Summary: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.

Top Publications

  1. Warman D, Lysaker P. Delusional ideation and self-esteem in individuals with psychotic disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..with psychotic disorders (N = 30) completed a measure of delusional ideation and a measure of severity of delusions and also a measure of self-esteem...
  2. Gottlieb J, Cather C, Shanahan M, Creedon T, Macklin E, Goff D. D-cycloserine facilitation of cognitive behavioral therapy for delusions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011;131:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-one outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and moderately severe delusions were randomized in a double-blind cross-over design to receive a single-dose of either D-cycloserine 50mg or ..
  3. Ismail Z, Nguyen M, Fischer C, Schweizer T, Mulsant B, Mamo D. Neurobiology of delusions in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cognitive and functional impairment as well as neuropsychiatric sequelae, including psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. Strong evidence supports the need to study delusions separate from hallucinations...
  4. Compton M, Potts A, Wan C, Ionescu D. Which came first, delusions or hallucinations? An exploration of clinical differences among patients with first-episode psychosis based on patterns of emergence of positive symptoms. Psychiatry Res. 2012;200:702-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Some 159 well-characterized first-episode psychosis patients were categorized into those with: (1) delusions only (n=29, 18.2%); (2) delusions that emerged at least 1 month before hallucinations (n=31, 19...
  5. So S, Freeman D, Dunn G, Kapur S, Kuipers E, Bebbington P, et al. Jumping to conclusions, a lack of belief flexibility and delusional conviction in psychosis: a longitudinal investigation of the structure, frequency, and relatedness of reasoning biases. J Abnorm Psychol. 2012;121:129-139 pubmed publisher
    ..Two reasoning biases, jumping to conclusions (JTC) and belief inflexibility, have been found to be associated with delusions. We examined these biases and their relationship with delusional conviction in a longitudinal cohort of people ..
  6. Freeman D. Improving cognitive treatments for delusions. Schizophr Res. 2011;132:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These therapies now lag behind the transformation over the past ten years in understanding the causes of delusions. This paper advocates an interventionist-causal model approach: to focus on one putative causal factor at a time,..
  7. Saha S, Scott J, Varghese D, McGrath J. Socio-economic disadvantage and delusional-like experiences: a nationwide population-based study. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..DLE are associated with socio-economic disadvantage in the general population. We speculate that the link between socio-economic disadvantage and DLE may be mediated by psychosocial stress and general psychological distress. ..
  8. Westermann S, Kesting M, Lincoln T. Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress. Behav Ther. 2012;43:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A working model of emotion dysregulation in delusions is presented and possible implications for cognitive therapy of psychosis are discussed.
  9. Sisti D, Rocchi M, Siddi S, Mura T, Manca S, Preti A, et al. Preoccupation and distress are relevant dimensions in delusional beliefs. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:1039-43 pubmed publisher
    ..diagnosis of schizophrenia or an affective disorder with psychotic features were compared on the Peters et al Delusions Inventory (PDI) to 210 people from the same local area, who had never received a formal diagnosis of a mental ..

More Information


  1. Kaliuzhna M, Chambon V, Franck N, Testud B, Van der Henst J. Belief revision and delusions: how do patients with schizophrenia take advice?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34771 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed. ..
  2. Jørgensen R, Hansson Professor L, Zoffmann V. Changes in persistent delusions in schizophrenia using guided self-determination: a single case study. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2012;33:293-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Delusions in persons with schizophrenia who have limited insight have been targeted with different treatment modalities with equivocal results...
  3. Kwak Y, Yang Y, Kwak S, Koo M. Delusions of Korean patients with Alzheimer's disease: study of drug-naïve patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013;13:307-13 pubmed publisher
    Although delusions are one of the most prominent psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), research on the subtypes, prevalence and associated factors of delusions, especially in drug (psychotropic)-naïve patients, has been ..
  4. Krishna N, Chiappelli J, Fischer B, Knight S. Tacrolimus-induced paranoid delusions and fugue-like state. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35:327.e5-327.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment usually calls for prompt discontinuation of tacrolimus, substituting with another immunosuppressant, and possible use of antipsychotics. ..
  5. Freeman D, Dunn G, Fowler D, Bebbington P, Kuipers E, Emsley R, et al. Current paranoid thinking in patients with delusions: the presence of cognitive-affective biases. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39:1281-7 pubmed publisher
    There has been renewed interest in the influence of affect on psychosis. Psychological research on persecutory delusions ascribes a prominent role to cognitive processes related to negative affect: anxiety leads to the anticipation of ..
  6. Coid J, Ullrich S, Kallis C, Keers R, Barker D, Cowden F, et al. The relationship between delusions and violence: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70:465-71 pubmed publisher
    Psychotic persons who are violent often explain their violence as being due to delusions. However, research has failed to confirm associations between delusions and violent behavior...
  7. Freeman D, Startup H, Myers E, Harvey A, Geddes J, Yu L, et al. The effects of using cognitive behavioural therapy to improve sleep for patients with delusions and hallucinations (the BEST study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:214 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, recent evidence indicates that insomnia triggers and exacerbates delusions and hallucinations...
  8. Myers E, Startup H, Freeman D. Cognitive behavioural treatment of insomnia in individuals with persistent persecutory delusions: a pilot trial. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42:330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical implication is that reducing insomnia will reduce paranoid delusions. This study, evaluating for the first time the treatment of insomnia in individuals with persecutory delusions, ..
  9. Waller H, Freeman D, Jolley S, Dunn G, Garety P. Targeting reasoning biases in delusions: a pilot study of the Maudsley Review Training Programme for individuals with persistent, high conviction delusions. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42:414-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Delusions are often resistant to change, persisting despite successful antipsychotic treatment or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy...
  10. Moritz S, Kerstan A, Veckenstedt R, Randjbar S, Vitzthum F, Schmidt C, et al. Further evidence for the efficacy of a metacognitive group training in schizophrenia. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences occurred on the PANSS. The present study confirms prior reports that MCT exerts beneficial effects on some cognitive and symptomatic parameters. ..
  11. Corlett P, Fletcher P. The neurobiology of schizotypy: fronto-striatal prediction error signal correlates with delusion-like beliefs in healthy people. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:3612-20 pubmed publisher
  12. Ormrod J, Shaftoe D, Cavanagh K, Freeston M, Turkington D, Price J, et al. A pilot study exploring the contribution of working memory to "jumping to conclusions" in people with first episode psychosis. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2012;17:97-114 pubmed publisher
    ..However, as our sample is small it may be underpowered to detect important differences. Future work is therefore needed to replicate these findings. ..
  13. Evensen J, Røssberg J, Haahr U, Ten Velden Hegelstad W, Joa I, Johannessen J, et al. Contrasting monosymptomatic patients with hallucinations and delusions in first-episode psychosis patients: a five-year longitudinal follow-up study. Psychopathology. 2011;44:90-7 pubmed publisher
    The main aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients characterized by having hallucinations only or delusions only and to examine whether these groups differed with regard to demographic characteristics, clinical ..
  14. Freeman D, Dunn G, Startup H, Kingdon D. The effects of reducing worry in patients with persecutory delusions: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13:223 pubmed publisher
    ..research we have found worry to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of persecutory delusions. Worry brings implausible ideas to mind, keeps them there, and makes the experience distressing...
  15. Hartley S, Haddock G, Barrowclough C. Anxiety and depression and their links with delusions and hallucinations in people with a dual diagnosis of psychosis and substance misuse: a study using data from a randomised controlled trial. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Auditory commands to harm or kill the self were associated with higher levels of depression. Delusions with themes pertaining to the paranormal, and those with references to celebrities were associated with lower ..
  16. Romaniuk L, Honey G, King J, Whalley H, McIntosh A, Levita L, et al. Midbrain activation during Pavlovian conditioning and delusional symptoms in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:1246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of limbic motivational systems in response to neutral stimuli may underlie the development of delusions in schizophrenia...
  17. Vorontsova N, Garety P, Freeman D. Cognitive factors maintaining persecutory delusions in psychosis: the contribution of depression. J Abnorm Psychol. 2013;122:1121-31 pubmed publisher was to test whether depression and associated cognitive processes predict the maintenance of persecutory delusions. Three groups of participants were tested at baseline: 60 patients with persecutory delusions in the context of ..
  18. Saha S, Scott J, Varghese D, McGrath J. Social support and delusional-like experiences: a nationwide population-based study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2012;21:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..While we cannot exclude the possibility that the presence of isolated DLEs results in a reduction of social support, we speculate that poor social support may contribute in a causal fashion to the risk of DLEs. ..
  19. Schwerkoske J, Caplan J, Benford D. Self-mutilation and biblical delusions: a review. Psychosomatics. 2012;53:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Psychiatrists should be aware of these four verses to understand their significance and potentially forestall these behaviors. ..
  20. Wang L, Metzak P, Woodward T. Aberrant connectivity during self-other source monitoring in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011;125:136-42 pubmed publisher
  21. Saha S, Scott J, Johnston A, Slade T, Varghese D, Carter G, et al. The association between delusional-like experiences and suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Schizophr Res. 2011;132:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..DLE may provide a marker of vulnerability to suicide, and thus could be of value in future suicide prevention research. ..
  22. Menon M, Addington J, Remington G. Examining cognitive biases in patients with delusions of reference. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28:71-3 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive biases may not be seen in all subtypes of delusions, and might be more involved in the etiology of some delusional subtypes than others...
  23. Ilankovic L, Allen P, Engel R, Kambeitz J, Riedel M, Muller N, et al. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:805-812 pubmed publisher
    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients...
  24. Langdon R, Still M, Connors M, Ward P, Catts S. Jumping to delusions in early psychosis. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2014;19:241-56 pubmed publisher
    Patients with delusions typically seek less information when making decisions than controls ("jumping-to-conclusions", JTC) and paradoxically over-adjust to counter-evidence on probabilistic reasoning tasks...
  25. Garety P, Joyce E, Jolley S, Emsley R, Waller H, Kuipers E, et al. Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in delusions. Schizophr Res. 2013;150:570-4 pubmed publisher
    It has been consistently demonstrated that delusions are related to jumping to conclusions (JTC), a data-gathering bias and potential candidate endophenotype of psychosis...
  26. Pechey R, Halligan P. The prevalence of delusion-like beliefs relative to sociocultural beliefs in the general population. Psychopathology. 2011;44:106-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Delusions are defined as false beliefs different from those that almost everyone else believes...
  27. Schulze K, Freeman D, Green C, Kuipers E. Intrusive mental imagery in patients with persecutory delusions. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current study was to examine intrusive mental images in individuals with persecutory delusions. The prevalence and characteristics of self-reported paranoia-related intrusive images, and relationships ..
  28. Saha S, Scott J, Varghese D, McGrath J. The association between physical health and delusional-like experiences: a general population study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18566 pubmed publisher
    ..The direction of causality between these variables warrants closer research scrutiny. ..
  29. Knowles R, McCarthy Jones S, Rowse G. Grandiose delusions: a review and theoretical integration of cognitive and affective perspectives. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:684-96 pubmed publisher
    Grandiose delusions (GDs) are found across a wide range of psychiatric conditions, including in around two-thirds of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder, half of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as in a substantial ..
  30. Oliver J, McLachlan K, Jose P, Peters E. Predicting changes in delusional ideation: the role of mindfulness and negative schemas. Psychol Psychother. 2012;85:243-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings point to the importance of mindfulness as an intervention for preventing non-clinical delusional ideation transitioning into clinical delusions.
  31. Kao Y, Wang T, Lu C, Cheng T, Liu Y. The psychometric properties of the Peters et al. delusions inventory (PDI) in Taiwan: reliability, validity, and utility. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47:1221-34 pubmed publisher
    The Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) is a commonly used instrument to measure delusion proneness in the general population and includes dimensions that measure distress, preoccupation, and conviction of unusual beliefs...
  32. Schmack K, Gómez Carrillo de Castro A, Rothkirch M, Sekutowicz M, Rössler H, Haynes J, et al. Delusions and the role of beliefs in perceptual inference. J Neurosci. 2013;33:13701-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Delusions are unfounded yet tenacious beliefs and a symptom of psychotic disorder. Varying degrees of delusional ideation are also found in the healthy population...
  33. Freeman D, Startup H, Dunn G, Černis E, Wingham G, Pugh K, et al. The interaction of affective with psychotic processes: a test of the effects of worrying on working memory, jumping to conclusions, and anomalies of experience in patients with persecutory delusions. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:1837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..but recent studies indicate that worry may be a causal factor in the occurrence and persistence of persecutory delusions. The effect of worry on processes traditionally associated with psychosis has not been tested...
  34. Nomura K, Kazui H, Wada T, Sugiyama H, Yamamoto D, Yoshiyama K, et al. Classification of delusions in Alzheimer's disease and their neural correlates. Psychogeriatrics. 2012;12:200-10 pubmed publisher Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been inconsistent because of methodological issues, such as treating multiple delusions as a single entity...
  35. Saha S, Scott J, Varghese D, Degenhardt L, Slade T, McGrath J. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:202 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances--tobacco, alcohol and cannabis...
  36. Jacobsen P, Freeman D, Salkovskis P. Reasoning bias and belief conviction in obsessive-compulsive disorder and delusions: jumping to conclusions across disorders?. Br J Clin Psychol. 2012;51:84-99 pubmed publisher
    ..a reasoning bias ('jumping to conclusions'; JTC) found to be associated with higher levels of conviction in delusions is also associated with high-conviction beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
  37. Reeves S, Gould R, Powell J, Howard R. Origins of delusions in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:2274-87 pubmed publisher
    Research over the past two decades supports a shared aetiology for delusions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia...
  38. Garety P, Freeman D. The past and future of delusions research: from the inexplicable to the treatable. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;203:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, research on delusions has led the way. To update our 1999 review of almost 40 studies on delusions...
  39. Garety P, Gittins M, Jolley S, Bebbington P, Dunn G, Kuipers E, et al. Differences in cognitive and emotional processes between persecutory and grandiose delusions. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..propose that cognitive and emotional processes, in the context of anomalies of experience, lead to and maintain delusions. No large-scale studies have investigated whether persecutory and grandiose delusions reflect differing ..
  40. Hylwa S, Bury J, Davis M, Pittelkow M, Bostwick J. Delusional infestation, including delusions of parasitosis: results of histologic examination of skin biopsy and patient-provided skin specimens. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147:1041-5 pubmed publisher
    ..patient-provided specimens from patients whose assessment was consistent with delusional infestation, including delusions of parasitosis. Retrospective medical record review. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota...
  41. Gearing R, Alonzo D, Smolak A, McHugh K, Harmon S, Baldwin S. Association of religion with delusions and hallucinations in the context of schizophrenia: implications for engagement and adherence. Schizophr Res. 2011;126:150-63 pubmed publisher
    ..has investigated the association between religiosity and schizophrenia; 2) how is religiosity associated with delusions and hallucinations; 3) what are the risk and protective factors associated with religiosity and schizophrenia; ..
  42. Schneider S, Jelinek L, Lincoln T, Moritz S. What happened to the voices? A fine-grained analysis of how hallucinations and delusions change under psychiatric treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2011;188:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rating Scales (PSYRATS) have demonstrated their usefulness for the dimensional assessment of hallucinations and delusions. However, there is no evaluated German version of the PSYRATS to date...
  43. Ismail Z, Nguyen M, Fischer C, Schweizer T, Mulsant B. Neuroimaging of delusions in Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatry Res. 2012;202:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;MRI", "PET", "SPECT", "Alzheimer's", "dementia", "delusions" and "psychosis" to find studies specifically assessing or reporting on neuroimaging of delusions ..
  44. Hutton P, Kelly J, Lowens I, Taylor P, Tai S. Self-attacking and self-reassurance in persecutory delusions: a comparison of healthy, depressed and paranoid individuals. Psychiatry Res. 2013;205:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this further, we asked 15 people with persecutory delusions, 15 people with depression and 19 non-psychiatric controls to complete several self-report questionnaires ..
  45. Thewissen V, Bentall R, Oorschot M, a Campo J, van Lierop T, Van Os J, et al. Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: an experience sampling study. Br J Clin Psychol. 2011;50:178-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking. ..
  46. Kesting M, Lincoln T. The relevance of self-esteem and self-schemas to persecutory delusions: a systematic review. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:766-89 pubmed publisher
    Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD)...
  47. Corlett P, Cambridge V, Gardner J, Piggot J, Turner D, Everitt J, et al. Ketamine effects on memory reconsolidation favor a learning model of delusions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65088 pubmed publisher
    b>Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning...
  48. Menon M, Schmitz T, Anderson A, Graff A, Korostil M, Mamo D, et al. Exploring the neural correlates of delusions of reference. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:1127-33 pubmed publisher
    Referential delusions are the most common symptom of schizophrenia and offer an opportunity to examine the neural correlates of delusions because they occur in discrete episodes that can be studied in the scanner...
  49. Lunt L, Bramham J, Morris R, Bullock P, Selway R, Xenitidis K, et al. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction and 'Jumping to Conclusions': bias or deficit?. J Neuropsychol. 2012;6:65-78 pubmed publisher
    The 'beads task' is used to measure the cognitive basis of delusions, namely the 'Jumping to Conclusions' (JTC) reasoning bias...
  50. Moritz S, Veckenstedt R, Randjbar S, Vitzthum F, Woodward T. Antipsychotic treatment beyond antipsychotics: metacognitive intervention for schizophrenia patients improves delusional symptoms. Psychol Med. 2011;41:1823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the combination of a cognition-oriented and a symptom-oriented approach ameliorate psychotic symptoms and cognitive biases and represents a promising complementary treatment for schizophrenia. ..
  51. Hepworth C, Startup H, Freeman D. Developing treatments of persistent persecutory delusions: the impact of an emotional processing and metacognitive awareness intervention. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:653-8 pubmed publisher
    Worry has been implicated in increasing the levels of distress associated with persecutory delusions. It may partly cause this distress via the impediment of emotional processing of upsetting experiences...
  52. Kronmüller K, von Bock A, Grupe S, Büche L, Gentner N, Rückl S, et al. Psychometric evaluation of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Scales (PSYRATS) in a sample of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and affective disorders with delusions and to validate subscales of the PSYRATS with other ratings of psychotic symptoms...
  53. Saha S, Varghese D, Slade T, Degenhardt L, Mills K, McGrath J, et al. The association between trauma and delusional-like experiences. Psychiatry Res. 2011;189:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding of biological and cognitive pathways is required to unravel the association between trauma exposure and delusional-like experiences. ..