Summary: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.

Top Publications

  1. Top R, Boshuizen H, Dekkers A, Korthals Altes H. Similar seasonal peak in clustered and unique extra-pulmonary tuberculosis notifications: winter crowding hypothesis ruled out?. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17:1466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible causes of this peak are winter crowding and a seasonal decrease in immune competence in spring. A third explanation may be a reporting bias...
  2. Asghar A, Ashshi A, Azhar E, Bukhari S, Zafar T, Momenah A. Profile of bacterial pneumonia during Hajj. Indian J Med Res. 2011;133:510-3 pubmed
    ..One of the main health problems of the crowding is ease transmission of pneumonia by air droplets...
  3. Greci L, Parshalle C, Calvitti A, Renvall M. CrowdED: crowding metrics and data visualization in the emergency department. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2011;17:E20-8 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding metrics were validated in our facility and a new technique of data visualization is proposed. A sequential cross-sectional study was conducted in our ED during October 2007...
  4. Memish Z. The Hajj: communicable and non-communicable health hazards and current guidance for pilgrims. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:19671 pubmed
    ..The Hajj 2010 starts in the first week of November 2010 and this report is a timely reminder that many infectious diseases can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. ..
  5. Cullen D, Sword G, Dodgson T, Simpson S. Behavioural phase change in the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is triggered by tactile stimulation of the antennae. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The cues and mechanisms associated with crowding that induce behavioural gregarization are best understood in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and ..
  6. Pines J, Shofer F, Isserman J, Abbuhl S, Mills A. The effect of emergency department crowding on analgesia in patients with back pain in two hospitals. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:276-83 pubmed publisher
    The authors assessed the association between measures of emergency department (ED) crowding and treatment with analgesia and delays to analgesia in ED patients with back pain...
  7. Pines J, Decker S, Hu T. Exogenous predictors of national performance measures for emergency department crowding. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Several exogenous factors outside of a hospital's control are associated with National Quality Forum-approved ED performance measures, which will have important implications for future benchmarking and public reporting of these data. ..
  8. Wallace J, Chiu M, Nandy A, Tjan B. Crowding during restricted and free viewing. Vision Res. 2013;84:50-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Crowding impairs the perception of form in peripheral vision. It is likely to be a key limiting factor of form vision in patients without central vision...
  9. Epstein S, Huckins D, Liu S, Pallin D, Sullivan A, Lipton R, et al. Emergency department crowding and risk of preventable medical errors. Intern Emerg Med. 2012;7:173-80 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study is to determine the association between emergency department (ED) crowding and preventable medical errors (PME)...

More Information


  1. Steffen R, Bouchama A, Johansson A, Dvorak J, Isla N, Smallwood C, et al. Non-communicable health risks during mass gatherings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the risks for mortality and morbidity during MGs, most efficient public health interventions, and need for robust research into health risks for non-communicable diseases during MGs. ..
  2. Jacoby P, Carville K, Hall G, Riley T, Bowman J, Leach A, et al. Crowding and other strong predictors of upper respiratory tract carriage of otitis media-related bacteria in Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a novel method combining the effects of number of household members and size of house into an overall crowding model. Each additional household member increased the risk of carriage of S. pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR] = 1...
  3. Sills M, Fairclough D, Ranade D, Mitchell M, Kahn M. Emergency department crowding is associated with decreased quality of analgesia delivery for children with pain related to acute, isolated, long-bone fractures. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1330-8 pubmed publisher
    The authors sought to determine which quality measures of analgesia delivery are most influenced by emergency department (ED) crowding for pediatric patients with long-bone fractures.
  4. Murray E, Klein M, Brondi L, McGowan J, VAN Mels C, Brooks W, et al. Rainfall, household crowding, and acute respiratory infections in the tropics. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..95% confidence interval (CI) 1·87-4·70]; some evidence of an increased strength of association as household crowding increased was found (?3 people/room, OR 3·31, 95% CI 2·03-5·38), but there was a lack of association in some ..
  5. Chatterjee P, Cucchiara B, Lazarciuc N, Shofer F, Pines J. Emergency department crowding and time to care in patients with acute stroke. Stroke. 2011;42:1074-80 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding occurs when demands for ED care exceed the supply of available resources...
  6. Kennebeck S, Timm N, Kurowski E, Byczkowski T, Reeves S. The association of emergency department crowding and time to antibiotics in febrile neonates. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1380-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to assess the relationship between emergency department (ED) crowding and timeliness of antibiotic administration to neonates presenting with fever in a pediatric ED...
  7. Manassi M, Sayim B, Herzog M. Grouping, pooling, and when bigger is better in visual crowding. J Vis. 2012;12:13 pubmed publisher
    In crowding, perception of a target is strongly deteriorated by nearby elements. Crowding is often explained by pooling models predicting that adding flankers increases crowding...
  8. Livne T, Sagi D. Multiple levels of orientation anisotropy in crowding with Gabor flankers. J Vis. 2011;11:18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Crowding was also affected by an anisotropy based on the target-fixation axis (radial, tangential, and diagonal) and by ..
  9. Dalesman S, Karnik V, Lukowiak K. Sensory mediation of memory blocking stressors in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2528-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role, if any, played by the osphradium in sensing two environmental stressors, crowding and low environmental calcium, both known to block LTM in intact animals...
  10. Lukowiak K, Orr M, De Caigny P, Lukowiak K, Rosenegger D, Han J, et al. Ecologically relevant stressors modify long-term memory formation in a model system. Behav Brain Res. 2010;214:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus attention on how environmentally relevant stressors (e.g. predator detection, crowding, and low concentrations of environmental Ca(++)) alter memory formation in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis...
  11. Abubakar I, Gautret P, Brunette G, Blumberg L, Johnson D, Poumerol G, et al. Global perspectives for prevention of infectious diseases associated with mass gatherings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Crowding and lack of sanitation at MGs can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases, and rapid population movement can ..
  12. Beniuk K, Boyle A, Clarkson P. Emergency department crowding: prioritising quantified crowding measures using a Delphi study. Emerg Med J. 2012;29:868-71 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes, including unnecessary deaths, increased waiting times and a decrease in care quality...
  13. Nandy A, Tjan B. Saccade-confounded image statistics explain visual crowding. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:463-9, S1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Visual crowding, the inability to identify objects in clutter, has been shown to be the primary factor limiting shape perception ..
  14. Czaczkes T, Grüter C, Ratnieks F. Negative feedback in ants: crowding results in less trail pheromone deposition. J R Soc Interface. 2013;10:20121009 pubmed publisher
    b>Crowding in human transport networks reduces efficiency. Efficiency can be increased by appropriate control mechanisms, which are often imposed externally...
  15. Pines J, Hilton J, Weber E, Alkemade A, Al Shabanah H, Anderson P, et al. International perspectives on emergency department crowding. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..ED crowding has become a public health problem where periodic supply and demand mismatches in ED and hospital resources cause ..
  16. Dama M, Singh N, Rajender S. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16296 pubmed publisher
    ..randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD)...
  17. Johnson K, Winkelman C. The effect of emergency department crowding on patient outcomes: a literature review. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2011;33:39-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the findings of published reports that investigated quality-related outcomes and emergency department (ED) crowding. Of 276 data-based articles, 23 reported associations between patient outcomes and crowding...
  18. Balas B, Nakano L, Rosenholtz R. A summary-statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual crowding. J Vis. 2009;9:13.1-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenomenon of crowding shows that the reduction of information available in the periphery is not merely the result of reduced resolution...
  19. Higginson I. Emergency department crowding. Emerg Med J. 2012;29:437-43 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a significant international problem. There is increasing overseas research into this field...
  20. Pines J, Pilgrim R, Schneider S, Siegel B, Viccellio P. Practical implications of implementing emergency department crowding interventions: summary of a moderated panel. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1278-82 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and around the world...
  21. Robol V, Casco C, Dakin S. The role of crowding in contextual influences on contour integration. J Vis. 2012;12:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we ask if this effect might be a manifestation of visual crowding (the disruptive influence of "visual clutter" on object recognition)...
  22. Strasburger H, Malania M. Source confusion is a major cause of crowding. J Vis. 2013;13:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we study the quantitative characteristics of flanker confusions in a crowding paradigm and test whether transient spatial attention relieves the crowding effect by reducing flanker confusions...
  23. Sun B, Hsia R, Weiss R, Zingmond D, Liang L, Han W, et al. Effect of emergency department crowding on outcomes of admitted patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;61:605-611.e6 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a prevalent health delivery problem and may adversely affect the outcomes of patients requiring admission...
  24. Memish Z, Stephens G, Steffen R, Ahmed Q. Emergence of medicine for mass gatherings: lessons from the Hajj. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Both initiatives emphasise the importance of MG health policies guided by sound evidence and based on experience and the timeliness of calls for a new academic science-based specialty of MG medicine. ..
  25. Morris Z, Boyle A, Beniuk K, Robinson S. Emergency department crowding: towards an agenda for evidence-based intervention. Emerg Med J. 2012;29:460-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine the causes of emergency department (ED) crowding and to identify evidence-based solutions...
  26. Dalesman S, Lukowiak K. How stress alters memory in 'smart' snails. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32334 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Crowding (20 snails in 100 ml) immediately prior to training blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, and also did so in TC1 and CM ..
  27. Oredsson S, Jonsson H, Rognes J, Lind L, Göransson K, Ehrenberg A, et al. A systematic review of triage-related interventions to improve patient flow in emergency departments. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011;19:43 pubmed publisher
  28. Pines J, Prabhu A, McCusker C, Hollander J. The effect of ED crowding on education. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:217-20 pubmed publisher
    We studied if emergency department (ED) crowding affects the quality of resident and medical student education on individual patient encounters...
  29. Grippo A, Sgoifo A, Mastorci F, McNeal N, Trahanas D. Cardiac dysfunction and hypothalamic activation during a social crowding stressor in prairie voles. Auton Neurosci. 2010;156:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..heart rate, attenuated heart rate variability, and increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during an acute crowding stressor versus animals previously exposed to social pairing; these cardiac alterations were not secondary to ..
  30. Moores E, Cassim R, Talcott J. Adults with dyslexia exhibit large effects of crowding, increased dependence on cues, and detrimental effects of distractors in visual search tasks. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:3881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in order to investigate attention modulation and visual crowding effects in dyslexia, this study measured stimulus discrimination accuracy to rapidly presented displays...
  31. Pham J, Trueger N, Hilton J, Khare R, Smith J, Bernstein S. Interventions to improve patient-centered care during times of emergency department crowding. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..reported in the medical literature as well as initiated at their institutions, discussed the effect of crowding on patient-centered care, and prioritized, in a two-step voting process, five areas of focus for establishing a ..
  32. Moussaïd M, Helbing D, Theraulaz G. How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and crowd disasters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6884-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It also clears the way for a more realistic modeling of collective social behaviors, in particular of human crowds and biological swarms. Furthermore, our behavioral heuristics may serve to improve the navigation of autonomous robots. ..
  33. Jaine R, Baker M, Venugopal K. Acute rheumatic fever associated with household crowding in a developed country. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the association between ARF and household crowding in New Zealand between 1996 and 2005...
  34. Wiler J, Griffey R, Olsen T. Review of modeling approaches for emergency department patient flow and crowding research. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1371-9 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international phenomenon that continues to challenge operational efficiency. Many statistical modeling approaches have been offered to describe, and at times predict, ED patient load and crowding...
  35. McCarthy M, Ding R, Pines J, Zeger S. Comparison of methods for measuring crowding and its effects on length of stay in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1269-77 pubmed publisher
    This consensus conference presentation article focuses on methods of measuring crowding. The authors compare daily versus hourly measures, static versus dynamic measures, and the use of linear or logistic regression models versus survival ..
  36. Yeshurun Y, Rashal E. Precueing attention to the target location diminishes crowding and reduces the critical distance. J Vis. 2010;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether this crowding phenomenon, and particularly its spatial extent, is affected by the allocation of spatial attention to the target ..
  37. Ikeda H, Watanabe K, Cavanagh P. Crowding of biological motion stimuli. J Vis. 2013;13:20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated this "crowding" effect for biological motion stimuli...
  38. Tam J, Barbeschi M, Shapovalova N, Briand S, Memish Z, Kieny M. Research agenda for mass gatherings: a call to action. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Implementation of the proposed research topics would be expected to provide benefits over the medium to long term in planning for MGs. ..
  39. Colosia A, Masaquel A, Hall C, Barrett A, Mahadevia P, Yogev R. Residential crowding and severe respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children: a systematic literature review. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:95 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this literature review was to determine whether crowding in the home is associated with an increased risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in children younger than 5 years...
  40. McGarvey C, McDonnell M, Chong A, O REGAN M, Matthews T. Factors relating to the infant's last sleep environment in sudden infant death syndrome in the Republic of Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:1058-64 pubmed
    ..The prone position remains a factor in some SIDS deaths, and the relation between soother use and SIDS is a complex variable requiring further study. ..
  41. Trzeciak S, Rivers E. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:402-5 pubmed
    ..4) Potential solutions for ED overcrowding will require multidisciplinary system-wide support. ..
  42. Gadek Michalska A, Bugajski J. Repeated handling, restraint, or chronic crowding impair the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute restraint stress. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;54:449-59 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to assess whether, and to what extent prior handling, restraint or social crowding stress during 3-10 days affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) response to an acute short-lasting ..
  43. Hägele B, Wang F, Sehnal F, Simpson S. Effects of crowding, isolation, and transfer from isolation to crowding on total ecdysteroid content of eggs in Schistocerca gregaria. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:621-8 pubmed
    ..A brief crowding of solitary-reared females at the time of egg laying, a treatment that initiates maternally mediated ..
  44. Bayley M, Schwartz J, Shofer F, Weiner M, Sites F, Traber K, et al. The financial burden of emergency department congestion and hospital crowding for chest pain patients awaiting admission. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45:110-7 pubmed
    ..Interventions that reduce ED delays in hospital admissions have the potential to significantly increase hospital revenues. ..
  45. Fatovich D, Nagree Y, Sprivulis P. Access block causes emergency department overcrowding and ambulance diversion in Perth, Western Australia. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:351-4 pubmed
    ..This would result in reduced overcrowding, reduced ambulance diversion, and improved ED waiting times. Improving hospital inpatient flow, which would directly reduce access block, is most likely to achieve this. ..
  46. Wanyeki I, Olson S, Brassard P, Menzies D, Ross N, Behr M, et al. Dwellings, crowding, and tuberculosis in Montreal. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:501-11 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether dwelling and building features, residential density and crowding are independently associated with TB occurrence in a low-incidence setting...
  47. Richardson D. Increase in patient mortality at 10 days associated with emergency department overcrowding. Med J Aust. 2006;184:213-6 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of the effect is about 13 deaths per year. Further studies are warranted. ..
  48. Singer A, Viccellio P, Thode H, Bock J, Henry M. Introduction of a stat laboratory reduces emergency department length of stay. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of a Stat lab dedicated to the ED within the central laboratory was associated with shorter laboratory TATs and shorter ED LOS for admitted patients, by approximately 1 hour. ..
  49. Hoot N, Aronsky D. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:126-36 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department (ED) crowding represents an international crisis that may affect the quality and access of health care...
  50. Baker M, Das D, Venugopal K, Howden Chapman P. Tuberculosis associated with household crowding in a developed country. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008;62:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This research aimed to identify whether household crowding contributes to TB transmission in NZ...
  51. Howell E, Bessman E, Kravet S, Kolodner K, Marshall R, Wright S. Active bed management by hospitalists and emergency department throughput. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:804-11 pubmed
    ..the emergency department was on "yellow alert" (ambulance diversion because of emergency department crowding) decreased 6%, and the percentage of hours on "red alert" (ambulance diversion due to lack of intensive ..
  52. Schneider S, Gallery M, Schafermeyer R, Zwemer F. Emergency department crowding: a point in time. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42:167-72 pubmed
    This is a pilot study designed to assess the feasibility of a point prevalence study to assess the degree of crowding in hospital emergency departments (EDs)...
  53. Schull M, Vermeulen M, Slaughter G, Morrison L, Daly P. Emergency department crowding and thrombolysis delays in acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44:577-85 pubmed
    We estimate the effect of emergency department (ED) crowding on door-to-needle time for patients given intravenous thrombolysis for suspected acute myocardial infarction...