage is limited, we also recommend archiving the events via an on-board algorithm that determines the highest likelihood and subsequent archiving of the various event classes of interest...
  18. Bonati B, Csermely D, Lopez P, MARTIN J. Lateralization in the escape behaviour of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). Behav Brain Res. 2010;207:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found a left bias in turning the head for monitoring the predatory stimulus during escape, supporting the hypothesis that such a preference is likely due to visual lateralization rather than to motor lateralization. ..
  19. Dadda M, Koolhaas W, Domenici P. Behavioural asymmetry affects escape performance in a teleost fish. Biol Lett. 2010;6:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, lateralization is likely to result in superior ability to escape from predator attacks, since previous work has shown that escape timing, turning rate and distance travelled are among the main determinants of escape success. ..
  20. Oliveira L, Broiz A, de Macedo C, Landeira Fernandez J, Brandão M. 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the conditioned and unconditioned fear in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;191:253-62 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that past stressful experience can produce changes in the synaptic function of 5-HT(2) receptors within the dPAG with important impact on the expression of defensive behaviors. ..
  21. Calixto A, Duarte F, Moraes C, Faria M, De Lima T. Nitric oxide involvement and neural substrates of the conditioned and innate fear as evaluated in the T-maze test in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are compatible with the proposal that NO exerts a positive modulatory role on defensive reactions in rats, exerting among them an anxiogenic-like effect as evaluated in rats submitted to ETM. ..
  22. Majlessi N, Choopani S, Bozorgmehr T, Azizi Z. Involvement of hippocampal nitric oxide in spatial learning in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008;90:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2 microg, increased heading angle (p<0.01) with no effect on other parameters. On the basis of the present data, it is concluded that processes mediated by NO synthesis in the hippocampus are essentially involved in spatial learning. ..
  23. Ferreira Netto C, Borelli K, Brandão M. Distinct Fos expression in the brain following freezing behavior elicited by stimulation with NMDA of the ventral or dorsal inferior colliculus. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:693-704 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to map Fos distribution associated with the stimulation of the ICv and ICd, regions supposed to be involved with fear and audiogenic seizures, respectively. ..
  24. Pirri J, McPherson A, Donnelly J, Francis M, Alkema M. A tyramine-gated chloride channel coordinates distinct motor programs of a Caenorhabditis elegans escape response. Neuron. 2009;62:526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of LGC-55 by tyramine coordinates the output of two distinct motor programs, locomotion and head movements that are critical for a C. elegans escape response. ..
  25. Kohashi T, Oda Y. Initiation of Mauthner- or non-Mauthner-mediated fast escape evoked by different modes of sensory input. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10641-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M-cell firing is necessary for fast escape with short latency elicited by acousticovestibular input and that MiD3cm is more involved in non-M-escape driven by head-tactile input. ..
  26. Satou C, Kimura Y, Kohashi T, Horikawa K, Takeda H, Oda Y, et al. Functional role of a specialized class of spinal commissural inhibitory neurons during fast escapes in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6780-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illustrates (1) a clear example of the behavioral role of a specialized class of interneurons and (2) the capacity of the spinal circuits to filter descending commands and thereby produce the appropriate behavior. ..
  27. Casas J, Steinmann T, Dangles O. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2116 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter. ..
  28. Hwang R, Zhong L, Xu Y, Johnson T, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, et al. Nociceptive neurons protect Drosophila larvae from parasitoid wasps. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2105-2116 pubmed publisher
    ..The nociception behavior of Drosophila melanagaster larvae includes an innately encoded directional preference. Nociception behavior is elicited by the ecologically relevant sensory stimulus of parasitoid wasp attack. ..
  29. Lim L, Blokland A, Visser Vandewalle V, Vlamings R, Sesia T, Steinbusch H, et al. High-frequency stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and ventromedial hypothalamus fails to inhibit panic-like behaviour. Behav Brain Res. 2008;193:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuronal activation pattern resulting from dlPAG and VMH DBS was similar. These findings suggest that DBS of the dlPAG and VMH induces panic-related behaviours even at higher frequencies. ..
  30. Fotowat H, Gabbiani F. Relationship between the phases of sensory and motor activity during a looming-evoked multistage escape behavior. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10047-59 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore suggest that distinct phases of the firing patterns of individual sensory neurons may actively contribute to distinct phases of complex, multistage motor behaviors. ..
  31. Dangles O, Pierre D, Christides J, Casas J. Escape performance decreases during ontogeny in wild crickets. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:3165-70 pubmed
    ..We expect that our analysis of size-refuge will also improve our understanding in the development of performance, given its importance in community and population ecology theories. ..
  32. Mobbs D, Marchant J, Hassabis D, Seymour B, Tan G, Gray M, et al. From threat to fear: the neural organization of defensive fear systems in humans. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12236-43 pubmed publisher
  33. Leeuw M, Goossens M, Linton S, Crombez G, Boersma K, Vlaeyen J. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. J Behav Med. 2007;30:77-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, available evidence on recent clinical applications is provided, and unresolved issues that need further exploration are discussed...
  34. Ferrari M, Manek A, Chivers D. Temporal learning of predation risk by embryonic amphibians. Biol Lett. 2010;6:308-10 pubmed publisher
  35. Chan A, Giraldo Perez P, Smith S, Blumstein D. Anthropogenic noise affects risk assessment and attention: the distracted prey hypothesis. Biol Lett. 2010;6:458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Anthropogenic sounds may thus distract prey and make them more vulnerable to predation. ..
  36. Mobbs D, Petrovic P, Marchant J, Hassabis D, Weiskopf N, Seymour B, et al. When fear is near: threat imminence elicits prefrontal-periaqueductal gray shifts in humans. Science. 2007;317:1079-83 pubmed
    ..Our findings cast light on the neural dynamics of threat anticipation and have implications for the neurobiology of human anxiety-related disorders. ..
  37. Oliva D, Medan V, Tomsic D. Escape behavior and neuronal responses to looming stimuli in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda: Grapsidae). J Exp Biol. 2007;210:865-80 pubmed
    ..Thereafter, the neurons abruptly stop firing and the animal immediately decelerates its run. The results are discussed in connection with studies of responses to looming stimuli in the locust. ..
  38. Wöhl S, Schuster S. The predictive start of hunting archer fish: a flexible and precise motor pattern performed with the kinematics of an escape C-start. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:311-24 pubmed
    ..How the network drives such a rather complex behavior without compromising speed is a wide open question. ..
  39. Douglass A, Kraves S, Deisseroth K, Schier A, Engert F. Escape behavior elicited by single, channelrhodopsin-2-evoked spikes in zebrafish somatosensory neurons. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish ChR2 as a powerful tool for the manipulation of neural activity in zebrafish and reveal a degree of efficiency in coding that has not been found in primary sensory neurons. ..
  40. Braga A, Aguiar D, Guimarães F. NOC-9, a selective nitric oxide donor, induces flight reactions in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats by activating soluble guanylate cyclase. Neurosci Lett. 2009;459:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they also indicate that these defensive responses depend on activation of local sGC. The data strengthen the proposal that NO can modulate defensive reactions in the dlPAG. ..
  41. Freitas R, Uribe Mariño A, Castiblanco Urbina M, Elias Filho D, Coimbra N. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception. Brain Res. 2009;1305:118-31 pubmed publisher
    ..innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases...
  42. Perkins A, Ettinger U, Davis R, Foster R, Williams S, Corr P. Effects of Lorazepam and citalopram on human defensive reactions: ethopharmacological differentiation of fear and anxiety. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also contribute to the validation of a novel human analog of an established experimental model of rodent fear and anxiety. ..
  43. Blaser R, Chadwick L, McGinnis G. Behavioral measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Behav Brain Res. 2010;208:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Freezing is therefore suggested to be a viable measure of white-induced anxiety, while interpretation of the other behaviors is more ambiguous and will require further investigation. ..
  44. Wisenden B, Martinez Marquez J, Gracia E, McEwen D. High intensity and prevalence of two species of trematode metacercariae in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) with no compromise of minnow anti-predator competence. J Parasitol. 2012;98:722-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Donnelly J, Clark C, Leifer A, Pirri J, Haburcak M, Francis M, et al. Monoaminergic orchestration of motor programs in a complex C. elegans behavior. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001529 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence. ..
  46. Maraschin J, Rangel M, Bonfim A, Kitayama M, Graeff F, Zangrossi H, et al. Opiorphin causes a panicolytic-like effect in rat panic models mediated by μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..They may open new perspectives for the development of opiorphin analogues with greater bioavailability and physicochemical characteristics in the pursuit of new medications for the treatment of panic disorder. ..
  47. Carvalho S, Pinto Gouveia J, Pimentel P, Maia D, Gilbert P, Mota Pereira J. Entrapment and defeat perceptions in depressive symptomatology: through an evolutionary approach. Psychiatry. 2013;76:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study extends previous research and supports the importance of defeat and external entrapment in clinical depression. ..
  48. de la Flor M, Chen L, Manson Bishop C, Chu T, Zamora K, Robbins D, et al. Drosophila increase exploration after visually detecting predators. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180749 pubmed publisher
  49. Low S, Woods I, Lachance M, Ryan J, Schier A, Saint Amant L. Touch responsiveness in zebrafish requires voltage-gated calcium channel 2.1b. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, coupled with the expression of CACNA1Ab by sensory neurons, suggest that CaV2.1b channel activity is necessary for touch-evoked activation of the locomotor network in zebrafish. ..
  50. Takeuchi Y, Hori M, Oda Y. Lateralized kinematics of predation behavior in a Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29272 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. ..
  51. de Oliveira Sergio T, de Bortoli V, Zangrossi H. Serotonin-2A receptor regulation of panic-like behavior in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray matter: the role of GABA. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:725-32 pubmed publisher
    ..5-HT2C receptor agonist mCPP or the 5-HT2C receptor agonist RO 60-0175 significantly inhibited the escape reaction induced by electrical stimulation of the same brain area...
  52. Kelso M, Scheff N, Scheff S, Pauly J. Melatonin and minocycline for combinatorial therapy to improve functional and histopathological deficits following traumatic brain injury. Neurosci Lett. 2011;488:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that neither drug has therapeutic efficacy, however dosing and/or administration issues may have played a role. ..
  53. Liu Y, Herberholz J. Sensory activation and receptive field organization of the lateral giant escape neurons in crayfish. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This enhances the animal's sensitivity to an approaching predator, a finding that may generalize to other species with similarly organized escape systems. ..