dominance subordination


Summary: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.

Top Publications

  1. Razzoli M, Roncari E, Guidi A, Carboni L, Arban R, Gerrard P, et al. Conditioning properties of social subordination in rats: behavioral and biochemical correlates of anxiety. Horm Behav. 2006;50:245-51 pubmed
    ..The present procedure may provide a useful experimental model to further investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety-related disorders. ..
  2. Bartolomucci A, Palanza P, Sacerdote P, Ceresini G, Chirieleison A, Panerai A, et al. Individual housing induces altered immuno-endocrine responses to psychological stress in male mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;28:540-58 pubmed
    ..In fact, individually housed mice showed high behavioral arousal, as well as altered immuno-endocrine parameters, when challenged with mild psychological novelty-stress. ..
  3. Bartolomucci A, Palanza P, Costoli T, Savani E, Laviola G, Parmigiani S, et al. Chronic psychosocial stress persistently alters autonomic function and physical activity in mice. Physiol Behav. 2003;80:57-67 pubmed
    ..No correlation emerged between the acute and the long-term autonomic responses. These results highlight the existence of a sustained autonomic activation under chronic stress, which was also affected by mice social status. ..
  4. Sapolsky R. The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science. 2005;308:648-52 pubmed
    ..Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status. ..
  5. Rygula R, Abumaria N, Flugge G, Fuchs E, Ruther E, Havemann Reinecke U. Anhedonia and motivational deficits in rats: impact of chronic social stress. Behav Brain Res. 2005;162:127-34 pubmed
    ..Since anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression in humans, our findings suggest that the rat chronic social stress model may be an appropriate model for depressive disorders. ..
  6. Bartolomucci A. Resource loss and stress-related disease: is there a link?. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:RA147-154 pubmed
    ..An analysis of the human and animal literature suggests this conclusion to be true for a variety of pathologies linked to chronic stress exposure. ..
  7. Tamashiro K, Hegeman M, Sakai R. Chronic social stress in a changing dietary environment. Physiol Behav. 2006;89:536-42 pubmed
  8. Huhman K. Social conflict models: can they inform us about human psychopathology?. Horm Behav. 2006;50:640-6 pubmed
  9. Wilkinson M, Xiao G, Kumar A, LaPlant Q, Renthal W, Sikder D, et al. Imipramine treatment and resiliency exhibit similar chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens in depression models. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7820-32 pubmed publisher
    ..They also raise the novel idea that certain individuals resistant to stress may naturally mount antidepressant-like adaptations in response to chronic stress. ..

More Information


  1. Krishnan V, Han M, Mazei Robison M, Iniguez S, Ables J, Vialou V, et al. AKT signaling within the ventral tegmental area regulates cellular and behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies highlight a crucial role for decreases in VTA AKT signaling as a key mediator of the maladaptive cellular and behavioral response to chronic stress. ..
  2. Wilson M, Fisher J, Fischer A, Lee V, HARRIS R, Bartness T. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption. Physiol Behav. 2008;94:586-94 pubmed publisher
  3. Bartolomucci A, Palanza P, Sacerdote P, Panerai A, Sgoifo A, Dantzer R, et al. Social factors and individual vulnerability to chronic stress exposure. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29:67-81 pubmed
  4. van der Harst J, Baars A, Spruijt B. Announced rewards counteract the impairment of anticipatory behaviour in socially stressed rats. Behav Brain Res. 2005;161:183-9 pubmed
    ..It will be discussed whether this might be caused by the highly rewarding properties of the enriched cage which probably has a therapeutical efficacy of its own. ..
  5. Tamashiro K, Nguyen M, Ostrander M, Gardner S, Ma L, Woods S, et al. Social stress and recovery: implications for body weight and body composition. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1864-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, chronic social stress causes social status-dependent changes in BW, composition and endocrine measures that persist after repeated stress and recovery cycles and that may ultimately lead to metabolic disorders and obesity. ..
  6. Solomon M, Foster M, Bartness T, Huhman K. Social defeat and footshock increase body mass and adiposity in male Syrian hamsters. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R283-90 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that social and nonsocial stressors increase body and lipid mass in male hamsters, suggesting that this species may prove useful for studying the physiology of stress-induced obesity in some humans. ..
  7. Covington H, Maze I, LaPlant Q, Vialou V, Ohnishi Y, Berton O, et al. Antidepressant actions of histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11451-60 pubmed publisher
  8. Heg D, Jutzeler E, Bonfils D, Mitchell J. Group composition affects male reproductive partitioning in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:4359-70 pubmed
    ..Dominant females should be less sensitive, because female subordinates do not appear to impose reproductive costs and can be helpful through alloparental brood care. ..
  9. Tamashiro K, Hegeman M, Nguyen M, Melhorn S, Ma L, Woods S, et al. Dynamic body weight and body composition changes in response to subordination stress. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:440-8 pubmed
    ..The visible burrow system (VBS) model of social stress may be a potential laboratory model for studying stress-associated metabolic disease, including the metabolic syndrome. ..
  10. Carboni L, Piubelli C, Pozzato C, Astner H, Arban R, Righetti P, et al. Proteomic analysis of rat hippocampus after repeated psychosocial stress. Neuroscience. 2006;137:1237-46 pubmed
    ..Several changed proteins have already been associated with stress-related responses; some of them are here described for the first time in relation to stress. ..
  11. Berton O, McClung C, DiLeone R, Krishnan V, Renthal W, Russo S, et al. Essential role of BDNF in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in social defeat stress. Science. 2006;311:864-8 pubmed
    ..These results establish an essential role for BDNF in mediating long-term neural and behavioral plasticity in response to aversive social experiences. ..
  12. Vialou V, ROBISON A, LaPlant Q, Covington H, Dietz D, Ohnishi Y, et al. DeltaFosB in brain reward circuits mediates resilience to stress and antidepressant responses. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings establish a previously unknown molecular pathway underlying both resilience and antidepressant action. ..
  13. Veenema A, Meijer O, de Kloet E, Koolhaas J. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:256-67 pubmed
    ..This latter stress paradigm therefore seems promising to analyse the role of genetic factors in the individual differences in stress-related psychopathology. ..
  14. Bartolomucci A, Pederzani T, Sacerdote P, Panerai A, Parmigiani S, Palanza P. Behavioral and physiological characterization of male mice under chronic psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004;29:899-910 pubmed
    ..Our model could, thus, be regarded as a valid model to investigate the biological basis of the individual differences in the response to stressful events. ..
  15. Young A, Carlson A, Monfort S, Russell A, Bennett N, Clutton Brock T. Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12005-10 pubmed
    ..However, our findings raise the possibility that, in some cooperative breeders at least, dominants may employ stress-related suppression as a backup mechanism to guard against lapses in reproductive restraint by their subordinates. ..
  16. Geiger B, Fischer M. Will words ever harm me?: escalation from verbal to physical abuse in sixth-grade classrooms. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21:337-57 pubmed
  17. Arlet M, Grote M, Molleman F, Isbell L, Carey J. Reproductive tactics influence cortisol levels in individual male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). Horm Behav. 2009;55:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Independently, dominant (i.e., highest-ranking) males within groups had higher cortisol concentrations than subordinate males, and immigrant males had higher cortisol concentrations than dominant males. ..
  18. Semsar K, Perreault H, Godwin J. Fluoxetine-treated male wrasses exhibit low AVT expression. Brain Res. 2004;1029:141-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that SSRI effects on neuroendocrine function may be best modeled in animals with sensitive stress responses such as those found in nondomesticated animals. ..
  19. Kemme K, Kaiser S, Sachser N. Prenatal stress does not impair coping with challenge later in life. Physiol Behav. 2008;93:68-75 pubmed
    ..Rather do the sons' behavioural and endocrine responses later in life reflect typical reactions to socially challenging situations. ..
  20. Hörmann C, Schafer M. [Bullying in primary school: participant roles and their stability across contexts]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2009;58:110-24 pubmed
    ..An analysis by grades suggests a considerable impact of contextual characteristics: children's behavior in bullying situations seems to be affected by the range of behavioral choices the different contexts provide. ..
  21. De Goede I, Branje S, Meeus W. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38:75-88 pubmed publisher
  22. Agervold M. The significance of organizational factors for the incidence of bullying. Scand J Psychol. 2009;50:267-76 pubmed publisher
  23. Hunnicutt G. Varieties of patriarchy and violence against women: resurrecting "patriarchy" as a theoretical tool. Violence Against Women. 2009;15:553-73 pubmed publisher
    ..It also anchors the problem of violence against women in social conditions, rather than individual attributes. ..
  24. Denson T, Spanovic M, Miller N. Cognitive appraisals and emotions predict cortisol and immune responses: a meta-analysis of acute laboratory social stressors and emotion inductions. Psychol Bull. 2009;135:823-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This might be especially relevant for stressors that are acute or imminent, threaten one's social status, or require extended effort. ..
  25. Young A, Monfort S. Stress and the costs of extra-territorial movement in a social carnivore. Biol Lett. 2009;5:439-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have implications too for understanding the rank-related distribution of physiological stress in animal societies, as extra-territorial movements are often conducted solely by subordinates. ..
  26. Krueger K, Heinze J. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior. Anim Cogn. 2008;11:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer. ..
  27. Horvath Z, Igyártó B, Magyar A, Miklosi A. Three different coping styles in police dogs exposed to a short-term challenge. Horm Behav. 2007;52:621-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have revealed a third group of animals which show ambivalent behavior in a social threatening situation. ..
  28. Watt M, Burke A, Renner K, Forster G. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123:564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This model offers potential for identifying specific mechanisms induced by severe adolescent social stress that may contribute to increased adult male vulnerability to psychopathology. ..
  29. Yin S. Dominance versus leadership in dog training. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2007;29:414-7, 432 pubmed
  30. Simmons C, Lehmann P. Exploring the link between pet abuse and controlling behaviors in violent relationships. J Interpers Violence. 2007;22:1211-22 pubmed
    ..Likewise, positive correlations are found between specific controlling behaviors and cruelty to pets. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. ..
  31. Culbertson S, Huffman A, Alden Anderson R. Leader-member exchange and work-family interactions: the mediating role of self-reported challenge- and hindrance-related stress. J Psychol. 2010;144:15-36 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the implications and limitations of their findings. ..
  32. Amikishieva A, Ovsiukova M. [Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate on sexual motivation in male mice with different psychoemotional statuses]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2006;92:1212-20 pubmed
    ..The highest dose of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate had inhibitory effects on stability of the sexual interest in the male mice of all experimental groups. ..
  33. Giret N, Monbureau M, Kreutzer M, Bovet D. Conspecific discrimination in an object-choice task in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Behav Processes. 2009;82:75-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One subject was attracted by the presence or the vocalizations of a subordinate conspecific, but not of a dominant, which brings us to hypothesize that parrots could be capable of individual vocal discrimination. ..
  34. Mesch G. Parental mediation, online activities, and cyberbullying. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009;12:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A few parental mediation techniques are protective, but most are not. The results indicate the need for more parental participation to reduce risks to youth arising from Internet use for interpersonal communication. ..
  35. Elms A. Obedience lite. Am Psychol. 2009;64:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Burger has provided an initial demonstration that his "obedience lite" procedures can be used to extend the study of certain situational and personality variables beyond those examined by Milgram. ..
  36. Twenge J. Change over time in obedience: The jury's still out, but it might be decreasing. Am Psychol. 2009;64:28-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Burger's results are consistent with documented changes in personality traits over the generations, including increases in nonconformist traits such as assertiveness, self-esteem, and narcissism. ..
  37. Stellar J, White D. Social influences on female choice in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Behav Processes. 2010;83:282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that females are influenced by the presence and characteristics of males, but that female competition also plays a role in choice. ..
  38. Ngo A, McCurdy S, Ross M, Markham C, Ratliff E, Pham H. The lives of female sex workers in Vietnam: Findings from a qualitative study. Cult Health Sex. 2007;9:555-70 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that socio-psychological factors must be addressed along with risky behaviours to promote women's well-being and social integration. ..
  39. Barcat J. [Gallstones and the gall of subordination]. Medicina (B Aires). 2005;65:173-4 pubmed
  40. Pinhasov A, Crooke J, Rosenthal D, Brenneman D, Malatynska E. Reduction of Submissive Behavior Model for antidepressant drug activity testing: study using a video-tracking system. Behav Pharmacol. 2005;16:657-64 pubmed
    ..Maprotiline (10 and 20 mg/kg), like imipramine or fluoxetine and in contrast to naltrindole, strongly reduced rat submissive behavior, further demonstrating the selectivity of this test for antidepressant activity. ..
  41. Thupayagale Tshweneagae G, Seloilwe E. Emotional violence among women in intimate relationships in Botswana. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010;31:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Education and employment seem to worsen the abuse. Depression and anxiety are common results of abuse. Understanding how the sociocultural factors perpetuate abuse can assist nurses in the way they provide health care services to women. ..
  42. Rowland M, Naidoo S, AbdulKadir R, Moraru R, Huang B, Pau A. Perceptions of intimidation and bullying in dental schools: a multi-national study. Int Dent J. 2010;60:106-12 pubmed
    ..Dentists are the best recruiters for the profession. If the dental school experience is a negative one it can have significant impact on the future of the profession ..
  43. Fessler D. Cultural congruence between investigators and participants masks the unknown unknowns: shame research as an example. Behav Brain Sci. 2010;33:92 pubmed publisher
    ..This will occur when investigators implicitly rely on folk models that they share with their participants. ..
  44. Amikishieva A, Ovsyukova M. Effects of alternative social experience on the sexual function of male mice. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003;136:607-10 pubmed
    ..Hence, the sexual function of male mice is inhibited under conditions of long social conflicts irrespective of previous experience of victories or defeats in male-male confrontations. ..
  45. Crosby R, Diclemente R, Wingood G, Salazar L, Head S, Rose E, et al. Sexual agency versus relational factors: a study of condom use antecedents among high-risk young African American women. Sex Health. 2008;5:41-7 pubmed
    ..Intervention efforts designed to avert STI/HIV acquisition among young African American women should therefore include programs to address both sexual agency and relational factors. ..
  46. Scott K, Straus M. Denial, minimization, partner blaming, and intimate aggression in dating partners. J Interpers Violence. 2007;22:851-71 pubmed
  47. Bath K, Johnston R. Dominant-subordinate relationships in hamsters: sex differences in reactions to familiar opponents. Horm Behav. 2007;51:258-64 pubmed
    ..Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these sex differences. ..
  48. Hanish L, Eisenberg N, Fabes R, Spinrad T, Ryan P, Schmidt S. The expression and regulation of negative emotions: risk factors for young children's peer victimization. Dev Psychopathol. 2004;16:335-53 pubmed
    ..Support for internalizing variables as risk factors for being victimized was weak. The implications of the findings for developmental models connecting symptomatology and victimization are discussed. ..
  49. Clark C. On faculty incivility in nursing education: a conceptual model. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2008;29:284-9 pubmed
    ..Behavioral responses are also reported. A conceptual model is presented to illustrate the findings. Recommendations for further research are included. ..
  50. Seiffge Krenke I, Welter N. [Mobbing, bullying and other forms of aggression among pupils as a source of stress in school. How far the "victims" are involved?]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2008;57:60-74 pubmed
    ..Based on this case study, it became obvious that it necessary to precisely analyse the own contribution for eliciting and maintaining aggression. ..
  51. Mathevon N, Koralek A, Weldele M, Glickman S, Theunissen F. What the hyena's laugh tells: sex, age, dominance and individual signature in the giggling call of Crocuta crocuta. BMC Ecol. 2010;10:9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigate if and how the well-known hyena's laugh, also known as the giggle call, encodes information about the emitter...
  52. Roseboom P, Nanda S, Bakshi V, Trentani A, Newman S, Kalin N. Predator threat induces behavioral inhibition, pituitary-adrenal activation and changes in amygdala CRF-binding protein gene expression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:44-55 pubmed
  53. Carmel S. Boundaries obscured and boundaries reinforced: incorporation as a strategy of occupational enhancement for intensive care. Sociol Health Illn. 2006;28:154-77 pubmed
    ..Overall, the power relationship between medicine and nursing in intensive care is not 'zero-sum': the influence of both groups in the wider hospital is increased by this strategy of incorporation. ..