transsexualism

Summary

Summary: Expression of a GENDER IDENTITY inconsistent with, or not culturally-associated with the gender assigned to an individual at birth, combined with the desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify.

Top Publications

  1. Cohen Kettenis P, Gooren L. Transsexualism: a review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment. J Psychosom Res. 1999;46:315-33 pubmed
    b>Transsexualism is considered to be the extreme end of the spectrum of gender identity disorders characterized by, among other things, a pursuit of sex reassignment surgery (SRS). The origins of transsexualism are still largely unclear...
  2. Koken J, Bimbi D, Parsons J. Experiences of familial acceptance-rejection among transwomen of color. J Fam Psychol. 2009;23:853-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research is needed to explore how families come to terms with having a transgender child and how best to promote acceptance of such children. ..
  3. Chandrashekar S, Guinness L, Kumaranayake L, Reddy B, Govindraj Y, Vickerman P, et al. The effects of scale on the costs of targeted HIV prevention interventions among female and male sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgenders in India. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86 Suppl 1:i89-94 pubmed publisher
  4. Gomez Gil E, Esteva I, Carrasco R, Almaraz M, Pasaro E, Salamero M, et al. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals. Arch Sex Behav. 2011;40:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.
  5. Conron K, Scott G, Stowell G, LANDERS S. Transgender health in Massachusetts: results from a household probability sample of adults. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a need for diverse sampling approaches to monitor transgender health, including adding transgender measures to population-based surveys, and further highlight economic inequities that warrant intervention. ..
  6. Prado Cortez F, Boer D, Baltieri D. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil. Arch Sex Behav. 2011;40:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions. ..
  7. Inoubli A, De Cuypere G, Rubens R, Heylens G, Elaut E, Van Caenegem E, et al. Karyotyping, is it worthwhile in transsexualism?. J Sex Med. 2011;8:475-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine karyotypes showed variations; Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed in three persons, whereas others displayed autosomal aberrations. Karyotyping is only of very limited information in the transsexual population. ..
  8. Baba T, Endo T, Ikeda K, Shimizu A, Honnma H, Ikeda H, et al. Distinctive features of female-to-male transsexualism and prevalence of gender identity disorder in Japan. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1686-93 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of transsexualism is thought to differ among socio-geographic backgrounds, and little is known about its prevalence in Japan...
  9. Bao A, Swaab D. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011;32:214-26 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen S, McFarland W, Thompson H, Raymond H. Transmen in San Francisco: what do we know from HIV test site data?. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:659-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Lest we be caught off guard as another marginalized sexual minority experiences the tragedy of a rapid HIV epidemic, more detailed, specifically designed studies are needed to complete what we do not know about this population. ..
  2. Newman P, Roungprakhon S, Tepjan S, Yim S. Preventive HIV vaccine acceptability and behavioral risk compensation among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgenders in Thailand. Vaccine. 2010;28:958-64 pubmed publisher
  3. Misra G. Decriminalising homosexuality in India. Reprod Health Matters. 2009;17:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. ..
  4. Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gomez Gil E, Junque C, Segovia S, Gomez A, et al. White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A diffusion tensor imaging study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence for an inherent difference in the brain structure of FtM transsexuals. ..
  5. Wilson E, Garofalo R, Harris D, Belzer M. Sexual risk taking among transgender male-to-female youths with different partner types. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:1500-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Hoshiai M, Matsumoto Y, Sato T, Ohnishi M, Okabe N, Kishimoto Y, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity among patients with gender identity disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, psychiatric comorbidity in patients with GID has rarely been assessed. In this study, we investigated the psychiatric comorbidity and life events of patients with GID in Japan...
  7. Grant R, Lama J, Anderson P, McMahan V, Liu A, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2587-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Detectable blood levels strongly correlated with the prophylactic effect. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458393.). ..
  8. Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gomez Gil E, Junque C, Zubiarre Elorza L, Segovia S, et al. The microstructure of white matter in male to female transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A DTI study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of these differences suggests that some fasciculi do not complete the masculinization process in MtF transsexuals during brain development. ..
  9. Haas A, Eliason M, Mays V, Mathy R, Cochran S, D Augelli A, et al. Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations. J Homosex. 2011;58:10-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice. ..
  10. Auer M, Fuss J, Stalla G, Athanasoulia A. Twenty years of endocrinologic treatment in transsexualism: analyzing the role of chromosomal analysis and hormonal profiling in the diagnostic work-up. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:1103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..show a low incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and thus question routine chromosomal analysis at the baseline evaluation of transsexualism, and suggest that it be considered only in cases of abnormal history or hormonal examination.
  11. Ard K, Makadon H. Addressing intimate partner violence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26:930-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we highlight the burden of IPV in LGBT relationships, discuss how LGBT and heterosexual IPV differ, and outline steps clinicians can take to address IPV in their LGBT patients. ..
  12. Fuss J, Biedermann S, Stalla G, Auer M. On the quest for a biomechanism of transsexualism: is there a role for BDNF?. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:2015-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the question whether there is indeed a role of BDNF in the development of transsexualism.
  13. Reisner S, Perkovich B, Mimiaga M. A mixed methods study of the sexual health needs of New England transmen who have sex with nontransgender men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24:501-13 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;Embodied scripting" is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand sexual health among transgender populations and examining transgender sexual health from a life course perspective is suggested. ..
  14. Shao T, Grossbard M, Klein P. Breast cancer in female-to-male transsexuals: two cases with a review of physiology and management. Clin Breast Cancer. 2011;11:417-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our 2 cases demonstrate the unique issues that concern the management of FtM transsexuals with breast cancer and examine possible roles of testosterone in the development of breast cancer. ..
  15. Terada S, Matsumoto Y, Sato T, Okabe N, Kishimoto Y, Uchitomi Y. Suicidal ideation among patients with gender identity disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2011;190:159-62 pubmed publisher
    ..GID patients with a low level education might be at high risk of self-mutilation and should be watched with special attention to self-mutilation. ..
  16. Nemoto T, Bödeker B, Iwamoto M. Social support, exposure to violence and transphobia, and correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:1980-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For THSW, psychological vulnerability must be addressed in counseling, support groups, and health promotion programs specifically tailored to race/ethnicity. ..
  17. Clements Nolle K, Marx R, Katz M. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. J Homosex. 2006;51:53-69 pubmed
    ..In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population. ..
  18. Grossman A, D Augelli A. Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007;37:527-37 pubmed
    ..Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for life-threatening behaviors among transgender youth. ..
  19. a Campo J, Nijman H, Merckelbach H, Evers C. Psychiatric comorbidity of gender identity disorders: a survey among Dutch psychiatrists. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1332-6 pubmed
    ..Therapy options proposed to patients with gender identity disorder appear to depend on personal preferences of psychiatrists. These results underline the need for more specific diagnostic rules in this area. ..
  20. Leriche A, Timsit M, Morel Journel N, Bouillot A, Dembele D, Ruffion A. Long-term outcome of forearm flee-flap phalloplasty in the treatment of transsexualism. BJU Int. 2008;101:1297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was a high rate of complications. Patients must be clearly informed that the procedure can seldom be achieved in one stage. ..
  21. Hepp U, Klaghofer R, Burkhard Kübler R, Buddeberg C. [Treatment follow-up of transsexual patients. A catamnestic study]. Nervenarzt. 2002;73:283-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a three-step procedure for the treatment of transsexual patients, as is practiced in other centers within German speaking continental Europe. ..
  22. Monstrey S, Hoebeke P, Dhont M, De Cuypere G, Rubens R, Moerman M, et al. Surgical therapy in transsexual patients: a multi-disciplinary approach. Acta Chir Belg. 2001;101:200-9 pubmed
    ..The results in this series of patients clearly demonstrate that a close cooperation of the different surgical specialties, within our multidisciplinary gender team, is the key to success in treating transsexual patients. ..
  23. Kellogg T, Clements Nolle K, Dilley J, Katz M, McFarland W. Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among male-to-female transgendered persons in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28:380-4 pubmed
    ..9; 95% CI, 1.2-13.1) were independent predictors of HIV seroconversion. HIV is currently spreading at an extremely high rate among MtF transgendered persons in San Francisco, especially those who are African Americans. ..
  24. Zucker K, Lightbody S, Pecore K, Bradley S, Blanchard R. Birth order in girls with gender identity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;7:30-5 pubmed
  25. Wilson P, Sharp C, Carr S. The prevalence of gender dysphoria in Scotland: a primary care study. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49:991-2 pubmed
    ..One-third of gender-dysphoric patients known to practices had registered in the preceding 12 months, suggesting that patients with this condition are increasingly likely to present for medical care. ..
  26. Lawrence A. Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism. Arch Sex Behav. 2010;39:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the hypothesis that the prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism, relative to homosexual MtF transsexualism, would be higher in individualistic countries than in ..
  27. Luders E, Sanchez F, Gaser C, Toga A, Narr K, Hamilton L, et al. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism. Neuroimage. 2009;46:904-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in ..
  28. Hare L, Bernard P, Sanchez F, Baird P, Vilain E, Kennedy T, et al. Androgen receptor repeat length polymorphism associated with male-to-female transsexualism. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:93-6 pubmed publisher
    There is a likely genetic component to transsexualism, and genes involved in sex steroidogenesis are good candidates...
  29. Garofalo R, Deleon J, Osmer E, Doll M, Harper G. Overlooked, misunderstood and at-risk: exploring the lives and HIV risk of ethnic minority male-to-female transgender youth. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38:230-6 pubmed
    ..Future research is needed to better understand this adolescent subgroup and to develop targeted broad-based interventions that reduce risky behaviors. ..
  30. Krege S, Bex A, Lümmen G, Rubben H. Male-to-female transsexualism: a technique, results and long-term follow-up in 66 patients. BJU Int. 2001;88:396-402 pubmed
    ..Although the operative technique is partly standardized, surgery remains challenging because of several possible complications. None of the present patients claimed to regret their decision to undergo gender-transforming surgery. ..
  31. van Goozen S, Slabbekoorn D, Gooren L, Sanders G, Cohen Kettenis P. Organizing and activating effects of sex hormones in homosexual transsexuals. Behav Neurosci. 2002;116:982-8 pubmed
    The cause of transsexualism remains unclear...
  32. Burcombe R, Makris A, Pittam M, Finer N. Breast cancer after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy in a female-to-male trans-sexual. Breast. 2003;12:290-3 pubmed
    ..The complex hormonal pathways involved and the implications for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of a high risk of familial breast cancer are discussed. ..
  33. Corliss H, Belzer M, Forbes C, Wilson E. An evaluation of service utilization among male to female transgender youth: qualitative study of a clinic-based sample. J LGBT Health Res. 2007;3:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve support for transgender youth and assist in their positive development, it is essential to improve and expand the availability of culturally competent and effective services for this population. ..
  34. Sommer I, Cohen Kettenis P, Van Raalten T, Vd Veer A, Ramsey L, Gooren L, et al. Effects of cross-sex hormones on cerebral activation during language and mental rotation: An fMRI study in transsexuals. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:215-21 pubmed
    ..54, p=0.34), but post-treatment testosterone levels correlated to total activation during mental rotation (rho=0.64, p=0.01). Findings suggest that sex steroids may influence cerebral activation, but lateralization remains stable. ..
  35. Vujovic S, Popovic S, Sbutega Milosevic G, Djordjevic M, Gooren L. Transsexualism in Serbia: a twenty-year follow-up study. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1018-1023 pubmed publisher
    ..Of those who had undergone sex reassignment, none expressed regret for their decision. Although transsexualism is a universal phenomenon, the relatively young age of those applying for sex reassignment and the sex ratio ..
  36. Dewey J. Knowledge legitimacy: how trans-patient behavior supports and challenges current medical knowledge. Qual Health Res. 2008;18:1345-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients support medical discourse by using established medical language in their interaction with doctors. Patients challenge medical knowledge by resisting established medical decisions. ..
  37. Monstrey S, Selvaggi G, Ceulemans P, Van Landuyt K, Bowman C, Blondeel P, et al. Chest-wall contouring surgery in female-to-male transsexuals: a new algorithm. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the complication rate is low and patient satisfaction is high, secondary aesthetic corrections are often indicated. ..
  38. Smith Y, van Goozen S, Kuiper A, Cohen Kettenis P. Transsexual subtypes: clinical and theoretical significance. Psychiatry Res. 2005;137:151-60 pubmed
    ..The more vulnerable nonhomosexual transsexuals may particularly benefit from additional professional guidance before and/or during treatment. ..
  39. Hembree W, Cohen Kettenis P, Delemarre van de Waal H, Gooren L, Meyer W, Spack N, et al. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3132-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Because a diagnosis of transsexualism in a prepubertal child cannot be made with certainty, we do not recommend endocrine treatment of prepubertal ..
  40. Olsson S, Möller A. On the incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism in Sweden, 1972-2002. Arch Sex Behav. 2003;32:381-6 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of transsexualism in Sweden has been stable over the period of the three decades sex reassignment has been permitted by law in Sweden and whether there has been a change ..
  41. Wylie K. Gender related disorders. BMJ. 2004;329:615-7 pubmed
  42. Chivers M, Rieger G, Latty E, Bailey J. A sex difference in the specificity of sexual arousal. Psychol Sci. 2004;15:736-44 pubmed
    ..In a second study, we showed that our results for females are unlikely to be explained by ascertainment biases. These findings suggest that sexual arousal patterns play fundamentally different roles in male and female sexuality. ..
  43. Kraemer B, Delsignore A, Gundelfinger R, Schnyder U, Hepp U. Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome and gender identity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;14:292-6 pubmed
    ..We consider the treatment of GID as compelling, particularly because curative therapy for AS is lacking and with GID treatment in this vein, the patient gains psychosocial improvement. ..
  44. Operario D, Nemoto T. Sexual risk behavior and substance use among a sample of Asian Pacific Islander transgendered women. AIDS Educ Prev. 2005;17:430-43 pubmed
    ..15, 95% = 2.26, 22.63). Findings suggest that API MTF transgenders are on the front line of HIV risk for the API community, and provide insight into factors within this group that might contribute to unsafe sex and substance use. ..
  45. De Cuypere G, T sjoen G, Beerten R, Selvaggi G, De Sutter P, Hoebeke P, et al. Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery. Arch Sex Behav. 2005;34:679-90 pubmed
    ..In female-to-males with erection prosthesis, sexual expectations were more realized (compared to those without), but pain during intercourse was more often reported. ..
  46. Zimmermann A, Zimmer R, Kovacs L, Einödshofer S, Herschbach P, Henrich G, et al. [Transsexuals' life satisfaction after gender transformation operations]. Chirurg. 2006;77:432-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a discrepancy between subjective satisfaction with new gender identity and current life situation, and they identify problems with life satisfaction. ..
  47. Rachlin K, Green J, Lombardi E. Utilization of health care among female-to-male transgender individuals in the United States. J Homosex. 2008;54:243-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, FTM's usage of transition-related medical resources can vary, but many within this study are foregoing genital surgery. ..
  48. Hernandez A, Lindan C, Mathur M, Ekstrand M, Madhivanan P, Stein E, et al. Sexual behavior among men who have sex with women, men, and Hijras in Mumbai, India--multiple sexual risks. AIDS Behav. 2006;10:S5-16 pubmed
    ..A high proportion of men who attend STI clinics in Mumbai are behaviorally bi- or tri-sexual and have multiple partners with whom they engage in risky sex. STI/HIV prevention programs should not assume that men only have sex with women. ..
  49. Edwards J, Fisher D, Reynolds G. Male-to-female transgender and transsexual clients of HIV service programs in Los Angeles County, California. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1030-3 pubmed
    ..Transgender-identified individuals are at high risk for HIV infection because of reuse of needles and being paid for sexual intercourse. ..
  50. Condous G, Jones R, Lam A. Male-to-female transsexualism: laparoscopic pelvic floor repair of prolapsed neovagina. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;46:254-6 pubmed
    ..This surgical procedure combined an understanding of the anatomy of the male pelvis with the principles of laparoscopic pelvic floor repair in the XX female. ..
  51. Kuhn A, Bodmer C, Stadlmayr W, Kuhn P, Mueller M, Birkhäuser M. Quality of life 15 years after sex reassignment surgery for transsexualism. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1685-1689.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen years after sex reassignment operation quality of life is lower in the domains general health, role limitation, physical limitation, and personal limitation. ..
  52. Sohn M, Bosinski H. Gender identity disorders: diagnostic and surgical aspects. J Sex Med. 2007;4:1193-207; quiz 1208 pubmed
    b>Transsexualism is defined as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the patient's persistent discomfort with his or her sex and a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex (Diagnostic and Statistical ..
  53. Cohen Kettenis P, Pfafflin F. The DSM diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder in adolescents and adults. Arch Sex Behav. 2010;39:499-513 pubmed publisher
    ..These problems concern the confusion caused by similarities and differences of the terms transsexualism and GID, the inability of the current criteria to capture the whole spectrum of gender variance phenomena, the ..