extramarital relations


Summary: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.

Top Publications

  1. Saggurti N, Schensul S, Verma R. Migration, mobility and sexual risk behavior in Mumbai, India: mobile men with non-residential wife show increased risk. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:921-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Buss D. Human mate guarding. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002;23 Suppl 4:23-9 pubmed
    ..Behavioral output of mate guarding adaptations range from vigilance to violence. ..
  3. Schmitt D, Buss D. Human mate poaching: tactics and tempations for infiltrating existing mateships. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001;80:894-917 pubmed
    ..Discussion focuses on the importance of placing mate poaching within the broader context of human sexual strategies. ..
  4. Mottu Weber L. ["Sexual misdemeanors," "anticipation," and forced marriages in Geneva in the 18th century: the point of view of the Consistory, fathers, and judges]. Schweiz Z Gesch. 2002;52:430-47 pubmed
  5. Ghosh J, Kalipeni E. Women in Chinsapo, Malawi: vulnerability and risk to HIV/AIDS. SAHARA J. 2005;2:320-32 pubmed
    ..Thirdly, in spite of their awareness through media and health care professionals, women are unable to protect themselves, which further increases their vulnerability. ..
  6. Petrikis P, Andreou C, Garyfallos G, Karavatos A. Incubus syndrome and folie à deux: a case report. Eur Psychiatry. 2003;18:322 pubmed
  7. Liu H, Detels R, Li X, Stanton B, Hu Z, Yang H. Risk of HIV transmission within marriage in rural China: implications for HIV prevention at the family level. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:418-24 pubmed
    ..Approximately 43% of the couples agreed that they would use condoms consistently if 1 of them were HIV-positive. There is an urgent need for national programs to prevent HIV infection within couples in rural areas. ..
  8. Davies A, Shackelford T, Hass R. When a "poach" is not a poach: re-defining human mate poaching and re-estimating its frequency. Arch Sex Behav. 2007;36:702-16 pubmed
    ..Discussion addresses limitations of the current research and suggests future directions for addressing them. ..
  9. Gordon K, Baucom D, Snyder D. Treating couples recovering from infidelity: an integrative approach. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61:1393-405 pubmed
    ..A case study with pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up data is presented to illustrate the treatment methods. ..

More Information


  1. Russell G. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan. Womens Writ. 2010;17:469-86 pubmed publisher
  2. Freeman T. Psychoanalytical aspects of morbid jealousy in women. Br J Psychiatry. 1990;156:68-72 pubmed
    ..This material can provide an insight into the unconscious determinants of the contents of delusions of jealousy. ..
  3. Allen E, Atkins D. The multidimensional and developmental nature of infidelity: practical applications. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61:1371-82 pubmed
    ..A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the framework in working with couples in which there has been an affair. ..
  4. Watve M, Damle A, Ganguly B, Kale A, Dahanukar N. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:345 pubmed publisher
    ..Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique. ..
  5. Phinney H. "Rice is essential but tiresome; you should get some noodles": Doi Moi and the political economy of men's extramarital sexual relations and marital HIV risk in Hanoi, Vietnam. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men's opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk. ..
  6. Ali M, Cleland J. The link between postnatal abstinence and extramarital sex in Côte d'Ivoire. Stud Fam Plann. 2001;32:214-9 pubmed
    ..The results confirm the earlier findings for Benin and can likely be generalized to most of West Africa. ..
  7. Raj A, Saggurti N, Battala M, Nair S, Dasgupta A, Naik D, et al. Randomized controlled trial to test the RHANI Wives HIV intervention for women in India at risk for HIV from husbands. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:3066-80 pubmed publisher
    ..83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. ..
  8. Hill S, Delpriore D. (Not) bringing up baby: the effects of jealousy on the desire to have and invest in children. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013;39:206-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide novel empirical support for the hypothesis that jealousy functions to attenuate the reproductive costs associated with partner infidelity. ..
  9. Evans T. The other woman and her child: extra-marital affairs and illegitimacy in twentieth-century Britain. Womens Hist Rev. 2011;20:47-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It suggests that the prevalence of illicit unions throughout the twentieth century and before allows us to question contemporary concerns about our supposed 'divorcing society' and the decline of family life in modern Britain. ..
  10. Gisselquist D. Unanswered questions about sexual transmission of HIV in Mwanza, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32:349-51; author reply 351 pubmed
  11. Whisman M, Wagers T. Assessing relationship betrayals. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61:1383-91 pubmed
    ..We illustrate with case vignettes the assessment and treatment of betrayals in close relationships. ..
  12. Sonfield A, Gold R. States' implementation of the Section 510 abstinence education program, FY 1999. Fam Plann Perspect. 2001;33:166-71 pubmed
    ..Most also left definitions of "abstinence" and "sexual activity" as local decisions, thus not clearly articulating what the program is designed to encourage clients to abstain from. ..
  13. Schensul S, Mekki Berrada A, Nastasi B, Singh R, Burleson J, Bojko M. Men's extramarital sex, marital relationships and sexual risk in urban poor communities in India. J Urban Health. 2006;83:614-24 pubmed
    ..These results confirm the need to move from the individual to the couple as the unit of research and the need for intervention to reduce the risk of HIV/STI transmission within marriage both in India and internationally. ..
  14. Schubert C. Psychological well-being and ill-being and their biological correlates: additional findings from an integrative single-case study. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76:252-3 pubmed
  15. Roberts S, Winters J. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70902 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories. ..
  16. Garver Apgar C, Gangestad S, Thornhill R, Miller R, Olp J. Major histocompatibility complex alleles, sexual responsivity, and unfaithfulness in romantic couples. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:830-5 pubmed
  17. Gadit A, Patel S. Karo-Kari: disturbed psyche or wild ego?. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007;57:112-3 pubmed
  18. Oyediran K, Isiugo Abanihe U, Feyisetan B, Ishola G. Prevalence of and factors associated with extramarital sex among Nigerian men. Am J Mens Health. 2010;4:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..And, because of gender-based power imbalances within the family, a large number of the women are unable to negotiate consistent condom use by their partners. ..
  19. Klapilova K, Cobey K, Wells T, Roberts S, Weiss P, Havlicek J. Current hormonal contraceptive use predicts female extra-pair and dyadic sexual behavior: evidence based on Czech National Survey data. Evol Psychol. 2014;12:36-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability. ..
  20. Miller M, Kummerow A, Mgutshini T. Othello syndrome. Preventing a tragedy when treating patients with delusional disorders. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2010;48:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Staff development for the treatment team is advocated to help staff identify delusional patients and act prudently to avert possible tragic consequences associated with Othello syndrome. ..
  21. Hernández Rosete D, García O, Bernal E, Castaneda X, Lemp G. [Migration and ruralization of AIDS: reports on vulnerability of indigenous communities in Mexico]. Rev Saude Publica. 2008;42:131-8 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to develop prevention campaigns against STI/HIV taking into account male sexual identities to improve women rights to sexual and reproductive health. ..
  22. Kalipeni E, Ghosh J. Concern and practice among men about HIV/AIDS in low socioeconomic income areas of Lilongwe, Malawi. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64:1116-27 pubmed
  23. McIntyre M, Gangestad S, Gray P, Chapman J, Burnham T, O Rourke M, et al. Romantic involvement often reduces men's testosterone levels--but not always: the moderating role of extrapair sexual interest. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;91:642-51 pubmed
    ..Both studies found support for it. These results have implications for an understanding of the biosocial regulation of men's behavior in romantic relationships. ..
  24. Wichowicz H, Cubała W, Grabowski K. [Opinions on the subject of sex life among students of the Medical University in Gda?sk]. Psychiatr Pol. 2006;40:153-64 pubmed
    ..Adultery is viewed negatively, as harm done to the partner. Students perceive masturbation as something pleasant and as an alternative form of sexual activity, however there is a wide spectrum of negative attitudes towards it. ..
  25. Check E. Jefferson's descendants continue to deny slave link. Nature. 2002;417:213 pubmed
  26. Snyder D, Doss B. Treating infidelity: clinical and ethical directions. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61:1453-65 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss therapists' need to concretely articulate their values that influence treatment of infidelity. ..
  27. Lottin A. [The complaint of separated women]. Hist Econ Soc. 2002;21:173-80 pubmed
  28. Bracher M, Santow G, Watkins S. Assessing the potential of condom use to prevent the spread of HIV: a microsimulation study. Stud Fam Plann. 2004;35:48-64 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate profound effects of consistent condom use and of condom use prompted by symptomatic STDs. ..
  29. Rosenbaum M, Daunt K, Jiang A. Craigslist exposed: the Internet-mediated hookup. J Homosex. 2013;60:505-31 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The authors show the extent to which married men solicit responses to 6 different advertisements for sexual encounters that range from safe to high risk. ..
  30. Neighbors C, O LEARY A. Responses of male inmates to primary partner requests for condom use: effects of message content and domestic violence history. AIDS Educ Prev. 2003;15:93-108 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that creative strategies that do not call into question the fidelity or commitment of either partner may be more effective in getting men to use condoms and/or to not react violently. ..
  31. Conley T, Ziegler A, Moors A, Matsick J, Valentine B. A critical examination of popular assumptions about the benefits and outcomes of monogamous relationships. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2013;17:124-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for theories of close relationships are discussed. ..
  32. Hertlein K, Piercy F. Essential elements of Internet infidelity treatment. J Marital Fam Ther. 2012;38 Suppl 1:257-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications and future research are discussed. ..
  33. Arora P, Nagelkerke N, Sgaier S, Kumar R, Dhingra N, Jha P. HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis among married couples in India: patterns of discordance and concordance. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..0%). Male sexual activity outside of marriage appears to be a driving force for the Indian HIV/STI epidemic. Male client and female sex worker contacts should remain a primary target of the National AIDS Control Program in India. ..
  34. de Walque D, Kline R. Variations in condom use by type of partner in 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42:1-10 pubmed
    ..These findings about high-risk behaviors can be used to better target future HIV-transmission-prevention efforts. ..
  35. Mitsunaga T, Powell A, Heard N, Larsen U. Extramarital sex among Nigerian men: polygyny and other risk factors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:478-88 pubmed
    ..Given the heterogeneity within Nigeria, further in-depth studies should be undertaken to explore the relation between number of wives, peri- and postpartum abstinence, and extramarital sex within specific communities. ..
  36. Benefo K. Determinants of Zambian men's extra-marital sex: a multi-level analysis. Arch Sex Behav. 2008;37:517-29 pubmed
    ..These results show that scholars trying to understand the motivations for extra-marital sex must pay attention to the characteristics of both individuals and communities. ..
  37. Mills S. The political economy of men's HIV risk in Vietnam and intervention choices. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:1734-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Bellis M, Hughes K, Hughes S, Ashton J. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59:749-54 pubmed
  39. Fung C, Wong W, Tam M. Familial and extramarital relations among truck drivers crossing the Hong Kong-China border. J Sex Marital Ther. 2009;35:239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, extramarital relationships were related to poor marital relationships. Further study may help to nourish information and opinions regarding the interaction between the job nature and the family relationship. ..
  40. Slaymaker E, Buckner B. Monitoring trends in sexual behaviour in Zambia, 1996-2003. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80 Suppl 2:ii85-90 pubmed
    ..Different survey methods produce significantly different estimates of sexual behaviour. This must be taken into account when carrying out trend analyses using data from different sources. ..
  41. Buss D, Haselton M. The evolution of jealousy. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005;9:506-7; author reply 508-10 pubmed
  42. Stewart D, Rose R, Rosales F, Rudney P, Lehner T, Miltich G, et al. The value of outside support for male and female politicians involved in a political sex scandal. J Soc Psychol. 2013;153:375-94 pubmed
    ..We also found that male respondents gave more negative evaluations of the female governor than female respondents. Implications for the gender stereotype and social influence literatures are discussed. ..
  43. Patel S, Gadit A. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan. Transcult Psychiatry. 2008;45:683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. ..
  44. Chowdhury M, Alam N, Anwar I, Ahmed A, Saidel T, Mallick P, et al. Assessment of non-marital sexual behaviours of men in Bangladesh: a methodological experiment using a modified confidential ballot-box method. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:e13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The MBBM is more effective than the FTFI method in eliciting higher responses rates of non-marital sexual contacts and may be recommended for reliable estimates of sexual behaviours. ..
  45. Harris C. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2003;7:102-28 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective. ..
  46. Mbago M, Sichona F. Determinants of extramarital sex by men in Tanzania: a case study of Mbeya region. SAHARA J. 2010;7:33-8 pubmed
    ..The effect of these variables was tested through a multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the four independent variables were found to be statistically significant predictors of extramarital sex in Mbeya region. ..
  47. Varma D, Chandra P, Callahan C, Reich W, Cottler L. Perceptions of HIV risk among monogamous wives of alcoholic men in South India: a qualitative study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19:815-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study indicate a critical need to develop culturally relevant HIV prevention programs directly targeted to wives that equip them with effective skills to negotiate safer sex behaviors with their spouses. ..
  48. Chirwa E, Malata A, Norr K. HIV prevention awareness and practices among married couples in Malawi. Malawi Med J. 2011;23:32-7 pubmed
    ..There is a need to target couples as units of intervention in the adoption of HIV prevention methods by rural communities. ..
  49. Lusterman D. Helping children and adults cope with parental infidelity. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61:1439-51 pubmed
    ..Four clinical cases illustrate therapeutic interventions for children suffering from their parent's infidelity. ..
  50. Vandello J, Cohen D. Male honor and female fidelity: implicit cultural scripts that perpetuate domestic violence. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84:997-1010 pubmed
    ..Study 2 involved southern Anglo, Latino, and northern Anglo participants witnessing a "live" incident of aggression against a woman (actually a confederate) and subsequently interacting with her. ..
  51. Stephenson R. Community-level gender equity and extramarital sexual risk-taking among married men in eight African countries. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2010;36:178-88 pubmed publisher
  52. Becker S, Costenbader E. Husbands' and wives' reports of contraceptive use. Stud Fam Plann. 2001;32:111-29 pubmed
    ..Logistic regression results show that spousal discussion about family planning and greater female education are consistent predictors of concurrence. ..
  53. Gordon K, Baucom D. Understanding betrayals in marriage: a synthesized model of forgiveness. Fam Process. 1998;37:425-49 pubmed
    ..Implications for marital therapy also are discussed. ..