Summary: Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.

Top Publications

  1. Mittenberg W, Patton C, Canyock E, Condit D. Base rates of malingering and symptom exaggeration. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2002;24:1094-102 pubmed
    Base rates of probable malingering and symptom exaggeration are reported from a survey of the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology membership. Estimates were based on 33,531 annual cases involved in personal injury, (n = 6,371)...
  2. Mallinson A, Longridge N. A new set of criteria for evaluating malingering in work-related vestibular injury. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:686-90 pubmed
    ..Results of all three methods were compared to determine the effectiveness of each one in detecting malingering behavior. Our nine-point protocol was effective in assessing patients in a consistent manner...
  3. Millis S, Volinsky C. Assessment of response bias in mild head injury: beyond malingering tests. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:809-28 pubmed
    The evaluation of response bias and malingering in the cases of mild head injury should not rely on a single test...
  4. van Beilen M, Griffioen B, Gross A, Leenders K. Psychological assessment of malingering in psychogenic neurological disorders and non-psychogenic neurological disorders: relationship to psychopathology levels. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:1118-23 pubmed publisher
    It remains unknown whether psychological distress causes malingering in patients with psychogenic symptoms...
  5. Rogers R, Payne J, Berry D, Granacher R. Use of the SIRS in compensation cases: an examination of its validity and generalizability. Law Hum Behav. 2009;33:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the usefulness of the SIRS improbable failure-revised (IF-R) scale was tested as a FCI screen. Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen. ..
  6. Ortega A, Wagenmakers E, Lee M, Markowitsch H, Piefke M. A Bayesian latent group analysis for detecting poor effort in the assessment of malingering. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;27:453-65 pubmed publisher
    Despite their theoretical appeal, Bayesian methods for the assessment of poor effort and malingering are still rarely used in neuropsychological research and clinical diagnosis...
  7. Graue L, Berry D, Clark J, Sollman M, Cardi M, Hopkins J, et al. Identification of feigned mental retardation using the new generation of malingering detection instruments: preliminary findings. Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;21:929-42 pubmed
    ..WAIS-III and psychiatric malingering measures were relatively ineffective at discriminating feigned from genuine MR...
  8. Pella R, Hill B, Shelton J, Elliott E, Gouvier W. Evaluation of embedded malingering indices in a non-litigating clinical sample using control, clinical, and derived groups. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;27:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of validity indices in this population and to provide base rates for students meeting research criteria for malingering and to report the relationship between testing performance and the level of external incentive...
  9. Gundogan F, Sobaci G, Bayer A. Pattern visual evoked potentials in the assessment of visual acuity in malingering. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2332-7 pubmed
    ..value of pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) testing with 5 consecutive check-size patterns in presumably malingering draftees. Case-control study...

More Information


  1. Walters G, Rogers R, Berry D, Miller H, Duncan S, McCusker P, et al. Malingering as a categorical or dimensional construct: the latent structure of feigned psychopathology as measured by the SIRS and MMPI-2. Psychol Assess. 2008;20:238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..that feigned psychopathology forms a dimension (levels of fabrication or exaggeration) rather than a taxon (malingering-honest dichotomy) and that malingering is a quantitative distinction rather than a qualitative one...
  2. Robinson K, Monsivais J. Malingering? No evidence in a predominantly Hispanic workers' compensation population with chronic pain. Pain Manag Nurs. 2011;12:33-40 pubmed publisher
    Providers suspect malingering when patients seek compensation for injury or when pain is unconfirmed via objective evidence, judged disproportionate to the cause, or recalcitrant to treatment...
  3. Jenkins K, Kapur N, Kopelman M. Retrograde amnesia and malingering. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review explores studies relevant to extending the malingering paradigm to retrograde amnesia...
  4. Heitger M, Jones R, MacLeod A, Snell D, Frampton C, Anderson T. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability. Brain. 2009;132:2850-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Measurement of oculomotor function may be of value in PCS cases with a high symptom load but an otherwise unremarkable assessment profile. Routine oculomotor testing should be feasible in centres with existing access to this technology...
  5. Buckley T, Galovski T, Blanchard E, Hickling E. Is the emotional Stroop paradigm sensitive to malingering? A between-groups study with professional actors and actual trauma survivors. J Trauma Stress. 2003;16:59-66 pubmed feign PTSD, were covertly enrolled into a treatment outcome study for PTSD with the aim of investigating malingering. During pretreatment assessment, individuals completed an emotional Stroop task...
  6. Langeluddecke P, Lucas S. Quantitative measures of memory malingering on the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third edition in mild head injury litigants. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;18:181-97 pubmed
    ..Using the minimum score returned in the nonmalingerers as the cut-off for malingering, the delayed auditory recognition memory tasks were highly effective in detecting malingering...
  7. Suhr J, Gunstad J, Greub B, Barrash J. Exaggeration index for an expanded version of the auditory verbal learning test: robustness to coaching. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004;26:416-27 pubmed
    ..a recently developed effort detection instrument based on patterns of performance on the AVLT using a simulated malingering paradigm...
  8. Lynch W. Determination of effort level, exaggeration, and malingering in neurocognitive assessment. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2004;19:277-83 pubmed
    ..the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB), Portland Digit Recognition Test (PDRT), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), and Word Memory Test (WMT)...
  9. Brennan A, Gouvier W. Are we honestly studying malingering? A profile and comparison of simulated and suspected malingerers. Appl Neuropsychol. 2006;13:1-11 pubmed
    b>Malingering research typically uses analog simulation design or differential prevalence design among "real" patients. Both have been criticized for methodological limitations in external and internal validity, respectively...
  10. McCusker P, Moran M, Serfass L, Peterson K. Comparability of the MMPI-2 F(p) and F scales and the SIRS in clinical use with suspected malingerers. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2003;47:585-96 pubmed
    ..Despite differences between facilities in terms of seriousness of subjects' offenses, mean scores on the malingering tests were similar...
  11. Greer S, Chambliss L, Mackler L, Huber T. Clinical inquiries. What physical exam techniques are useful to detect malingering?. J Fam Pract. 2005;54:719-22 pubmed
  12. Slick D, Hinkin C, van Gorp W, Satz P. Base rate of a WMS-R malingering index in a sample of non-compensation-seeking men infected with HIV-1. Appl Neuropsychol. 2001;8:185-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner (1993) proposed a malingering index score for the WechslerMemoryScale-Revised that is derived by subtracting the Attention/Concentration ..
  13. Powell M, Gfeller J, Hendricks B, Sharland M. Detecting symptom- and test-coached simulators with the test of memory malingering. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19:693-702 pubmed
    The ability of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996) to detect feigned-memory impairment was explored...
  14. Langeluddecke P, Lucas S. WMS-III findings in litigants following moderate to extremely severe brain trauma. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005;27:576-90 pubmed
    ..The revised Tulsky indexes are no more sensitive to the effects of TBI than the original ones. Differences between WMS-III memory indexes are unlikely to be of diagnostic utility although memory-intelligence discrepancies may be. ..
  15. Kefalas S, Ezenkwele U. Wide-complex tachycardia as the presenting complaint in a case of malingering. J Emerg Med. 2006;30:159-61 pubmed
    Fabrications of lethal dysrhythmias are an extremely rare manifestation of malingering, with only one case described more than two decades ago...
  16. Brand B, McNary S, Loewenstein R, Kolos A, Barr S. Assessment of genuine and simulated dissociative identity disorder on the structured interview of reported symptoms. J Trauma Dissociation. 2006;7:63-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, many DID patients may be at risk for being inaccurately labeled as feigning on the SIRS. ..
  17. Nelson N, Sweet J, Heilbronner R. Examination of the new MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (Gervais): relationship with MMPI-2 validity scales. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007;29:67-72 pubmed
    ..Findings provide preliminary support for use of RBS within the forensic context. ..
  18. Merten T, Green P, Henry M, Blaskewitz N, Brockhaus R. Analog validation of German-language symptom validity tests and the influence of coaching. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;20:719-26 pubmed
    ..Although the ASTM and the MSVT were identified by a number of subjects as possible effort measures, both tests obtained very good results within this analog design. ..
  19. Bauer L, McCaffrey R. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;21:121-6 pubmed
    ..Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test...
  20. Teichner G, Wagner M. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM): normative data from cognitively intact, cognitively impaired, and elderly patients with dementia. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19:455-64 pubmed
    This research adds to the psychometric validation of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) by providing data for samples of elderly patients who are cognitively intact, cognitively impaired (non-dementia), and with dementia...
  21. Glassmire D, Bierley R, Wisniewski A, Greene R, Kennedy J, Date E. Using the WMS-III faces subtest to detect malingered memory impairment. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:465-81 pubmed
    The current study evaluated the utility of the WMS-III Faces I subtest (Faces) for the assessment of malingering. Thirty nonlitigating traumatic brain injury patients and 30 control participants were administered Faces under standard ..
  22. Hallett M. Psychogenic movement disorders: a crisis for neurology. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:269-71 pubmed
  23. Archer R, Buffington Vollum J, Stredny R, Handel R. A survey of psychological test use patterns among forensic psychologists. J Pers Assess. 2006;87:84-94 pubmed offender risk assessment instruments, competency or sanity-related instruments, and instruments used to evaluate malingering. In addition, we provide findings for psychological testing involving child-related forensic issues.
  24. Iverson G. Ethical issues associated with the assessment of exaggeration, poor effort, and malingering. Appl Neuropsychol. 2006;13:77-90 pubmed
    ..However, it is clear that there are numerous ethical issues and considerations associated with the assessment of exaggeration, poor effort, and malingering. Many of these issues are discussed, and recommendations are provided.
  25. Hall R, Hall R. Malingering of PTSD: forensic and diagnostic considerations, characteristics of malingerers and clinical presentations. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2006;28:525-35 pubmed
    This paper aims to study the detection of individuals malingering posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in criminal and civil situations. A brief history of PTSD and its rise to prominence in legal circles are discussed...
  26. Kurtz D, White T, Hornung D, Belknap E. What a tangled web we weave: discriminating between malingering and anosmia. Chem Senses. 1999;24:697-700 pubmed
    ..Subjects were given explicit details about the test performed at the same level as those simply told to feign a loss. These results suggest that the OCM is an effective tool in separating malingering from anosmia.
  27. Edens J, Buffington J, Tomicic T. An investigation of the relationship between psychopathic traits and malingering on the psychopathic personality inventory. Assessment. 2000;7:281-96 pubmed
    This study employed a repeated-measures simulation design to examine (a) the specific effects of malingering on a recently developed measure of psychopathy, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), and (b) the broader association ..
  28. Merten T, Bossink L, Schmand B. On the limits of effort testing: symptom validity tests and severity of neurocognitive symptoms in nonlitigant patients. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007;29:308-18 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive test battery was employed, which included four SVTs (the Test of Memory Malingering, TOMM, the Word Memory Test, WMT, the Bremer Symptomvalidierung, BSV, and the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test, ..
  29. Vitacco M, Rogers R, Gabel J, Munizza J. An evaluation of malingering screens with competency to stand trial patients: a known-groups comparison. Law Hum Behav. 2007;31:249-60 pubmed
    The assessment of malingering is a fundamental component of forensic evaluations that should be considered with each referral...
  30. Haines M, Norris M. Comparing student and patient simulated malingerers' performance on standard neuropsychological measures to detect feigned cognitive deficits. Clin Neuropsychol. 2001;15:171-82 pubmed
    Despite the proliferation of studies investigating methods for detecting malingering, important questions that remain unanswered...
  31. Jackson R, Rogers R, Sewell K. Forensic applications of the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (MFAST): screening for feigned disorders in competency to stand trial evaluations. Law Hum Behav. 2005;29:199-210 pubmed
    Forensic evaluations must systematically assess malingering and related response styles. In the criminal forensic domain, competency to stand trial evaluations are the most common referrals...
  32. Quinn C. Detection of malingering in assessment of adult ADHD. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;18:379-95 pubmed
    ..IVA CPT could not be faked on 81% of its scales. The CPT's impairment index results revealed: sensitivity 94%, specificity 91%, PPP 88%, NPP 95%. Results provide support for the inclusion of a CPT in assessment of adult ADHD. ..
  33. Mendelson G, Mendelson D. Malingering pain in the medicolegal context. Clin J Pain. 2004;20:423-32 pubmed
    b>Malingering--the willful, deliberate, and fraudulent feigning or exaggeration of illness--was originally described as a means of avoiding military service...
  34. Iverson G, Tulsky D. Detecting malingering on the WAIS-III. Unusual Digit Span performance patterns in the normal population and in clinical groups. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;18:1-9 pubmed
    ..Cut-off scores for suspecting negative response bias were proposed, and clinical case examples were used to illustrate these scores. ..
  35. Golnik K, Lee A, Eggenberger E. The monocular vertical prism dissociation test. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:135-7 pubmed
    ..The other 4 subjects in Group 3 saw one image; each was subsequently found to have occult pathology. The vertical prism test quickly differentiates organic from nonorganic monocular visual acuity loss. ..
  36. Guy L, Kwartner P, Miller H. Investigating the M-FAST: psychometric properties and utility to detect diagnostic specific malingering. Behav Sci Law. 2006;24:687-702 pubmed
    ..Lastly, given the importance of base rate considerations in the evaluation of diagnostic instruments, it was notable that the M-FAST was able to identify malingerers even at relatively low base rates. ..
  37. Poythress N, Edens J, Watkins M. The relationship between psychopathic personality features and malingering symptoms of major mental illness. Law Hum Behav. 2001;25:567-82 pubmed
    This study examined the relationship between psychopathy and malingering in a subsample of male prison inmates (n = 55) participating in a larger study of the clinical utility of various assessment measures in correctional settings...
  38. Barrash J, Suhr J, Manzel K. Detecting poor effort and malingering with an expanded version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLTX): validation with clinical samples. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004;26:125-40 pubmed
    Three studies describe the development and validation of a new procedure (AVLTX) to detect inadequate effort or malingering by adding 60-min delayed recall/recognition trials and identifying "impaired" memory performances that ..
  39. Slick D, Tan J, Strauss E, Hultsch D. Detecting malingering: a survey of experts' practices. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19:465-73 pubmed
    ..Approximately 79% of the respondents reported using at least one specialized technique for detecting malingering in every litigant assessment...
  40. Gass C, Odland A. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 revised form Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (MMPI-2-RF FBS-r; also known as Fake Bad Scale): psychometric characteristics in a nonlitigation neuropsychological setting. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the FBS-r produces ambiguous scores reflecting two underlying dimensions that warrant additional research. ..
  41. Baker D, Connery A, Kirk J, Kirkwood M. Embedded performance validity indicators within the California Verbal Learning Test, Children's Version. Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;28:116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Although only moderately sensitive, the RD score on the CVLT-C appears to have good utility in identifying noncredible effort in a relatively high-functioning pediatric mTBI population. ..
  42. Vetter S, Gallo W, Rossler W, Lupi G. The pattern of psychopathology associated with malingering tendencies at basic psychiatric screening of the Swiss Armed Forces. Mil Med. 2009;174:153-7 pubmed observe the pattern of psychopathology and addictive behavior for conscripts identified as those with malingering tendencies...
  43. Whitney K, Davis J, Shepard P, Bertram D, Adams K. Digit span age scaled score in middle-aged military veterans: is it more closely associated with TOMM failure than reliable digit span?. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;24:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..variables in detecting negative response bias, as defined by below cut-off performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), was examined among primarily middle-aged military veteran outpatients who were judged clinically to be ..
  44. Vonk J, Horlings C, Allum J. Differentiating malingering balance disorder patients from healthy controls, compensated unilateral vestibular loss, and whiplash patients using stance and gait posturography. Audiol Neurootol. 2010;15:261-72 pubmed publisher
    Differentiating balance disorder patients who are malingering from those with organic balance disorders is difficult and costly...
  45. Guo L, Cheng Z, Liu X. [The investigation of event-related brain potentials in malingered neurocognitive deficit]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:364-6, 373 pubmed
    ..previous experimental mode, results and effects of event-related potential (ERP) in detecting cognitive malingering. ERP technology can be highly sensitive and specific...
  46. Chan L, Winegard B. Attributes and behaviors associated with opioid seeking in the emergency department. J Opioid Manag. 2007;3:244-8 pubmed
    ..A prospective study should be performed so that all variables of interest can be thoroughly studied and a predictive model can be developed to differentiate patients with real pain from drug seekers. ..
  47. Gaines M, Giles C, Morgan R. The detection of feigning using multiple PAI scale elevations: a new index. Assessment. 2013;20:437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..MFI was compared with existing PAI feigning indices, Malingering (MAL), Negative Impression Management (NIM), and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF), using performance on the ..
  48. Chafetz M. The A-Test: a symptom validity indicator embedded within a mental status examination for Social Security Disability. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2012;19:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The A-Test can thus easily be used as a symptom validity measure in professional psychological examinations of Social Security claimants without additional cost or much added time to the evaluation. ..
  49. Guenther C, Otto R. Identifying persons feigning limitations in their competence to proceed in the legal process. Behav Sci Law. 2010;28:603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e., college students and psychiatric patients) who completed the measure under "honest" or "fake bad" conditions. ..
  50. Larrabee G. Commentary on Delis and Wetter, "Cogniform disorder and cogniform condition: proposed diagnoses for excessive cognitive symptoms". Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:683-7 pubmed
    ..or excessive for bona fide neurological, psychiatric or medical conditions, and that are not the product of malingering. The Cogniform criteria are considered in relation to the criteria for Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction (..
  51. Lebovits A. Physicians being deceived: whose responsibility?. Pain Med. 2007;8:441; author reply 447-8 pubmed
  52. Mehdizade J, Saedi B, Fotouhi R, Safavi A. A novel test to differentiate anosmic malingerers from actually anosmic patients. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26:485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..what they perceive, the test reliability will be questionable; this condition is potentially observable in malingering patients because of their financial or psychosocial incentives...
  53. Armistead Jehle P, Green P. Model for the effects of invalid styles of response. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2016;23:449-58 pubmed publisher