Summary: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.

Top Publications

  1. Haslam N. Dehumanization: an integrative review. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10:252-64 pubmed
    The concept of dehumanization lacks a systematic theoretical basis, and research that addresses it has yet to be integrated. Manifestations and theories of dehumanization are reviewed, and a new model is developed...
  2. Fukuyama F. Life, but not as we know it. New Sci. 2002;174:42-5 pubmed
  3. Cheshire W. Human embryo research and the language of moral uncertainty. Am J Bioeth. 2004;4:1-5 pubmed
    ..The responsibility for holding the media to a higher standard of truth and fairness falls to us all. ..
  4. Torraco S. The subtle and far-reaching tentacles of the culture of death: the dehumanization of human embryos and the people surrounding them. Linacre Q. 2004;71:47-52 pubmed
  5. Lugosi C. Respecting human life in 21st century America: a moral perspective to extend civil rights to the unborn from creation to natural death. St Louis Univ Law J. 2004;48:425-74 pubmed
  6. Hodson G, Costello K. Interpersonal disgust, ideological orientations, and dehumanization as predictors of intergroup attitudes. Psychol Sci. 2007;18:691-8 pubmed
    ..The effects of social dominance orientation on group attitudes were both direct and indirect, via dehumanization. These results establish a link between disgust sensitivity and prejudice that is not accounted for by fear of ..
  7. Goff P, Eberhardt J, Williams M, Jackson M. Not yet human: implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94:292-306 pubmed publisher
    ..persistence of specific historical representations such as these may not only enhance contemporary research on dehumanization, stereotyping, and implicit processes but also highlight common forms of discrimination that previously have ..
  8. Harris L, Fiske S. Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: neuroimaging responses to extreme out-groups. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:847-53 pubmed
    ..No objects, though rated with the same emotions, activated the mPFC. This neural evidence supports the prediction that extreme out-groups may be perceived as less than human, or dehumanized. ..
  9. Jack A, Dawson A, Norr M. Seeing human: distinct and overlapping neural signatures associated with two forms of dehumanization. Neuroimage. 2013;79:313-28 pubmed publisher
    The process of dehumanization, or thinking of others as less than human, is a phenomenon with significant societal implications...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Castano E, Giner Sorolla R. Not quite human: infrahumanization in response to collective responsibility for intergroup killing. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;90:804-18 pubmed
  2. Rudman L, Mescher K. Of animals and objects: men's implicit dehumanization of women and likelihood of sexual aggression. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2012;38:734-46 pubmed publisher
    ..first direct support for this assumption, using the Implicit Association Test to assess two forms of female dehumanization: animalization and objectification...
  3. Bastian B, Laham S, Wilson S, Haslam N, Koval P. Blaming, praising, and protecting our humanity: the implications of everyday dehumanization for judgments of moral status. Br J Soc Psychol. 2011;50:469-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that distinct human characteristics are linked to specific judgments of moral status. This work demonstrates that everyday judgments of moral status are influenced by perceptions of humanness. ..
  4. Leidner B, Castano E, Zaiser E, Giner Sorolla R. Ingroup glorification, moral disengagement, and justice in the context of collective violence. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2010;36:1115-29 pubmed publisher
    ..focusing on the outgroup: minimization of the emotional suffering of the victims' families and explicit dehumanization of the victim group...
  5. Liendo N, Wardell D, Engebretson J, Reininger B. Victimization and revictimization among women of Mexican descent. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Nurses and other health care and service providers working with women must take the initiative to assess for abuse; a few simple questions might change the woman's life and her children(s). ..
  6. Kteily N, Hodson G, Bruneau E. They see us as less than human: Metadehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2016;110:343-70 pubmed publisher
    ..that metadehumanization (a) plays a central role in outgroup aggression that is (b) mediated by outgroup dehumanization, and (c) distinct from metaprejudice...
  7. Kolbet P. Torture and Origen's hermeneutics of nonviolence. J Am Acad Relig. 2008;76:545-72 pubmed
    ..In this way, Origen provides resources for a particularly religious mode of resistance to torture that usefully supplements the contemporary human rights campaign and holds promise for overcoming some of its limitations. ..
  8. Kozak M, Marsh A, Wegner D. What do I think you're doing? Action identification and mind attribution. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;90:543-55 pubmed
    ..In Study 5, the authors found that instructing participants to adopt the target's perspective did not affect mind attribution but did lead to higher level identifications of the target's actions. ..
  9. Sharp L. The commodification of the body and its parts. Annu Rev Anthropol. 2000;29:287-328 pubmed
    ..The article concludes with suggestions for an integrated theoretical vision, advocating greater cross-fertilization of analytical approaches and the inclusion of an ethics of body commodification within anthropology. ..
  10. Kendrick K, Costello J. 'Healthy viewing?': experiencing life and death through a voyeuristic gaze. Nurs Ethics. 2000;7:15-22 pubmed
    ..Emerging from this is the challenging notion that such programmes deliver the opportunity to experience the vulnerability, suffering and even death of others through a voyeuristic gaze. ..
  11. Beckman L. Human dignity and legal reactions to reproductive cloning: is the principle too vague?. Hum Reprod Genet Ethics. 2003;9:24-9 pubmed
  12. Rozema R. Forced disappearance in an era of globalization: biopolitics, shadow networks, and imagined worlds. Am Anthropol. 2011;113:582-93 pubmed
    ..Enhancing social inclusion of residents, unraveling the transnational crime networks in which perpetrators are involved, and disseminating rehumanizing images of victims all contribute to curbing the practice of forced disappearance. ..
  13. Scott T. Sudden death liminality: dehumanisation and disengagement. Int Emerg Nurs. 2013;21:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The discussion contributes to the emerging sociology of sudden death. ..
  14. Bastian B, Denson T, Haslam N. The roles of dehumanization and moral outrage in retributive justice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61842 pubmed publisher
    ..The present research extended this model of retributive justice by incorporating the role of offender dehumanization. In three experiments relying on survey methodology in Australia and the United States, participants read ..
  15. Bostrom N. In defense of posthuman dignity. Bioethics. 2005;19:202-14 pubmed
    ..Recognizing the possibility of posthuman dignity undercuts an important objection against human enhancement and removes a distortive double standard from our field of moral vision. ..
  16. Goldenberg J. Immortal objects: the objectification of women as terror management. Nebr Symp Motiv. 2013;60:73-95 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented to support this, and for the position that this situation plays a role in, not just expectations for women to be beautiful, but in the literal transformation of women into inanimate--immortal--objects. ..
  17. Borja H, Barreto I, Alzate M, Sabucedo J, López López W. [Beliefs about the adversary, political violence and peace processes]. Psicothema. 2009;21:622-7 pubmed
    ..Consequently, when the process failed, responsibility for this failure was attributed to the opponent, and, at the same time, delegitimization against the opponent intensified. ..
  18. Meyer J. The brave new world of embryonic stem cell research: utilitarian consequentialism and faulty moral reasoning. Linacre Q. 2005;72:319-30 pubmed
  19. Sinaikin P. Categorical diagnosis and a poetics of obligation: an ethical commentary on psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Ethical Hum Sci Serv. 2003;5:141-8 pubmed
    ..I further argue for a disempowering of medical model psychiatry and a retrieval of an eclectic holism in psychiatric discourse. ..
  20. Lauritzen P. What price parenthood?. Hastings Cent Rep. 1990;20:38-46 pubmed
    ..Thoughtful discussion must combine careful attention to the experience of pursuing parenthood by technological means with principled reflection on the morality of this pursuit. ..
  21. Jackson L, Gaertner L. Mechanisms of moral disengagement and their differential use by right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation in support of war. Aggress Behav. 2010;36:238-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons within ideologies suggest that RWA was most strongly associated with moral justification and SDO was most strongly associated with dehumanizing-blaming victims. We discuss implications and limitations. ..
  22. McGuire S, Canales M. Of migrants and metaphors: disrupting discourses to welcome the stranger. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2010;33:126-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This article examines the use of such metaphors, juxtaposing an analysis of nursing journal articles regarding immigrant health, and of major nursing organizations for policy statements that might support immigrant healthcare. ..
  23. Calogero R. On objects and actions: situating self-objectification in a system justification context. Nebr Symp Motiv. 2013;60:97-126 pubmed
    ..The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential next steps and a call for continued scientific inquiry into the broader functions of self-objectification. ..
  24. Atkins C. The failure of formal rights and equality in the clinic: a critique of bioethics. Ethics Med. 2005;21:139-62 pubmed
    ..The doctor-patient relationship forces democratic communities to confront the problem of continuing hierarchic power relations and challenges liberalism to revise its understanding of individual autonomies. ..
  25. Toth Fejel T. Humanity and nanotechnology--judging enhancements. Natl Cathol Bioeth Q. 2004;4:335-64 pubmed
  26. Baylis F. Animal eggs for stem cell research: a path not worth taking. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:18-32 pubmed publisher
  27. Fiske S. Varieties of (de) humanization: divided by competition and status. Nebr Symp Motiv. 2013;60:53-71 pubmed
    ..The humanization of ingroup members, who are both liked and respected, reflects individuating processes in impression formation, not necessarily accurate but at least three-dimensionally human. ..
  28. Greitemeyer T. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity. J Soc Psychol. 2013;153:499-514 pubmed
    ..Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively. ..
  29. Archard D. Selling yourself: Titmuss's argument against a market in blood. J Ethics. 2002;6:87-103 pubmed
    ..General, more broadly political questions remain unanswered but the core of Titmuss's original and challenging argument remains and can be presented in a defensible form. ..
  30. Hickling F, Robertson Hickling H, Paisley V. Deinstitutionalization and attitudes toward mental illness in Jamaica: a qualitative study. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;29:169-76 pubmed
    ..This reduction in stigma seems to be a result of the rigorous deinstitutionalization process and the development of a robust community mental health service in Jamaica. ..
  31. Courtwright A. Stigmatization and public health ethics. Bioethics. 2013;27:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization. ..
  32. Macnaughton R, Evans H. Medical humanities and medical informatics: an unlikely alliance? Is there a role for patients' voices in the modern case record?. Med Humanit. 2004;30:57-8 pubmed
  33. Alison Liebling U. Prisons in transition. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2006;29:422-30 pubmed
    ..Punitive prisons which treat prisoners, and possibly prison staff, unfairly and with little or no respect add to human suffering and do not address either the problem of crime or the problem of public fear. ..
  34. Cheliotis L. Penal managerialism from within: implications for theory and research. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2006;29:397-404 pubmed
    ..with the predictability and calculability of outcomes entails the atomization of professionals and the dehumanization of their work...
  35. Bellantoni L. What are persons made of?. Proc Am Cathol Philos Assoc. 2002;76:265-74 pubmed
  36. Pawlikowski M. [Dehumanizacja wspó?czesnej medycyny: przyczyny i przeciwdzia?anie]. Wiad Lek. 2016;69:333-4 pubmed
  37. Forbes I. States of uncertainty: governing the empire of biotechnology. New Genet Soc. 2006;25:69-88 pubmed
  38. Martínez R, Rodríguez Bailón R, Moya M. Are they animals or machines? Measuring dehumanization. Span J Psychol. 2012;15:1110-22 pubmed
    The present research deals with two forms of dehumanization: 1) denying uniquely human attributes to others (seeing them as animals); 2) denying human nature to others (seeing them as machines or automata)...
  39. Velez B, Breslow A, Brewster M, Cox R, Foster A. Building a pantheoretical model of dehumanization with transgender men: Integrating objectification and minority stress theories. J Couns Psychol. 2016;63:497-508 pubmed publisher
    With a national sample of 304 transgender men, the present study tested a pantheoretical model of dehumanization (Moradi, 2013) with hypotheses derived from objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), minority stress theory (..
  40. Quinn J. Revisioning the nursing shortage: a call to caring for healing the healthcare system. Front Health Serv Manage. 2002;19:3-21 pubmed
    ..These habitats for healing would be the central elements of a renewed, healing healthcare system, allowing the reemergence of the caring and healing environment necessary for attracting and keeping more nurses. ..
  41. Tileagă C. Ideologies of moral exclusion: a critical discursive reframing of depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization. Br J Soc Psychol. 2007;46:717-37 pubmed
    ..on some of the issues that arise when one treats notions such as depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization as social practices...
  42. Schroll A, Kjærgaard H, Midtgaard J. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:74 pubmed publisher
    ..experience of AHC and its consequences on pregnancy and childbirth: abusive acts of unintentional harm, dehumanization, bodily remembrance, and finding the strength to move on...
  43. Vaes J, Muratore M. Defensive dehumanization in the medical practice: a cross-sectional study from a health care worker's perspective. Br J Soc Psychol. 2013;52:180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Extending recent developments in work on dehumanization, the present study tested whether or not considering a patient's suffering in terms of uniquely human compared ..
  44. Rosen G. Who's afraid of Leon Kass?. Commentary. 2003;115:28-33 pubmed
  45. Gotcher R. The theology of the body: some reflections on the significance for medical professions. Linacre Q. 2006;73:115-31 pubmed
  46. Barilan Y. Bodyworlds and the ethics of using human remains: a preliminary discussion. Bioethics. 2006;20:233-47 pubmed
    ..In the case of live donations, Bodyworlds has a duty to participate in the medical care of needy donors. However, secrecy with regard to the source of cadavers seems to be the most troublesome aspect of Bodyworlds. ..
  47. Lawton G. The incredibles. New Sci. 2006;190:32-8 pubmed
  48. Bruns F, Chelouche T. Lectures on Inhumanity: Teaching Medical Ethics in German Medical Schools Under Nazism. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:591-595 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, the prevailing medical ethos can be strongly determined by politics and the zeitgeist and therefore has to be repeatedly negotiated. ..
  49. Piccoli V, Foroni F, Carnaghi A. Comparing group dehumanization and intra-sexual competition among normally ovulating women and hormonal contraceptive users. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013;39:1600-9 pubmed publisher
    Two studies address the role of hormonal shift across menstrual cycle in female dehumanization of other women...
  50. Carlson L. Who's the expert? Rethinking authority in the face of intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2010;54 Suppl 1:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This involves acknowledging three potential problems: distancing, oppression and dehumanization. The article concludes with questions that point towards greater interdisciplinary dialogue regarding ..
  51. Kirkup B. Where are you from?. Clin Med (Lond). 2007;7:304 pubmed
  52. Jotkowitz A. Feeding patients with advanced dementia: a Jewish ethical perspective. J Clin Ethics. 2004;15:346-9 pubmed
  53. O Brien G. People with cognitive disabilities: the Argument from Marginal Cases and social work ethics. Soc Work. 2003;48:331-7 pubmed
    ..Questions related to the logic of the AMC are raised, and the importance of the argument for the social work community is discussed. ..