mass behavior


Summary: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.

Top Publications

  1. Zeitz K, Schneider D, Jarrett D, Zeitz C. Mass gathering events: retrospective analysis of patient presentations over seven years. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002;17:147-50 pubmed
    ..Subsequent analysis of other events will assist in supporting accurate predictor models. ..
  2. Williams R. The psychosocial consequences for children of mass violence, terrorism and disasters. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2007;19:263-77 pubmed
  3. Johnson K. Calming the campus: training school staff and crisis teams to manage student behavior during emergencies. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2007;9:225-9 pubmed
    ..This article outlines a training program of this kind and offers suggestions regarding both content and process of this training. The suggestions follow discussion of the unique context and needs of the school setting. ..
  4. Buhl J, Sumpter D, Couzin I, Hale J, Despland E, Miller E, et al. From disorder to order in marching locusts. Science. 2006;312:1402-6 pubmed
  5. Seleye Fubara D, Bob Yellowe E. Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria. Med Sci Law. 2005;45:340-4 pubmed
    ..Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced. ..
  6. Bartholomew R. Redefining epidemic hysteria: an example from Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993;88:178-82 pubmed
    ..A case study involving the collective delusion of phantom rockets over Sweden during 1946 illustrates the complexities of such episodes. ..
  7. Jong J, Reis R. Collective trauma processing: dissociation as a way of processing postwar traumatic stress in Guinea Bissau. Transcult Psychiatry. 2013;50:644-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We will illustrate how the KYY movement uses the idiom of dissociation as both a collective expression of distress and as a vehicle to process social suffering and traumatic stress as a circular phenomenon. ..
  8. Brown R, Gonzalez R, Zagefka H, Manzi J, Cehajic S. Nuestra culpa: collective guilt and shame as predictors of reparation for historical wrongdoing. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94:75-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between shame and reparation attitudes was mediated by a desire to improve the ingroup's reputation. ..
  9. Thierbach A, Wolcke B, Piepho T, Maybauer M, Huth R. Medical support for children's mass gatherings. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2003;18:14-9 pubmed
    ..Half of all of the patients were children below the age of 14 years. Medical services should consider that this study shows that up to 33% of children seeking medical assistance may not be accompanied by adults. ..

More Information


  1. Hartman N, Williamson A, Sojka B, Alibertis K, Sidebottom M, Berry T, et al. Predicting resource use at mass gatherings using a simplified stratification scoring model. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This system is most accurate in the description of minor- and intermediate-type events; major events were less well described by this classification system. ..
  2. Ng walali P, Kitinya J. Mob justice in Tanzania: a medico-social problem. Afr Health Sci. 2006;6:36-8 pubmed
    ..These must be tackled in order to reduce the growing incidences of mob justice, hence saving life. It must be ensured that criminals do not violate the freedom, dignity and respect of each and every human or member of the society. ..
  3. Gimenez Roldan S. [Saint Orosia's convulsionaries]. Neurologia. 2005;20:100-3 pubmed
    ..Saint Orosia's convulsionaries ended in 1947 following prohibition by local Catholic Authorities, probably the recurrent outbreak of mass motor hysteria lasting to most recent years in Europe. ..
  4. Gutman S, Lund A, Turris S. Medical support for the 2009 World Police and Fire Games: a descriptive analysis of a large-scale participation event and its impact. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011;26:33-9 pubmed
    ..Adequate planning and preparation is crucial for events that have the potential to degrade existing public resources and access to emergency health services for participants and the public at large. ..
  5. Drury J, Cocking C, Reicher S. Everyone for themselves? A comparative study of crowd solidarity among emergency survivors. Br J Soc Psychol. 2009;48:487-506 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis broadly supports these two claims. The study therefore points to the usefulness of a new approach to mass emergency behaviour, based on self-categorization theory (SCT). ..
  6. Watson C, Caldwell C. Neighbor effects in marmosets: social contagion of agonism and affiliation in captive Callithrix jacchus. Am J Primatol. 2010;72:549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that neighbor vocalizations influence marmoset behavior through social contagion and indicate that the neighbor effect for affiliation and aggression generalizes to the marmoset. ..
  7. Peters U. [Mobbing--significance for private personal insurance]. Versicherungsmedizin. 2001;53:73-80 pubmed
    ..There are numerous medical diagnoses which may hide a mobbing conflict and are difficult to comprehend. This article represents instructions for better understanding and handling. ..
  8. Hutton A, Roderick A, Munt R. Lessons learned at World Youth Day: collecting data and using postcards at mass gatherings. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25:273-7 pubmed
    ..They also had concerns for their safety due to potential overcrowding and/or violent behavior. ..
  9. Tyner S, Hennessy L, Coombs L, Fizzell J. Analysis of presentations to on-site medical units during World Youth Day 2008. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Providing on-site health services is considered an important risk-mitigation action for many mass gatherings, especially those that generate a substantial temporary population of participants and take place over a number of days. ..
  10. Cehajić Clancy S, Effron D, Halperin E, Liberman V, ROSS L. Affirmation, acknowledgment of in-group responsibility, group-based guilt, and support for reparative measures. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101:256-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. ..
  11. Stulp G, Kordsmeyer T, Buunk A, Verhulst S. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar. Biol Lett. 2012;8:921-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide what is to our best knowledge the first evidence that, as in conflicts between individuals, conflicts escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. ..
  12. MacCoun R. The burden of social proof: shared thresholds and social influence. Psychol Rev. 2012;119:345-72 pubmed publisher
  13. Schulte Hostedde A, Eys M, Emond M, Buzdon M. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics. Evol Psychol. 2012;10:78-94 pubmed
    ..Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception. ..
  14. Polkinghorne B, Massey P, Durrheim D, Byrnes T, Macintyre C. Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: the experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia. Public Health. 2013;127:32-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Early multi-agency planning can identify key risks and identify opportunities for partnership. Special consideration is required for major events within mass gatherings. ..
  15. Steiner J. Historical conflict and incitement also provoke the journey to terrorism. Am Psychol. 2005;60:1038; author reply 1039-41 pubmed
  16. Dzokoto V, Adams G. Understanding genital-shrinking epidemics in West Africa: koro, juju, or mass psychogenic illness?. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2005;29:53-78 pubmed
    ..The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the role of culture in both the experience of genital-shrinking distress and conceptions of psychopathology. ..
  17. Perron A, Brady W, Custalow C, Johnson D. Association of heat index and patient volume at a mass gathering event. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005;9:49-52 pubmed
    ..Over four seasons, the department's experience has been that the number of patients seen during a game correlates closely with game-time heat and humidity (heat index)...
  18. Bricard A, Caussin J, Desreumaux N, Dauchot O, Bartolo D. Emergence of macroscopic directed motion in populations of motile colloids. Nature. 2013;503:95-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that genuine physical interactions at the individual level are sufficient to set homogeneous active populations into stable directed motion. ..
  19. Woolf A. Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The Salem witch trials. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38:457-60 pubmed
    ..When the evidence is weighed carefully both pro and con, it seems unlikely that ergotism explains much of what went on in colonial Salem...
  20. Amiot C, Sansfaçon S, Louis W, Yelle M. Can intergroup behaviors be emitted out of self-determined reasons? Testing the role of group norms and behavioral congruence in the internalization of discrimination and parity behaviors. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2012;38:63-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiment 2 (N = 139) replicated and extended these findings in a more conflictual intergroup setting. Results are discussed in light of motivational and intergroup theories. ..
  21. Lucas Molina B, Pulido Valero R, Solbes Canales I. [Peer harassment in primary school: the role of peers and its relationship with sociometric status]. Psicothema. 2011;23:245-51 pubmed
  22. Carron A, Loughhead T, Bray S. The home advantage in sport competitions: Courneya and Carron's (1992) conceptual framework a decade later. J Sports Sci. 2005;23:395-407 pubmed
    ..The final aim was to provide suggestions for future research. ..
  23. Oyserman D, Coon H, Kemmelmeier M. Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychol Bull. 2002;128:3-72 pubmed
    ..Moderate IND-COL effects were found on self-concept and relationality, and large effects were found on attribution and cognitive style. ..
  24. Madzimbamuto F, Madamombe T. Traumatic asphyxia during stadium stampede. Cent Afr J Med. 2004;50:69-72 pubmed
    ..Closer integration between hospital and pre-hospital services will permit better management of major trauma patients and mass casualty events. ..
  25. Mettner J. When pucks fly and corn dogs fry. Minn Med. 2005;88:8-9 pubmed
  26. Fehr E. Human behaviour: don't lose your reputation. Nature. 2004;432:449-50 pubmed
  27. Shalev A, Tuval Mashiach R, Hadar H. Posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of mass trauma. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 1:4-10 pubmed
    ..There is a great unmet need for treatment and intervention guidelines for victims of mass trauma, and well-designed studies are warranted. ..
  28. Kapp C. Anarchy pushes Iraqi health system to brink of collapse. Lancet. 2003;361:1351 pubmed
  29. Black A. Jonestown--two faces of suicide: a Durkheimian analysis. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1990;20:285-306 pubmed
    ..Jonestown in fact had become a hopeless, demeaning, and antagonistic environment. The analysis here suggests caution to those who assume that a mass suicide is necessarily a homogeneous event. ..
  30. Bartholomew R. "Mystery illness" at Melbourne Airport: toxic poisoning or mass hysteria?. Med J Aust. 2005;183:564-6 pubmed
    ..The issue of diagnosing collective psychogenic illness will continue to be a major public health challenge, exacerbated by widespread anxieties over the threat of chemical and biological weapons and fears of contamination. ..
  31. Leymann H. Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Violence Vict. 1990;5:119-26 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon is described, its stages and consequences analyzed. An ongoing program of research and intervention that is currently being supported by the Swedish government is then considered. ..
  32. Boudreau K, Lakhani K. Using the crowd as an innovation partner. Harv Bus Rev. 2013;91:60-9, 140 pubmed
    ..Internal R&D may generate far less information.) ..
  33. Shaikh I, Shaikh M, Siddiqui Z. Road rage behaviour and experiences of bus and wagon drivers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008;58:220-1 pubmed
  34. Nordt S, Minns A, Carstairs S, Kreshak A, Campbell C, Tomaszweski C, et al. Mass sociogenic illness initially reported as carbon monoxide poisoning. J Emerg Med. 2012;42:159-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the diagnosis of MSI should be entertained only after potential toxicologic etiologies have been excluded. ..
  35. Wedel J. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu. Anthropol Med. 2012;19:303-14 pubmed publisher
  36. Helweg Larsen K, Kastrup M. [Consequences of collective violence with special focus on gender perspective]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:3047-9 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed on these issues as well as research on the identification of evidence based interventions. ..
  37. Dutch M, Austin K. Hospital in the field: prehospital management of GHB intoxication by medical assistance teams. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The deployment of medical teams at dance events and music festivals successfully managed the majority of GHB intoxications onsite and avoided acute care ambulance transfer and emergency department attendance. ..
  38. de Graft Aikins A, Dzokoto V, Yevak E. Mass media constructions of 'socio-psychological epidemics' in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of genital shrinking in 11 countries. Public Underst Sci. 2015;24:988-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider the implications of understanding genital shrinking for improving mass media constructions and dissemination of information on 'socio-psychological epidemics' that may have scientific explanations. ..
  39. Clay J, Illing P, Perrett K. The applicability of traditional health risk analysis and ill-health models in the investigation of medically unexplained physical symptoms. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:1664-9 pubmed
    ..It is important to recognise the potential for MUPS so that the psychogenic elements of the illness can be investigated and treated. ..
  40. Couzin I. Collective minds. Nature. 2007;445:715 pubmed
  41. Bernardo L, Crane P, Veenema T. Treatment and prevention of pediatric heat-related illnesses at mass gatherings and special events. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2006;25:165-71 pubmed
    ..This article describes the pathophysiology of heat-related illnesses and their recognition and treatment at mass gatherings and special events. Interventions to prevent heat-related illnesses at these events are discussed. ..
  42. Feldman M, Lukins J, Verbeek P, Burgess R, Schwartz B. Use of treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at a mass gathering. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005;9:213-7 pubmed
    ..Treat-and-release medical directives for paramedics at mass gatherings may help divert patients from requiring care at a medical facility. Future research is needed to determine the safety (morbidity and mortality) of these directives. ..
  43. Angelides S. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality. J Homosex. 2003;46:79-109 pubmed
  44. Grange J. Planning for large events. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2002;1:156-61 pubmed
    ..As one of the most important developments in mass gathering medicine, this article highlights and discusses key areas of the document. ..
  45. Mancinelli I, Comparelli A, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Mass suicide: historical and psychodynamic considerations. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2002;32:91-100 pubmed
  46. Cheng S. A critical review of Chinese Koro. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1996;20:67-82 pubmed
    ..Koro, at least the way it is manifested in China, is a social malady maintained by cultural beliefs which affect the whole community and not just those diagnosed with it. Further directions for research into the subject are discussed. ..
  47. Wessely S, Wardle C. Mass sociogenic illness by proxy: parentally reported epidemic in an elementary school. Br J Psychiatry. 1990;157:421-4 pubmed
    ..The term 'mass sociogenic illness by proxy' is proposed to describe this incident, in which transmission in one group (the parents) resulted in reports of an epidemic in another group (students)."..
  48. Karam E, Khattar L. Mass psychogenic illness (epidemic sociogenic attacks) in a village in Lebanon. J Med Liban. 2007;55:112-5 pubmed
    ..quot; At the time of writing this report--nine months later--, the epidemic, which had abated within six weeks, was still inactive. ..
  49. Kesebir S. The superorganism account of human sociality: how and when human groups are like beehives. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2012;16:233-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This metaphor organizes diverse aspects of human psychology (e.g., normative conformity, social identity processes, religion, and the "rally around the flag" reflex) into a coherent framework. ..
  50. Rodriguez A, Coello E, Betancor V, Rodriguez R, Delgado N. [When is the infrahumanization to a threatening outgroup higher? Effects of the ambiguity of situation and the empathy with ingroup]. Psicothema. 2006;18:73-7 pubmed
    ..The results show that when there are empathy with the victim and ambiguity about the perpetration, the infrahumanization to outgroup is higher. ..
  51. Brémond F, Thonnat M, Zúñiga M. Video-understanding framework for automatic behavior recognition. Behav Res Methods. 2006;38:416-26 pubmed
    ..VSIP has shown a good performance on human behavior recognition for different problems and configurations, being suitable to fulfill a large variety of requirements. ..
  52. Zeitz K, Zeitz C, Arbon P. Forecasting medical work at mass-gathering events: predictive model versus retrospective review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2005;20:164-8 pubmed
    ..Both methods have the potential to be used more frequently to adequately and efficiently plan for the resources required for specific events. ..
  53. Felce D, Emerson E. Living with support in a home in the community: predictors of behavioral development and household and community activity. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7:75-83 pubmed
    ..Little is known about what precise characteristics of community location give rise to greater community integration. MRDD Research Reviews 7:75-83, 2001. ..