gift giving


Summary: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.

Top Publications

  1. Rich Z, Xiao S. Tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The regular exchange of cigarettes normalizes smoking across society and promotes tobacco's acceptability. Great efforts should be taken not only to minimize these practices among males but also to discourage their adoption by females. ..
  2. Kao A, Braddock C, Clay M, Elliott D, Epstein S, FILSTEAD W, et al. Effect of educational interventions and medical school policies on medical students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing practices: a multi-institutional study. Acad Med. 2011;86:1454-62 pubmed publisher
  3. Chimonas S, Patterson L, Raveis V, Rothman D. Managing conflicts of interest in clinical care: a national survey of policies at U.S. medical schools. Acad Med. 2011;86:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors close with a consideration of why so few medical schools have implemented strong policies. ..
  4. Sierles F, Brodkey A, Cleary L, McCurdy F, Mintz M, Frank J, et al. Medical students' exposure to and attitudes about drug company interactions: a national survey. JAMA. 2005;294:1034-42 pubmed
  5. Hu M, Rich Z, Luo D, Xiao S. Cigarette sharing and gifting in rural China: a focus group study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This information could lead to increased community support of cessation efforts and ultimately result in reductions in smoking in rural China. ..
  6. Fujiwara T, Lee C. The impact of altruistic behaviors for children and grandchildren on major depression among parents and grandparents in the United States: a prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2008;107:29-36 pubmed
    ..Moderate amounts of informal assistance and financial support had a protective effect on MD in later life among fathers/grandfathers, but not among mothers/grandmothers. ..
  7. King M, Essick C, Bearman P, Ross J. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f264 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications. ..
  8. Campbell E, Gruen R, Mountford J, Miller L, Cleary P, Blumenthal D. A national survey of physician-industry relationships. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1742-50 pubmed
    ..The results of this national survey indicate that relationships between physicians and industry are common and underscore the variation among such relationships according to specialty, practice type, and professional activities. ..
  9. Lebas N, Hockham L. An invasion of cheats; the evolution of worthless nuptial gifts. Curr Biol. 2005;15:64-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that female behavior in genuine gift-giving species is susceptible to the invasion of male cheating on reproductive investment. ..

More Information


  1. Gaal P, McKee M. Fee-for-service or donation? Hungarian perspectives on informal payment for health care. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:1445-57 pubmed
    ..To orient future research, a possible agenda is outlined, which links evidence to be obtained to the defining features of gratitude payments. ..
  2. Halperin E, Hutchison P, Barrier R. A population-based study of the prevalence and influence of gifts to radiation oncologists from pharmaceutical companies and medical equipment manufacturers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59:1477-83 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the influence of gift giving on their behavior...
  3. Rogers W, Mansfield P, Braunack Mayer A, Jureidini J. The ethics of pharmaceutical industry relationships with medical students. Med J Aust. 2004;180:411-4 pubmed
    ..Medical educators have a duty of care to protect students from influence by pharmaceutical companies. ..
  4. Moynihan R. Who pays for the pizza? Redefining the relationships between doctors and drug companies. 2: Disentanglement. BMJ. 2003;326:1193-6 pubmed
  5. Balabanova D, McKee M. Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria. Health Policy. 2002;62:243-73 pubmed
    ..Initiating a public debate on informal payments is important in a health care reform process that purports to increase accountability. ..
  6. Dana J, Loewenstein G. A social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003;290:252-5 pubmed
  7. Hirst J. Charities and patient groups should declare interests. BMJ. 2003;326:1211 pubmed
  8. Stokamer C. Pharmaceutical gift giving: analysis of an ethical dilemma. J Nurs Adm. 2003;33:48-51 pubmed
    ..The article outlines cultural responses to gift giving and ethical issues surrounding healthcare professionals' responses to pharmaceutical marketing strategies...
  9. Westfall J, McCabe J, Nicholas R. Personal use of drug samples by physicians and office staff. JAMA. 1997;278:141-3 pubmed
    ..Drug samples are commonly taken by physicians and office staff for personal and family use. The ethical implications of this practice warrant further discussion. ..
  10. Coyle S. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:396-402 pubmed
    ..All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships. ..
  11. Sandberg W, Carlos R, Sandberg E, Roizen M. The effect of educational gifts from pharmaceutical firms on medical students' recall of company names or products. Acad Med. 1997;72:916-8 pubmed
    ..Although gifts to medical students do not necessarily engender company or product recall, attention paid to medical students by pharmaceutical representatives engenders goodwill toward the representatives and their messages. ..
  12. Collett G, Parrish A. Fluconazole donation and outcomes assessment in cryptococcal meningitis. S Afr Med J. 2007;97:175-6 pubmed
  13. Keim M, Noji E. Emergent use of social media: a new age of opportunity for disaster resilience. Am J Disaster Med. 2011;6:47-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, in absence of the normal checks and balances that regulate traditional media, privacy rights violations can occur as people use social media to describe personal events and circumstances. ..
  14. Jutel A, Menkes D. "But doctors do it...": nurses' views of gifts and information from the pharmaceutical industry. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:1057-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the increasing role that nurses may play in pharmaceutical marketing strategy, the profession should consider its position vis-à-vis the industry. ..
  15. Sachs J. Millennium goals at the midpoint. Overdue investments from rich nations could still transform Africa by 2015. Sci Am. 2008;299:40 pubmed
  16. Lewin J, Arend T. Industry and the profession of medicine: balancing appropriate relationships with the need for innovation. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:47S-9S pubmed publisher
    ..The challenge is for medical societies to help the media, the public, and policymakers better understand the role of industry in promoting research, education, and innovation in medicine. ..
  17. Rios A, López Navas A, Ayala Garcia M, Sebastian M, Febrero B, Ramirez E, et al. Multivariate analysis to determine the factors affecting the attitudes toward organ donation of healthcare assistants in Spanish and Mexican healthcare centers. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1479-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The psycho-social profile of a person with a positive attitude to donation was similar to that described within the general public. ..
  18. Dolan P. A mother's perspective: the power of holistic care for the terminally ill child. Holist Nurs Pract. 2013;27:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lessons about caring practices and insights into the needs of patients and families are emphasized. ..
  19. Enright W, Miyamoto R. Building a cathedral for your soul: generosity as a virtue and a practice. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Building a cathedral for your soul has to do with tomorrow as well as with today, with how we choose to be remembered, and with the kind of spiritual legacy that we are crafting by the way we live. ..
  20. Opar A. Medical students protest perks from drug companies. Nat Med. 2006;12:1104 pubmed
  21. Brendel D, Chu J, Radden J, Leeper H, Pope H, Samson J, et al. The price of a gift: an approach to receiving gifts from patients in psychiatric practice. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:43-51 pubmed
    ..We present five clinical cases that raise ethical dilemmas concerning patient gift giving in psychiatry and discuss each case from the standpoint of the pragmatic model.
  22. Spence S. Patients bearing gifts: are there strings attached?. BMJ. 2005;331:1527-9 pubmed
  23. Guha A. A comparison of codes of pharmaceutical marketing practices. Indian J Med Ethics. 2004;1:19-21 pubmed
  24. Lambert L. Doctors and drug companies. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:733-4; author reply 733-4 pubmed
  25. Moskop J, Iserson K, Aswegan A, Larkin G, Schears R. Gifts to physicians from industry: the debate evolves. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This article outlines the history of professional attention to gift giving and reviews recent contributions to the ongoing debate over its justifiability, including professional ..
  26. Rodebaugh T, Klein S, Yarkoni T, Langer J. Measuring social anxiety related interpersonal constraint with the flexible iterated prisoner's dilemma. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25:427-36 pubmed publisher
  27. de Almeida S, Germano R. [The gift theory and care giving in nursing]. Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2009;30:338-42 pubmed
  28. Fujiwara T. Is altruistic behavior associated with major depression onset?. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4557 pubmed publisher
    ..Those who provide financial contribution to individuals other than family members can be at risk of developing MD. ..
  29. Gunderman R. Giving ourselves: the ethics of anatomical donation. Anat Sci Educ. 2008;1:217-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Mason D. Nurses helping nurses. Am J Nurs. 2006;106:11 pubmed
  31. Rabinovich N. The renaissance in global health. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:277 pubmed
  32. Ahn B, Kwon O, Kang C. The role of the altruistic unbalanced chain in exchange living donor renal transplantation: single-center experience. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The disadvantages of type O recipients may be overcome through the use of an unbalanced chain. The altruistic unbalanced exchange transplantation program can help easy-to-match subjects, shortening the waiting periods. ..
  33. Misra S, Ganzini L, Keepers G. Psychiatric resident and faculty views on and interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Acad Psychiatry. 2010;34:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They favor greater policy restrictions but do not support an outright ban on pharmaceutical support. ..
  34. McCann P. Are surgeons accepting bribes?. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2006;35:114 pubmed
  35. Bolt S, Eisinga R, Altena M, Venbrux E, Gerrits P. Over my dead body: body donation and the rise in donor registrations in The Netherlands. Omega (Westport). 2012;66:57-77 pubmed
    ..We argue that the choice for body donation in contemporary, individualized Dutch society is an autonomous way to give meaning and sense to life and death outside the framework of institutionalized religion. ..
  36. Conn L, Vernaglia L. Shining the light on physician-pharmaceutical and medical device industry financial relationships. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:22S-5S pubmed publisher
    ..It is still too early to tell if these laws will stifle innovation, but they do require a heightened degree of diligence to avoid, at a minimum, adverse publicity and embarrassment and, at worst, criminal and civil liability. ..
  37. Rutecki G. "The gift of life"? A perspective on adult partial liver donation. Ethics Med. 2004;20:167-78 pubmed
  38. Mahowald M, Cramer Bornemann M. What? Influenced by industry? Not me!. Sleep Med. 2005;6:389-90 pubmed
  39. de Costa C, Wenitong M. Could the Baby Bonus be a bonus for babies?. Med J Aust. 2009;190:242-3 pubmed
    ..Such a system has been well established for many years in France. Any changes to the Baby Bonus scheme should provide incentives and not be punitive in nature. ..
  40. Alsaied O, Bener A, Al Mosalamani Y, Nour B. Knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals toward organ donation and transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23:1304-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings, although they give cause for hope, suggest that there is much work yet to be done before organ donation and transplantation can become fully accepted by the medical community in Qatar. ..
  41. Afshar R, Sanavi S, Rajabi M. Attitude and willingness of high school students toward organ donation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research on public awareness in both genders and various age ranges is needed. ..
  42. Minkel J. Dangling a carrot for vaccines. Sci Am. 2006;295:39-40 pubmed
  43. Dondelinger R. Understanding the financial contributions of biomeds. Biomed Instrum Technol. 2006;40:291-2 pubmed
  44. Liu S, Liu C, Cao X, Shang B, Chen A, Liu B. The difference in the attitude of Chinese and Japanese college students regarding deceased organ donation. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:2098-101 pubmed publisher
    ..More efforts must emphasize awareness and up-to-date knowledge regarding organ donation among citizens and should be undertaken by the Chinese and Japanese governments. ..
  45. Xu Y, Xu S, Wu Q, Guo Y. Association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and cigarette gifting and sharing in Zhejiang, China: a repeat cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e010058 pubmed publisher
    ..Encouraging and promoting a smoke-free household environment is necessary to change public smoking customs in Zhejiang, China. ..
  46. Rohrich R, Spear S. Hurricane Katrina, plastic surgery, and you: the art of giving back. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1548-9 pubmed
  47. Comeau J. Celebrating nursing: quilt begun by ED staff mushroomed to successful hospital-wide project. J Emerg Nurs. 2005;31:610-1 pubmed
  48. Dalsing M. Industry working with physicians through professional medical associations. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:41S-6S pubmed publisher
    ..There is an exploration of the risks involved and practical methods to control inherent conflicts of interest involved in this interaction. ..
  49. Williams R. Taking issue with "Let's do lunch". Can Nurse. 2008;104:4 pubmed
  50. Bapat U, Kedlaya P. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010;21:174-80 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number of medical postgraduate students. They however, had positive attitudes and beliefs towards organ donation. ..
  51. Greenland P. Time for the medical profession to act: new policies needed now on interactions between pharmaceutical companies and physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:829-31 pubmed publisher
  52. Brumfiel G. Evolutionist row makes museum ditch donation. Nature. 2005;435:725 pubmed
  53. Flatto O. The case of philanthropy: bringing scientists and philanthropic donors together, for good. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:1011-2 pubmed publisher