Summary: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.

Top Publications

  1. Wood W, Tam L, Witt M. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005;88:918-933 pubmed publisher
    ..When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted...
  2. Everitt B, Robbins T. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1481-9 pubmed
    ..These neural transitions may themselves depend on the neuroplasticity in both cortical and striatal structures that is induced by chronic self-administration of drugs. ..
  3. Graybiel A. Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008;31:359-87 pubmed publisher
    Scientists in many different fields have been attracted to the study of habits because of the power habits have over behavior and because they invoke a dichotomy between the conscious, voluntary control over behavior, considered the ..
  4. Norman P. The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: assessing the impact of habit strength. Addict Behav. 2011;36:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g., perceived positive and negative consequences) of binge drinking as well as the environmental factors (i.e., contextual cues) that promote binge drinking. ..
  5. Gardner B, Abraham C, Lally P, de Bruijn G. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:102 pubmed publisher
    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity...
  6. Solway A, Botvinick M. Goal-directed decision making as probabilistic inference: a computational framework and potential neural correlates. Psychol Rev. 2012;119:120-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the relationship between the proposed framework and other models of decision making, including recent models of perceptual choice, to which our theory bears a direct connection. ..
  7. de Wit S, Standing H, DeVito E, Robinson O, Ridderinkhof K, Robbins T, et al. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus-response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action...
  8. Norman P, Cooper Y. The theory of planned behaviour and breast self-examination: assessing the impact of past behaviour, context stability and habit strength. Psychol Health. 2011;26:1156-72 pubmed publisher
  9. Gardner B, de Bruijn G, Lally P. Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students. Br J Health Psychol. 2012;17:565-81 pubmed publisher
    Repeated action can lead to the formation of habits and identification as 'the kind of person' that performs the behaviour. This has led to the suggestion that identity-relevance is a facet of habit...

More Information


  1. de Bruijn G, Gardner B. Active commuting and habit strength: an interactive and discriminant analyses approach. Am J Health Promot. 2011;25:e27-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Habits may be a mechanism linking environmental variables with active commuting...
  2. Gillan C, Papmeyer M, Morein Zamir S, Sahakian B, Fineberg N, Robbins T, et al. Disruption in the balance between goal-directed behavior and habit learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..patients were more prone to slips of action, indicating a deficit in goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in flexible and goal-directed ..
  3. Gardner B, de Bruijn G, Lally P. A systematic review and meta-analysis of applications of the Self-Report Habit Index to nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Ann Behav Med. 2011;42:174-87 pubmed publisher
    ..46). Eight tests found that habit moderated the intention-behaviour relation. More comprehensive understanding of nutrition and activity behaviours will be achieved by accounting for habitual responses to contextual cues. ..
  4. Smith K, Graybiel A. Using optogenetics to study habits. Brain Res. 2013;1511:102-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Even for those concerned with complex phenomena, such as behavioral habits and flexibility, signs are that we could be on the threshold of a leap in scientific understanding. Here...
  5. Lally P, Wardle J, Gardner B. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study. Psychol Health Med. 2011;16:484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts...
  6. Nelson A, Killcross S. Amphetamine exposure enhances habit formation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3805-12 pubmed
    ..in reward value, but after more extended training, behavior comes to be controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits that are no longer goal directed...
  7. Millman R. Excessive sleepiness in adolescents and young adults: causes, consequences, and treatment strategies. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1774-86 pubmed
  8. Bolman C, Arwert T, Völlink T. Adherence to prophylactic asthma medication: habit strength and cognitions. Heart Lung. 2011;40:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between social norms and adherence was moderated by habit: In the case of weak habits, a supportive norm in a patient's environment toward taking PAM was positively related to PAM adherence; in the ..
  9. de Bruijn G, van den Putte B. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Appetite. 2009;53:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions.
  10. de Wit S, Dickinson A. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models. Psychol Res. 2009;73:463-76 pubmed publisher
  11. Schwabe L, Wolf O. Socially evaluated cold pressor stress after instrumental learning favors habits over goal-directed action. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that stress induced by the socially evaluated cold pressor test can make behavior habitual without affecting processes involved in learning. ..
  12. de Wit S, Barker R, Dickinson A, Cools R. Habitual versus goal-directed action control in Parkinson disease. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:1218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..If anything our results suggest a disease severity-dependent deficit in goal-directed behavior. These results are discussed in the context of Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of habitual and goal-directed behavior. ..
  13. Balleine B, O Doherty J. Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual action. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:48-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The neural basis of the integration of learning and motivation in choice and decision-making is still controversial and we review some recent hypotheses relating to this issue. ..
  14. Shaki S, Fischer M, Petrusic W. Reading habits for both words and numbers contribute to the SNARC effect. Psychon Bull Rev. 2009;16:328-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that reading habits for both words and numbers contribute to the spatial representation of numbers.
  15. Orbell S, Verplanken B. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity. Health Psychol. 2010;29:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI)...
  16. Wickens J, Horvitz J, Costa R, Killcross S. Dopaminergic mechanisms in actions and habits. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8181-3 pubmed
    ..The locus of these actions within the cortical and corticostriatal circuitry is a focus on ongoing research. ..
  17. Hinsz V, Nickell G, Park E. The role of work habits in the motivation of food safety behaviors. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2007;13:105-14 pubmed
    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior...
  18. Faure A, Haberland U, Conde F, el Massioui N. Lesion to the nigrostriatal dopamine system disrupts stimulus-response habit formation. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2771-80 pubmed
    ..In dopamine-depleted rats, lever press and chain pull remained sensitive to reward devaluation, evidencing a role of striatal dopamine transmission in habit formation. ..
  19. Schwabe L, Wolf O. Stress prompts habit behavior in humans. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, stress reduced subjects' explicit knowledge of the action-outcome contingencies. These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.
  20. Evans D, Lewis M, Iobst E. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in normally developing compulsive-like behaviors and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain Cogn. 2004;55:220-34 pubmed
    ..In making these comparisons, we hope to open a dialogue between researchers who study underlying brain pathologies associated with OCD and those who explore the neurocognitive bases of normal development. ..
  21. Rochette A, Korner Bitensky N, Thomas A. Changing clinicians' habits: is this the hidden challenge to increasing best practices?. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31:1790-4 pubmed publisher
    ..As rehabilitation clinicians, we are potentially blocked in our uptake of best practices by our habits. Although habits are often comfortable, and change is less so, we need to move away from our comfort zone if we ..
  22. Steinglass J, Walsh B. Habit learning and anorexia nervosa: a cognitive neuroscience hypothesis. Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39:267-75 pubmed
    ..Research on such neurocognitive disturbances has the potential both to inform understanding of neural mechanisms underlying AN and to lead to advances in treatment. ..
  23. Verplanken B. Beyond frequency: habit as mental construct. Br J Soc Psychol. 2006;45:639-56 pubmed
    ..was investigated in three studies using a longitudinal, cross-sectional and experimental design on eating, mental habits and word processing, respectively...
  24. Fischer M. Finger counting habits modulate spatial-numerical associations. Cortex. 2008;44:386-92 pubmed publisher
    This study explored the contribution of finger counting habits to the association of numbers with space (the SNARC effect)...
  25. Yin H, Knowlton B. The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7:464-76 pubmed
    ..How are goal-directed actions transformed into habitual responses? Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation. ..
  26. Dias Ferreira E, Sousa J, Melo I, Morgado P, Mesquita A, Cerqueira J, et al. Chronic stress causes frontostriatal reorganization and affects decision-making. Science. 2009;325:621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the relative advantage of circuits coursing through sensorimotor striatum observed after chronic stress leads to a bias in behavioral strategies toward habit. ..
  27. Hitchcott P, Quinn J, Taylor J. Bidirectional modulation of goal-directed actions by prefrontal cortical dopamine. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2820-7 pubmed
    ..Such insensitivity to changes in outcome value is a defining characteristic of instrumental habits: responses that are controlled by antecedent stimuli rather than goal expectancy...
  28. Verplanken B, Friborg O, Wang C, Trafimow D, Woolf K. Mental habits: metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007;92:526-41 pubmed
    ..The results support the assumption that metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking as mental habit may play an important role in self-evaluative processes. ..
  29. Kremers S, Brug J. Habit strength of physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2008;20:5-14; discussion 14-7 pubmed
    ..The study provides early evidence to support the concept of habit as being important in dealing with physical activity in children. ..
  30. Verplanken B, Velsvik R. Habitual negative body image thinking as psychological risk factor in adolescents. Body Image. 2008;5:133-40 pubmed publisher
  31. Rangel A, Camerer C, Montague P. A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:545-56 pubmed publisher
  32. Rhodes R, de Bruijn G. Automatic and motivational correlates of physical activity: does intensity moderate the relationship?. Behav Med. 2010;36:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the moderate intensity condition, individuals who reported higher habits showed a lower intention-behavior relationship when compared with those who reported modest or low habits...
  33. Rhodes R, de Bruijn G, Matheson D. Habit in the physical activity domain: integration with intention temporal stability and action control. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2010;32:84-98 pubmed
    ..The results support the notion that some properties of physical activity may have an automatic component and that habits may be important to physical activity action control.
  34. Tricomi E, Balleine B, O Doherty J. A specific role for posterior dorsolateral striatum in human habit learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2225-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Habits are characterized by an insensitivity to their consequences and, as such, can be distinguished from goal-directed actions...
  35. Hsu C, Kwan G, Chawla A, Mitina N, Christie D. Smoking habits of radiotherapy patients: did the diagnosis of cancer make an impact and is there an opportunity to intervene?. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2011;55:526-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on smoking habits in patients receiving radiotherapy and assess the opportunity to intervene. One hundred consecutive patients were interviewed...
  36. Lukavska K, Hrabec O, Chrz V. The Role of Habits in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Usage: Predicting Excessive and Problematic Gaming Through Players' Sensitivity to Situational Cues. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2016;19:277-82 pubmed publisher
  37. Andringa T, Weber M, Payne S, Krijnders J, Dixon M, v d Linden R, et al. Positioning soundscape research and management. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;134:2739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..or more generally a good sensescape, is at the same time pleasant as well as conducive for the adoption of healthy habits. To maintain or improve sensescape quality, urban planning needs improved design tools that allow for a more ..
  38. Quinn J, Pittenger C, Lee A, Pierson J, Taylor J. Striatum-dependent habits are insensitive to both increases and decreases in reinforcer value in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Habits form following extensive training and are characterized by reduced sensitivity of instrumental responding to ..
  39. Gilaberte Y, Aguilera J, Carrascosa J, Figueroa F, Romaní de Gabriel J, Nagore E. [Vitamin D: evidence and controversies]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2011;102:572-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A healthful approach combines moderate sun exposure, adequate food sources of the vitamin, and supplements whenever required. ..
  40. Yates R, Edwards K, King J, Luzón O, Evangeli M, Stark D, et al. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial. Behav Res Ther. 2016;80:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed. ..
  41. Majorana A, Bardellini E, Amadori F, Conti G, Polimeni A. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood--developing dentition and oral habits: a current opinion. Prog Orthod. 2015;16:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Early interception of oral habits may be an important step in order to prevent occlusal disturbances in children...
  42. Sucakli M, Kahraman H, Altunoren O, Celik M, Sayarlioglu H, Dogan E. Evaluation of knowledge and behavior of and attitudes towards smoking cigarettes and using smokeless tobacco in patients with chronic renal failure. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:2129-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Education programs should be conducted to prevent people from using smokeless tobacco and to help smokeless tobacco users to quit their habit. ..
  43. Nilsen P, Roback K, Broström A, Ellström P. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change. Implement Sci. 2012;7:53 pubmed publisher
    ..an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved ..
  44. Aishworiya R, Chan P, Kiing J, Chong S, Laino A, Tay S. Sleep behaviour in a sample of preschool children in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2012;41:99-104 pubmed
    ..The questionnaire was based on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), a validated parent-report sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying ..
  45. Muchnik C, Amir N, Shabtai E, Kaplan Neeman R. Preferred listening levels of personal listening devices in young teenagers: self reports and physical measurements. Int J Audiol. 2012;51:287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The study included two parts: (1) A self-report questionnaire on music listening habits, and (2) Physical measurements of preferred listening levels, in quiet and in everyday background noise...
  46. Pereira L, Pereira Cenci T, Del Bel Cury A, Pereira S, Pereira A, Ambosano G, et al. Risk indicators of temporomandibular disorder incidences in early adolescence. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32:324-8 pubmed
    ..purpose of this paper was to verify the influence of gender, mother's gestational behavior, malocclusion, and oral habits as risk indicators for TMD in 12-year-old adolescents...
  47. Jager T. Bad habits die hard: the NOEC's persistence reflects poorly on ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:228-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Pasco J, Jacka F, Williams L, Brennan S, Leslie E, Berk M. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011;45:1047-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association. ..
  49. Ikeda H, Hanakita J, Takahashi T, Kuraishi K, Watanabe M. Nontraumatic cervical disc herniation in a 21-year-old patient with no other underlying disease. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52:652-6 pubmed
    ..Hypermobility due to neck cracking and a relatively narrow spinal canal might have been important in causing cervical myelopathy by disc herniation. ..
  50. Conroy D, Maher J, Elavsky S, Hyde A, Doerksen S. Sedentary behavior as a daily process regulated by habits and intentions. Health Psychol. 2013;32:1149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..designed to test a dual-process model of daily sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on the role of intentions and habits in regulating daily sedentary behavior...
  51. Motta L, Guedes C, De Santis T, Fernandes K, Mesquita Ferrari R, Bussadori S. Association between parafunctional habits and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction among adolescents. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11:3-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine associations between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and harmful oral habits. Two hundred forty-four adolescents from a public school in the city of São Roque, Brazil, were evaluated...
  52. Cain M, Mitroff S. Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception. 2011;40:1183-92 pubmed
  53. Soffin E, Waldman S, Stack R, Liguori G. An Evidence-Based Approach to the Prescription Opioid Epidemic in Orthopedic Surgery. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:1704-1713 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical and regulatory aspects; (4) the development of surgery-specific prescribing recommendations for opioid-naive patients; and (5) mechanisms to modify prescribing habits to limit unnecessary prescribing of controlled substances.