child reactive disorders


Summary: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.

Top Publications

  1. Durand J, Schraiber L, França Junior I, Barros C. Impact of exposure to intimate partner violence on children's behavior. Rev Saude Publica. 2011;45:355-64 pubmed
    ..Severe IPV affects children's behaviors and should be addressed in health policies for school-aged children through the development of common interventions for mothers and children. ..
  2. Martel M, Nigg J, Wong M, Fitzgerald H, Jester J, Puttler L, et al. Childhood and adolescent resiliency, regulation, and executive functioning in relation to adolescent problems and competence in a high-risk sample. Dev Psychopathol. 2007;19:541-63 pubmed
    ..Results are discussed in relation to recent trait models of regulation and the scaffolded development of competence and problems in childhood and adolescence. ..
  3. Okuno S, Rotheram Borus M, McCutchan E, Newell C, Stein M. Carlos: a 12-year-old boy discovers his mother is HIV positive. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006;27:51-4 pubmed
  4. Rappaport N, Frazier J, Connor D, Mattison R. From zero to a hundred in a split second: understanding aggression in an eight-year-old child. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2006;14:165-76 pubmed
  5. Juen F, Guggemos A, Engelmann L, Diesselhorst V, Di Gallo A. [How children who's siblings are diagnosed with cancer experience and regulate the disease]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2013;62:491-504 pubmed
    ..This fosters the conclusion that there may be a need for specific support for siblings of children with cancer in order to prevent them from psychic disorders and pathological mourning reactions. ..
  6. Alderfer M, Long K, Lown E, Marsland A, Ostrowski N, Hock J, et al. Psychosocial adjustment of siblings of children with cancer: a systematic review. Psychooncology. 2010;19:789-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Siblings of children with cancer are a psychosocially at-risk group and should be provided with appropriate supportive services. ..
  7. McDonald R, Jouriles E, Briggs Gowan M, Rosenfield D, Carter A. Violence toward a family member, angry adult conflict, and child adjustment difficulties: relations in families with 1- to 3-year-old children. J Fam Psychol. 2007;21:176-84 pubmed
    ..These results emerged after accounting for pertinent demographic variables and for caregiver distress variables. ..
  8. Lengua L. The contribution of emotionality and self-regulation to the understanding of children's response to multiple risk. Child Dev. 2002;73:144-61 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that emotionality and self-regulation operate as additional risk and protective factors in multiple-risk models. ..
  9. Sourander A. Refugee families during asylum seeking. Nord J Psychiatry. 2003;57:203-7 pubmed
    ..It is likely that current procedures for dealing with the asylum seekers contributes to the level of stress, family confusion and psychiatric problems in already traumatized refugee families. ..

More Information


  1. Kahn M, Fua C. Children of South Sea Island immigrants to Australia: factors associated with adjustment problems. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1995;41:55-73 pubmed
    ..They were more alienated and had less clearly established direction for their future. Recommendations for remediation are considered. ..
  2. Vincent M, Pickering M. Multiple personality disorder in childhood. Can J Psychiatry. 1988;33:524-9 pubmed
    ..P.D. that become established as adult cases and decrease the associated morbidity of the disorder in both children and adults. More research is needed to establish prevalence, etiology and effective treatment methods. ..
  3. Fraiberg S. [Pathological protective and defensive reactions in early childhood]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003;52:560-77 pubmed
    ..Before there ist an ego, pain ca bei transformed into pleasure of obliterated from consciousness while a symptom stands in place of the original conflict. ..
  4. Nilsson D, Wadsby M, Svedin C. The psychometric properties of the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC) in a sample of Swedish children. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32:627-36 pubmed publisher
  5. McFarlane A. Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A substantial advantage of focusing on family adjustment is that it can facilitate access to mental healthcare for veterans while assisting families' positive adaptation. ..
  6. New M, Lee S, Elliott B. Psychological adjustment in children and families living with HIV. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32:123-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, identification of protective factors in resilience and coping in families living with a chronic illness is warranted. ..
  7. Guarnaccia P, Martinez I, Ramirez R, Canino G. Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder?. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:1184-92 pubmed
    ..Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children. ..
  8. Weems C, Overstreet S. Child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina: an ecological needs-based perspective and introduction to the special section. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37:487-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The perspective helps show the interconnections among the diverse theoretical and methodological paradigms that are utilized to understand the impact of disasters on youth and may help to guide future research. ..
  9. Howell K, Graham Bermann S, Czyz E, Lilly M. Assessing resilience in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence. Violence Vict. 2010;25:150-64 pubmed
    ..These findings can be used to inform and enhance clinical services for children exposed to IPV. ..
  10. Hodapp R. Studying interactions, reactions, and perceptions: can genetic disorders serve as behavioral proxies?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34:29-34 pubmed
  11. Tercyak K, Peshkin B, Streisand R, Lerman C. Psychological issues among children of hereditary breast cancer gene (BRCA1/2) testing participants. Psychooncology. 2001;10:336-46 pubmed
    ..To the extent that learning about a parent's positive test result could exacerbate these tendencies, recommendations to promote child psychological and family communications research that monitor such responses are offered. ..
  12. Andritzky W. [Child psychiatric documentation in child visitation and custody disputes--results of a survey]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003;52:794-811 pubmed
    ..Some fundamental guidelines are presented as to what aspects and should be explored and which persons referred to before certificates are issued to parents, social workers or judges of family law courts. ..
  13. El Sheikh M, Cummings E, Kouros C, Elmore Staton L, Buckhalt J. Marital psychological and physical aggression and children's mental and physical health: direct, mediated, and moderated effects. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences were found in these pathways for African American and European American families or as a function of socioeconomic status or child gender. ..
  14. Bernet W, Baker A. Parental alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11: response to critics. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2013;41:98-104 pubmed
  15. Putnam F. Commentary on "Seven institutionalized children and their adaptation in late adulthood: the children of Duplessis". Psychiatry. 2006;69:333-5 pubmed
  16. Boxer P, Terranova A. Effects of multiple maltreatment experiences among psychiatrically hospitalized youth. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32:637-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians working in youth psychiatric populations should implement maltreatment-specific psychotherapy approaches for maltreated youth, even as adjunctive treatments in a therapeutic milieu. ..
  17. Qouta S, Punamaki R, Miller T, El Sarraj E. Does war beget child aggression? Military violence, gender, age and aggressive behavior in two Palestinian samples. Aggress Behav. 2008;34:231-44 pubmed
    ..As hypothesized, good and supporting parenting practices could moderate the link between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior. Aggr. ..
  18. Sales J. Children of a transsexual father: a successful intervention. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;4:136-9 pubmed
    ..A family of a transsexual father is described in which the children presented with difficulties and in which the intervention was successful. ..
  19. Stümpfig S. [School refusal behavior in childhood and adolescence]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2004;23:20-2 pubmed
  20. Lamers Winkelman F, Willemen A, Visser M. Adverse childhood experiences of referred children exposed to intimate partner violence: consequences for their wellbeing. Child Abuse Negl. 2012;36:166-79 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough assessment and inclusion of all Adverse Childhood Experiences is necessary for a comprehensive treatment program. ..
  21. Bergelt C, Ernst J, Beierlein V, Inhestern L, Holes S, Möller B, et al. [Reactive changes in psychological condition and behaviour in children of parents with cancer--results of an epidemiological survey]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2012;61:378-95 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that from the cancer parent's view many children are substantially distressed. Thus, the implementation of additional preventive psychosocial services seems reasonable and necessary. ..
  22. Meyer E, Kieran M. Psychological adjustment of 'surgery-only' pediatric neuro-oncology patients: a retrospective analysis. Psychooncology. 2002;11:74-9 pubmed
  23. Goldin S, Hägglöf B, Levin L, Persson L. Mental health of Bosnian refugee children: a comparison of clinician appraisal with parent, child and teacher reports. Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62:204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, a more concrete presentation of post-traumatic stress reactions and a higher "further attention" threshold for inward emotional problems seem called for. ..
  24. Fraser E, Pakenham K. Evaluation of a resilience-based intervention for children of parents with mental illness. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:1041-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Given study limitations and the modest support for intervention effectiveness it is important that this and other similar interventions should continue to be revised and undergo rigorous evaluation. ..
  25. Widmalm S, Christiansen R, Gunn S, Hawley L. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children. J Oral Rehabil. 1995;22:87-93 pubmed
    ..01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  26. Kobak R, Little M, Race E, Acosta M. Attachment disruptions in seriously emotionally disturbed children: implications for treatment. Attach Hum Dev. 2001;3:243-58 pubmed
    ..Implications of these findings for the treatment of SED children are discussed. ..
  27. Reid J. Mediational screening as a model for prevention research. Am J Community Psychol. 1991;19:867-72 pubmed
    ..Also, their model points up inadequacies in the longitudinal data on which most prevention strategies are based, and their model could well serve as a template for future research. ..
  28. Kolaitis G, Kotsopoulos J, Tsiantis J, Haritaki S, Rigizou F, Zacharaki L, et al. Posttraumatic stress reactions among children following the Athens earthquake of September 1999. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;12:273-80 pubmed
  29. Visser A, Huizinga G, Hoekstra H, van der Graaf W, Klip E, Pras E, et al. Emotional and behavioural functioning of children of a parent diagnosed with cancer: a cross-informant perspective. Psychooncology. 2005;14:746-58 pubmed
    ..The perception of child's functioning and potential influencing variables varied according to informant. ..
  30. Scheeringa M, Zeanah C. Reconsideration of harm's way: onsets and comorbidity patterns of disorders in preschool children and their caregivers following Hurricane Katrina. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37:508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences by race and gender were largely nonsignificant. Children's new PTSD symptoms correlated more strongly to caregivers with new symptoms compared to caregivers with old or no symptoms. ..
  31. Sachsse U. [One cannot be careful enough in the choice of one's parents--on the biopsychosocial development of adaptation systems for distress in Homo sapiens]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003;52:578-94 pubmed
    ..It can be helpful for therapy strategies to differentiate these systems. ..
  32. Knez R, Franciskovic T, Samarin R, Niksic M. Attachment style in parents of children with chronic gastrointestinal disease. Coll Antropol. 2011;35 Suppl 2:125-30 pubmed
    ..However, parents of children with IBD who have insecure attachment represent target group for psychosocial support in order to improve their QoL. ..
  33. Eisenberg N, Spinrad T, Fabes R, Reiser M, Cumberland A, Shepard S, et al. The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's resiliency and adjustment. Child Dev. 2004;75:25-46 pubmed
    ..Evidence of bidirectional effects also was obtained. The results indicate that effortful control and impulsivity are distinct constructs with some unique prediction of resiliency and adjustment. ..
  34. Cohen J, Goodman R, Brown E, Mannarino A. Treatment of childhood traumatic grief: contributing to a newly emerging condition in the wake of community trauma. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2004;12:213-6 pubmed
  35. McDonald R, Jouriles E, Tart C, Minze L. Children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women: does other family violence matter?. Child Abuse Negl. 2009;33:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment programs for children who come to domestic violence shelters should address these different forms of family violence, especially parent-child aggression. ..
  36. Quas J, Goodman G, Ghetti S, Alexander K, Edelstein R, Redlich A, et al. Childhood sexual assault victims: long-term outcomes after testifying in criminal court. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2005;70:vii, 1-128 pubmed
  37. Schermerhorn A, Cummings E, DeCarlo C, Davies P. Children's influence in the marital relationship. J Fam Psychol. 2007;21:259-69 pubmed
    ..Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of child effects, such as increased parental awareness of children's distress potentially leading to reduced marital conflict. ..
  38. Stuewig J, McCloskey L. The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: psychological routes to depression and delinquency. Child Maltreat. 2005;10:324-36 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that, as mediators, shame and guilt may provide useful focal points for intervention and prevention efforts in reducing adolescent depression and delinquency. ..
  39. Moller B, Stegemann T, Romer G. [Psychosocial stress in children of somatically ill parents. Perspectives of mental health prevention]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2008;51:657-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The most important recommendations from intervention concepts published to date are summarized. Some outlooks for clinical practice as well as future research are presented. ..
  40. Wolff P, Fesseha G. The orphans of Eritrea: what are the choices?. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2005;75:475-84 pubmed
    ..The public policy implications of the findings for the protection of unaccompanied children in impoverished developing countries are discussed. ..
  41. Kim J. The protective effects of religiosity on maladjustment among maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32:711-20 pubmed publisher
  42. Fosco G, Grych J. Emotional, cognitive, and family systems mediators of children's adjustment to interparental conflict. J Fam Psychol. 2008;22:843-54 pubmed publisher
  43. Lieberman A, Van Horn P, Ippen C. Toward evidence-based treatment: child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:1241-8 pubmed
    ..The findings provide evidence of the efficacy of CPP with this population and highlight the importance of a relationship focus in the treatment of traumatized preschoolers. ..
  44. Racusin R, Maerlender A, Sengupta A, Isquith P, Straus M. Psychosocial treatment of children in foster care: a review. Community Ment Health J. 2005;41:199-221 pubmed
    ..We suggest that self-regulation may be an important mediating factor in the appearance of emotional and behavioral disturbance in these children. ..
  45. Salisbury E, Henning K, Holdford R. Fathering by partner-abusive men: attitudes on children's exposure to interparental conflict and risk factors for child abuse. Child Maltreat. 2009;14:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Also of concern was the fact that risk factors for child maltreatment were highly prevalent in this population. Implications of these findings and suggestions for those working with domestic offenders are discussed. ..
  46. Lanktree C, Gilbert A, Briere J, Taylor N, Chen K, Maida C, et al. Multi-informant assessment of maltreated children: convergent and discriminant validity of the TSCC and TSCYC. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32:621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in children 8-12 years of age) may yield more clinical information on the child's symptomatology than either measure would alone-perhaps especially in cases when one of the two respondents under- or over-reports the child's distress. ..
  47. Geltman P, Augustyn M, Barnett E, Klass P, Groves B. War trauma experience and behavioral screening of Bosnian refugee children resettled in Massachusetts. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2000;21:255-61 pubmed
    ..The RHA affords opportunities to screen for behavioral problems but not to intervene. Primary care providers and other clinicians should be aware of likely recurrences of symptoms in high-risk children such as these. ..
  48. Fergusson D, Boden J, Horwood L. Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32:607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that much of the association between CPA and later mental health reflects the general family context in which CPA occurs, whereas this is less the case for CSA. ..
  49. Brendgen M, Vitaro F. Peer rejection and physical health problems in early adolescence. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008;29:183-90 pubmed publisher
  50. McDermott B, Palmer L. Post-disaster service provision following proactive identification of children with emotional distress and depression. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999;33:855-63 pubmed
    ..Substantial mental health morbidity was identified 6 months after a bushfire disaster. The usefulness of post-disaster service provision influenced by proactive screening is discussed and reasons for further research highlighted. ..
  51. Finkelstein J, Yates J. Traumatic symptomatology in children who witness marital violence. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3:107-14 pubmed
    ..Relevant research issues concerning the potential roles of moderating and mediating variables will also be discussed. ..
  52. Cummings E, Goeke Morey M, Papp L. Children's responses to everyday marital conflict tactics in the home. Child Dev. 2003;74:1918-29 pubmed
    ..Conflict tactics were related to marital functioning, and children's emotional reactions during marital conflicts were associated with their adjustment. ..
  53. Voll R. [A rare differential diagnosis of a somatoform autonomous disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract: the hepatocellular liver carcinoma in childhood]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2008;36:275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The symptoms of the hepatocellular carcinoma, which rarely occurs in childhood, can perfectly mimic those of a somatoform disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract. ..