social distance


Summary: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.

Top Publications

  1. Adewuya A, Makanjuola R. Social distance towards people with mental illness amongst Nigerian university students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:865-8 pubmed
    It had been claimed that stigma and social distance are less severe in African countries, although not enough research had been done to confirm this...
  2. Silton N, Flannelly K, Milstein G, Vaaler M. Stigma in America: has anything changed? Impact of perceptions of mental illness and dangerousness on the desire for social distance: 1996 and 2006. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..from the 1996 and 2006 General Social Survey were analyzed to examine the relationship between the desire for social distance from individuals with mental illness and a number of factors that were thought to contribute to it, including ..
  3. Peterson C, Harmon Jones E. Anger and testosterone: evidence that situationally-induced anger relates to situationally-induced testosterone. Emotion. 2012;12:899-902 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with predictions, anger was associated with increased testosterone but not cortisol. These results provide the first evidence of a subjective emotional experience linked with changes in testosterone. ..
  4. Maurage P, Joassin F, Philippot P, Heeren A, Vermeulen N, Mahau P, et al. Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: an fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2067-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states...
  5. Tsai A, Bangsberg D, Kegeles S, Katz I, Haberer J, Muzoora C, et al. Internalized stigma, social distance, and disclosure of HIV seropositivity in rural Uganda. Ann Behav Med. 2013;46:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..and serostatus disclosure and to determine the extent to which this association varies with the degree of social distance. We fit multivariable Poisson regression models, with cluster-correlated robust estimates of variance, to ..
  6. Wu Y, Leliveld M, Zhou X. Social distance modulates recipient's fairness consideration in the dictator game: an ERP study. Biol Psychol. 2011;88:253-62 pubmed publisher
    Previous research showed that social distance (e.g., being friends or strangers) influences people's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior...
  7. Scheele D, Striepens N, Gunturkun O, Deutschländer S, Maier W, Kendrick K, et al. Oxytocin modulates social distance between males and females. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16074-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, OXT may help to promote fidelity within monogamous human relationships. ..
  8. Moon S, Lee J, Park S, Lee S, Kim Y, Kim Y, et al. [Factors affecting social distance toward mental illness: a nationwide telephone survey in Korea]. J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..impact of knowledge, familiarity, and prejudice about mental illness as well as demographic factors on the social distance from mentally ill people, which is a proxy measure of discrimination...
  9. Adewuya A, Makanjuola R. Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the lay public's attitude (social distance) towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria and examine the factors correlating with such an ..

More Information


  1. Esterberg M, Compton M, McGee R, Shim R, Hochman K. Knowledge about schizophrenia and social distance toward individuals with schizophrenia: a survey among predominantly low-income, urban, African American community members. J Psychiatr Pract. 2008;14:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..members regarding their level of familiarity with mental illness, knowledge about schizophrenia, and social distance toward individuals with schizophrenia...
  2. Martin J, Pescosolido B, Olafsdottir S, McLeod J. The construction of fear: Americans' preferences for social distance from children and adolescents with mental health problems. J Health Soc Behav. 2007;48:50-67 pubmed
    ..illness compared to those who label the problem as a physical illness or a "normal" situation report greater preferences for social distance, a pattern that appears to result from perceptions that the child is dangerous.
  3. Bell J, Johns R, Chen T. Pharmacy students' and graduates' attitudes towards people with schizophrenia and severe depression. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70:77 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences between the third-year students and pharmacy graduates in terms of social distance from people with schizophrenia...
  4. Angermeyer M, Matschinger H. Violent attacks on public figures by persons suffering from psychiatric disorders. Their effect on the social distance towards the mentally ill. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;245:159-64 pubmed
    ..prominent politicians committed by mentally ill individuals during 1990 there occurred a marked increase in social distance towards the mentally ill among the German public...
  5. Glass R, Glass L, Beyeler W, Min H. Targeted social distancing design for pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1671-81 pubmed
    ..Tailored to specific communities across the world, such design would yield local defenses against a highly virulent strain in the absence of vaccine and antiviral drugs. ..
  6. Baumann A. Stigmatization, social distance and exclusion because of mental illness: the individual with mental illness as a 'stranger'. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2007;19:131-5 pubmed
    ..analysis of the recognition of 'strangeness' in mentally ill individuals as one of the main predictors for social distance towards them, shows, that the other person only remains a stranger if the available cognitive patterns of ..
  7. Bahora M, Hanafi S, Chien V, Compton M. Preliminary evidence of effects of crisis intervention team training on self-efficacy and social distance. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2008;35:159-67 pubmed
    ..This study had two main objectives: (1) To assess perceptions of self-efficacy and desired social distance of control officers and officers entering CIT training with regard to individuals with psychiatric syndromes (..
  8. Buhler A, Karimi R. Peer-level patient presenters decrease pharmacy students' social distance from patients with schizophrenia and clinical depression. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72:106 pubmed
    ..of each disease, (2) understanding of patient behavior, (3) belief in the efficacy of treatment, and (4) social distance. We delivered this instrument before and after a neuropsychiatry curriculum including "peer-level ..
  9. Feret H, Conway L, Austin J. Genetic counselors' attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia: desire for social distance and endorsement of stereotypes. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;82:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conducted an exploratory study to assess genetic counselors' desire for social distance from individuals with schizophrenia, and the degree to which stereotypes about people with schizophrenia were ..
  10. Kassam A, Glozier N, Leese M, Henderson C, Thornicroft G. Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians' attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version). Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010;122:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..4 (95% CI 0.02-0.8) after a mental illness related stigma intervention. The MICA scale is a responsive, reliable and valid tool, which can be used in medical education and mental health promotion settings and studies. ..
  11. Bag B, Yilmaz S, Kirpinar I. Factors influencing social distance from people with schizophrenia. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:289-94 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the relationship between public causal beliefs and social distance from people with schizophrenia...
  12. Van Dorn R, Swanson J, Elbogen E, Swartz M. A comparison of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia in four stakeholder groups: perceived likelihood of violence and desire for social distance. Psychiatry. 2005;68:152-63 pubmed
    ..of persons with schizophrenia, that is, perceived likelihood of violent behavior, the desire for social distance, and the causes of the illness...
  13. Boguñá M, Pastor Satorras R, Díaz Guilera A, Arenas A. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2004;70:056122 pubmed
    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a ..
  14. Angermeyer M, Matschinger H. Public attitudes to people with depression: have there been any changes over the last decade?. J Affect Disord. 2004;83:177-82 pubmed
    ..The public's desire for social distance from people with depression was as strong in 2001 as it had been in 1990...
  15. Dietrich S, Beck M, Bujantugs B, Kenzine D, Matschinger H, Angermeyer M. The relationship between public causal beliefs and social distance toward mentally ill people. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2004;38:348-54; discussion 355-7 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of the relationship between public causal beliefs and social distance toward people with mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia and depression...
  16. Dietrich S, Matschinger H, Angermeyer M. The relationship between biogenetic causal explanations and social distance toward people with mental disorders: results from a population survey in Germany. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006;52:166-74 pubmed
    ..between people's readiness to endorse biogenetic causal explanations of mental disorder and their desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. The aim of this study is to examine why this may be the case...
  17. Corrigan P, Edwards A, Green A, Diwan S, Penn D. Prejudice, social distance, and familiarity with mental illness. Schizophr Bull. 2001;27:219-25 pubmed
    ..prejudicial attitudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public...
  18. Reluga T. Game theory of social distancing in response to an epidemic. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000793 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show how the window of opportunity for vaccine development lengthens as the efficiency of social distancing and detection improve. ..
  19. Pescosolido B, Martin J, Long J, Medina T, Phelan J, Link B. "A disease like any other"? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Social distance and perceived danger associated with people with these disorders did not decrease significantly...
  20. Gaebel W, Baumann A, Witte A, Zaeske H. Public attitudes towards people with mental illness in six German cities: results of a public survey under special consideration of schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;252:278-87 pubmed
    ..The respondents were asked about their knowledge in regard to schizophrenia, their social distance towards people with schizophrenia and estimations of the social stigmatisation of mental patients in general...
  21. Angermeyer M, Beck M, Matschinger H. Determinants of the public's preference for social distance from people with schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48:663-8 pubmed
    To examine the extent to which the public's desire for social distance from people with schizophrenia is influenced by beliefs about the disorder and stereotypes about those suffering from it...
  22. Angermeyer M, Matschinger H, Corrigan P. Familiarity with mental illness and social distance from people with schizophrenia and major depression: testing a model using data from a representative population survey. Schizophr Res. 2004;69:175-82 pubmed
    ..Respondents were asked to respond to measures assessing familiarity, perception of dangerousness, fear, and social distance. Path analysis with manifest variable structural modeling techniques was applied to test the model used in ..
  23. Hoeven T, Fischer E, Pahan D, Richardus J. Social distance and spatial distance are not the same, observations on the use of GIS in leprosy epidemiology. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1624-7 pubmed publisher
    ..information systems (GIS) in infectious disease epidemiology, it is necessary to relate spatial distance to social distance. We measured the distances between patients and their socially defined contacts in northwest Bangladesh...
  24. Marie D, Miles B. Social distance and perceived dangerousness across four diagnostic categories of mental disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..make categorical distinctions between psychoses, neuroses, and addictive behaviours relative to desired social distance and whether degree of familiarity and perceived dangerousness influences social distance judgements...
  25. Angermeyer M, Matschinger H. Labeling--stereotype--discrimination. An investigation of the stigma process. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:391-5 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, led to an increase of the preference for social distance. Although much weaker, labeling also had a positive effect on public attitudes insofar as it was associated ..
  26. Coker E. Selfhood and social distance: toward a cultural understanding of psychiatric stigma in Egypt. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:920-30 pubmed
    ..A vignette method was used to elicit judgments of social distance and qualitative responses to stories depicting psychosis, depression, alcohol abuse and a 'possession state' ..
  27. Corrigan P, Larson J, Sells M, Niessen N, Watson A. Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?. Community Ment Health J. 2007;43:171-81 pubmed
    ..Contact effects were evident at post-test and 1 week follow-up. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. ..
  28. Wolff G, Pathare S, Craig T, Leff J. Community attitudes to mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;168:183-90 pubmed
    ..Any intervention aimed at changing attitudes to mentally ill people in the community should be targeted at people with children and non-Caucasians, as these groups are more likely to object. ..
  29. Bell J, Aaltonen S, Airaksinen M, Volmer D, Gharat M, Muceniece R, et al. Determinants of mental health stigma among pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2010;56:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..649) at eight universities in Australia, Belgium, India, Finland, Estonia and Latvia completed a seven-item Social Distance Scale (SDS) and six items related to stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia...
  30. Corrigan P, Green A, Lundin R, Kubiak M, Penn D. Familiarity with and social distance from people who have serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:953-8 pubmed
    This study examined the effects of familiarity with and social distance from persons who have serious mental illness on stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness...
  31. Werner P. Social distance towards a person with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:182-8 pubmed
    This study examined determinants of behavioral discrimination (i.e. social distance) against persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 206 Jewish Israeli adults (mean age = 59...
  32. van T Veer J, Kraan H, Drosseart S, Modde J. Determinants that shape public attitudes towards the mentally ill: a Dutch public study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:310-7 pubmed
    ..We examined a number of determinants concerning their influence on levels of social distance: demographical characteristics of the public, their beliefs about stereotypes of mental patients, their ..
  33. Tarlier D, Browne A, Johnson J. The influence of geographical and social distance on nursing practice and continuity of care in a remote First Nations community. Can J Nurs Res. 2007;39:126-48 pubmed
  34. Yamakawa Y, Kanai R, Matsumura M, Naito E. Social distance evaluation in human parietal cortex. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4360 pubmed publisher
    ..Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. ..
  35. Jorm A, Oh E. Desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43:183-200 pubmed publisher
    ..make sense of this confusion, the present review focuses on research on the most commonly measured component: social distance. The review examines measurement of social distance; characteristics of people who desire greater social ..
  36. Haraguchi K, Maeda M, Mei Y, Uchimura N. Stigma associated with schizophrenia: cultural comparison of social distance in Japan and China. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present study was to investigate social attitudes toward schizophrenia in Japan and China in view of social distance and knowledge of psychiatry, as well as sociocultural aspects...
  37. Zöller C, Maroof P, Weik U, Deinzer R. No effect of social exclusion on salivary cortisol secretion in women in a randomized controlled study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:1294-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the Cyberball social exclusion paradigm alone though affecting psychological well-being does not affect HPA-axis functioning. ..
  38. Akogun O, Akogun M, Apake E, Kale O. Rapid community identification, pain and distress associated with lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis due to lymphatic filariasis in resource-limited communities of North-eastern Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Any transmission prevention effort that ignores the physical and psychological pain and distress that those already afflicted suffer is unethical and should not be promoted. ..
  39. Kay A, Nishimwe A, Hampton B. Giving Voice to the Experiences of Rwandan Women With Urogenital Fistula. Ann Glob Health. 2015;81:636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Through patients' narratives, physicians can improve their appreciation of cultural differences to design targeted educational and preventive interventions. ..
  40. Oostenbroek J, Over H. Young children contrast their behavior to that of out-group members. J Exp Child Psychol. 2015;139:234-41 pubmed publisher
  41. Brannon T, Walton G. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture. Psychol Sci. 2013;24:1947-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings. ..
  42. Akl E, Jawad M, Lam W, Co C, Obeid R, Irani J. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review. Harm Reduct J. 2013;10:12 pubmed publisher
    ..While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit. ..
  43. Matheson S, Vijayan H, Dickson H, Shepherd A, Carr V, Laurens K. Systematic meta-analysis of childhood social withdrawal in schizophrenia, and comparison with data from at-risk children aged 9-14 years. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..442, p = 0.051). Childhood social withdrawal may constitute a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia in the presence of other antecedents and/or genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. ..
  44. Park J, van Leeuwen F, Chochorelou Y. Disease-avoidance processes and stigmatization: cues of substandard health arouse heightened discomfort with physical contact. J Soc Psychol. 2013;153:212-28 pubmed
    ..A diseased target was found to arouse differentially heightened discomfort with physical (versus nonphysical) contact, and to do so more strongly than any other type of target. ..
  45. Tritt R. [Attitudes of adults towards homosexuality and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: part one]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2011;57:46-56 pubmed
    ..Males and respondents of peasant descent do not accept homosexuality. More positive attitudes are evolving among respondents of worker descent, possibly because of their migration to cities. ..
  46. Clifton A, Repper J, Banks D, Remnant J. Co-producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2013;20:514-24 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding and appreciation of the structure/agency conundrum is required if mental health nurses are to engage with service users in an attempt to co-produce socially inclusive outcomes. ..
  47. Ro A, Ayala G, Paul J, Choi K. Dimensions of racism and their impact on partner selection among men of colour who have sex with men: understanding pathways to sexual risk. Cult Health Sex. 2013;15:836-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk. ..
  48. Schlier B, Lincoln T. [A myth of Jekyll and Hyde?]. Psychiatr Prax. 2013;40:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..e. desired social distance) of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia were assessed by self-report...
  49. Dunn L, Gardner J. Household task participation of children with and without physical disability. Am J Occup Ther. 2013;67:e100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the roles and opportunities for social participation inherent in many household tasks will contribute to the usefulness of examining such participation. ..
  50. Ando S, Yamaguchi S, Aoki Y, Thornicroft G. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;67:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships...
  51. Deluzio J, Girolametto L. Peer interactions of preschool children with and without hearing loss. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011;54:1197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Having age-appropriate language skills did not ensure successful peer interactions. Inclusive preschool programs may consider offering classroom-wide social skills training to enhance interaction opportunities. ..
  52. Linnen A, Ellenbogen M, Cardoso C, Joober R. Intranasal oxytocin and salivary cortisol concentrations during social rejection in university students. Stress. 2012;15:393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..2002). Intranasal oxytocin, however, appeared to reduce cortisol concentrations during an interpersonal challenge. ..
  53. Zheng C, Wang Z, Chen Z, Zhang L, Wang X, Dong Y, et al. [Association between the types of obesity and the 10-year-coronary heart disease risk, in Tibet Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017;38:721-726 pubmed publisher
    ..46%????????????????????????10?????????????????or=2.889?95%ci?2.525~3.305????bmi???????????????10?????????or=3.168?95%ci?2.730~3.677?? ??? ?????????????????????????????bmi?????????10??????????. ..