behavioral symptoms


Summary: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.

Top Publications

  1. Hollingworth P, Hamshere M, Moskvina V, Dowzell K, Moore P, Foy C, et al. Four components describe behavioral symptoms in 1,120 individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1348-54 pubmed
    ..b>Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
  2. Cohen Mansfield J, Thein K, Marx M, Dakheel Ali M. What are the barriers to performing nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in the nursing home?. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13:400-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Behavioral symptoms are common in persons with dementia, and nonpharmacological interventions are recommended as the first line of therapy. We describe barriers to conducting nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms...
  3. Van der Mussele S, Bekelaar K, Le Bastard N, Vermeiren Y, Saerens J, Somers N, et al. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:947-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective, longitudinal study on behavioral symptoms of dementia and MCI was performed. The study population consisted of 270 MCI and 402 AD patients...
  4. Landreville P, Voyer P, Carmichael P. Relationship between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013;25:635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). Participants were 155 persons with a diagnosis of dementia, 109 (70...
  5. Doyle C, McDougle C. Pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14:263-79 pubmed
    This review outlines pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, adolescents, and adults...
  6. El Akabawy G, Rattray I, Johansson S, Gale R, Bates G, Modo M. Implantation of undifferentiated and pre-differentiated human neural stem cells in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:97 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a combination of treatments is likely needed to affect outcome in transgenic models of HD. ..
  7. Baiyewu O, Unverzagt F, Ogunniyi A, Smith Gamble V, Gureje O, Lane K, et al. Behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling elderly Nigerians with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27:931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. ..
  8. Dunnett S, Rosser A. Cell-based treatments for huntington's disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;98:483-508 pubmed publisher
  9. Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Streck D, Toruner G. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who exhibit chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and marked fluctuation of behavioral symptoms exhibit distinct innate immune abnormalities and transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood (PB) monocyte. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;238:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and transcript profiles of peripheral blood monocytes were studied in ASD children who exhibit fluctuating behavioral symptoms following infection and other immune insults (ASD/Inf, N=30)...

More Information


  1. Nagata K, Yokoyama E, Yamazaki T, Takano D, Maeda T, Takahashi S, et al. Effects of yokukansan on behavioral and psychological symptoms of vascular dementia: an open-label trial. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:524-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no adverse effect during the treatment period. The present results suggest that yokukansan is beneficial for the treatment of BPSD in VaD patients. ..
  2. Verdejo Garcia A, Rivas Pérez C, López Torrecillas F, Perez Garcia M. Differential impact of severity of drug use on frontal behavioral symptoms. Addict Behav. 2006;31:1373-82 pubmed
    ..using cognitive measures and support the notion that severity of substance use significantly affects behavioral symptoms associated with PFC systems functioning...
  3. Roybal K, Theobold D, Graham A, DiNieri J, Russo S, Krishnan V, et al. Mania-like behavior induced by disruption of CLOCK. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6406-11 pubmed
    ..These findings establish the Clock mutant mice as a previously unrecognized model of human mania and reveal an important role for CLOCK in the dopaminergic system in regulating behavior and mood...
  4. Posada C, Moore D, Woods S, Vigil O, Ake C, Perry W, et al. Implications of hepatitis C virus infection for behavioral symptoms and activities of daily living. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010;32:637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a subset of HCV-infected individuals report clinically elevated behavioral symptoms. Clinical implications for the assessment and management of elevated behavioral symptoms in HCV are ..
  5. Del Prete M, Spaccavento S, Craca A, Fiore P, Angelelli P. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the APOE genotype in Alzheimer's disease. Neurol Sci. 2009;30:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Clear relations with other clinical and demographic variables were also found. APOE epsilon(4) allele is associated to a peculiar neuropsychiatric profile characterizing the onset and evolution of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  6. Zec R, Burkett N. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer disease. NeuroRehabilitation. 2008;23:425-38 pubmed
    This paper discusses the various pharmacological and behavioral treatments for the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  7. Zamboni G, Huey E, Krueger F, Nichelli P, Grafman J. Apathy and disinhibition in frontotemporal dementia: Insights into their neural correlates. Neurology. 2008;71:736-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Okahara K, Ishida Y, Hayashi Y, Inoue T, Tsuruta K, Takeuchi K, et al. Effects of Yokukansan on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in regular treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:532-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse reactions were noted in either group. The results of this study showed that YKS is safe and effective in the treatment of BPSD in AD patients. ..
  9. Boris M, Kaiser C, Goldblatt A, Elice M, Edelson S, Adams J, et al. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children. J Neuroinflammation. 2007;4:3 pubmed
    ..Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, ..
  10. Rosen H, Allison S, Ogar J, Amici S, Rose K, Dronkers N, et al. Behavioral features in semantic dementia vs other forms of progressive aphasias. Neurology. 2006;67:1752-6 pubmed
    ..Semantic dementia is associated with significantly more behavioral dysfunction than other variants of primary progressive aphasia, specifically behavioral features typical of frontotemporal dementia. ..
  11. Borroni B, Agosti C, Padovani A. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB): frequency and relationship with disease severity and motor impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008;46:101-6 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the specific weight of BPSD in DLB would contribute to improve the allocation of health resources for dementia and to a better management of the disease. ..
  12. Miyamoto Y, Tachimori H, Ito H. Formal caregiver burden in dementia: impact of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and activities of daily living. Geriatr Nurs. 2010;31:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate the various characteristics of the burdens on staff members compared with those faced by individuals who provide informal care. ..
  13. Medina K, Shear P. Anxiety, depression, and behavioral symptoms of executive dysfunction in ecstasy users: contributions of polydrug use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;87:303-11 pubmed
    ..Instead, other drug use (alcohol, marijuana, opioids, and inhalants) significantly predict psychological symptoms in this sample of polydrug users. ..
  14. Selbaek G, Kirkevold Ø, Engedal K. The course of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms and the use of psychotropic medication in patients with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes--a 12-month follow-up study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term use of psychotropic medication is extensive. Uncertainty about treatment effects emphasizes the need for further treatment trials. ..
  15. Kozman M, Wattis J, Curran S. Pharmacological management of behavioural and psychological disturbance in dementia. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2006;21:1-12 pubmed
    ..The risks and benefits of individual treatments are discussed and the relatively poor evidence base and need for further research is highlighted. ..
  16. Wang P, Brookhart M, Setoguchi S, Patrick A, Schneeweiss S. Psychotropic medication use for behavioral symptoms of dementia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:490-5 pubmed
    ..psychotropic medications are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat such behavioral symptoms, a variety of drug classes are commonly used for these purposes...
  17. Meyer U, Feldon J. Epidemiology-driven neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia. Prog Neurobiol. 2010;90:285-326 pubmed publisher
  18. Anderson K, Marshall F. Behavioral symptoms associated with Huntington's disease. Adv Neurol. 2005;96:197-208 pubmed
    ..These behavioral symptoms contribute to morbidity and augment what is often an overwhelming caregiver burden...
  19. Miranda A, Vieira L, Lacerda Queiroz N, Souza A, Rodrigues D, Vilela M, et al. Increased levels of glutamate in the central nervous system are associated with behavioral symptoms in experimental malaria. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010;43:1173-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the involvement of glutamate in the behavioral symptoms of CM. Seventeen female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) aged 6-8 weeks were infected with P...
  20. Seitz D, Purandare N, Conn D. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older adults in long-term care homes: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:1025-39 pubmed publisher LTC populations were identified including 30 studies on the prevalence of dementia, 9 studies on behavioral symptoms in dementia, and 26 studies on depression...
  21. Okura T, Plassman B, Steffens D, Llewellyn D, Potter G, Langa K. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and their association with functional limitations in older adults in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:330-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Of those with cognitive impairment, a greater number of total neuropsychiatric symptoms and some specific individual symptoms are strongly associated with functional limitations. ..
  22. Wang L, Shofer J, Rohde K, Hart K, Hoff D, McFall Y, et al. Prazosin for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease with agitation and aggression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This pilot study examined the efficacy and tolerability of prazosin for behavioral symptoms in patients with agitation/aggression in AD. Double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study...
  23. Klugman A, Marshall J, Tabet N. Impact of cerebrovascular pathology on behavioural and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: findings from a retrospective, naturalistic study. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that the relatively small pathological contribution of CVD to the development of these symptoms is obscured by the effect of the wider neurodegeneration encountered in AD. ..
  24. Elmer L, Schwid S, Eberly S, Goetz C, Fahn S, Kieburtz K, et al. Rasagiline-associated motor improvement in PD occurs without worsening of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. J Neurol Sci. 2006;248:78-83 pubmed
    ..Rasagiline 1 mg once daily improves PD symptoms and motor fluctuations in early and moderate-to-advanced PD patients without causing significant cognitive and behavioral AE or adverse changes in mentation, behavior and mood. ..
  25. Marshall J, White K, Weaver M, Flury Wetherill L, Hui S, Stout J, et al. Specific psychiatric manifestations among preclinical Huntington disease mutation carriers. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:116-21 pubmed
    ..This study identified specific psychiatric symptom dimensions that differentiate nonmutation carriers from individuals in the early preclinical stages of HD who are either symptom free or have minor nonspecific motor abnormalities. ..
  26. Duff K, Paulsen J, Beglinger L, Langbehn D, Stout J. Psychiatric symptoms in Huntington's disease before diagnosis: the predict-HD study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:1341-6 pubmed
    ..As suggested by other research, these subtle symptoms might be the earliest markers of the disease; however, longitudinal data are needed. ..
  27. Fernandez M, Gobartt A, Balañá M. Behavioural symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and their association with cognitive impairment. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that patients with AD have a high prevalence of noncognitive symptoms, and that cognitive impairment and BPSD are correlated. Therefore, ADAS-Noncog is a useful evaluation tool. ..
  28. Spalletta G, Musicco M, Padovani A, Rozzini L, Perri R, Fadda L, et al. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes in a large cohort of newly diagnosed, untreated patients with Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:1026-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should incorporate a thorough psychiatric and neurologic examination of patients with AD and consider therapeutic strategies that focus on psychiatric syndromes, rather than specific individual symptoms. ..
  29. Benedictus M, Spikman J, van der Naalt J. Cognitive and behavioral impairment in traumatic brain injury related to outcome and return to work. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91:1436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed exploring the cognitive and behavioral outcome in different categories of injury severity separately. ..
  30. Woodward M, Brodaty H, Boundy K, Ames D, Blanch G, Balshaw R. Does executive impairment define a frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease?. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:1280-90 pubmed publisher proposed that subjects with dementia presenting with greater executive impairment but without prominent behavioral symptoms are likely to have AD rather than FTLD, especially if they are quite functionally impaired...
  31. Shaltiel G, Maeng S, Malkesman O, Pearson B, Schloesser R, Tragon T, et al. Evidence for the involvement of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 (GRIK2) in mediating behavioral displays related to behavioral symptoms of mania. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:858-72 pubmed publisher
    ..and behavioral results suggest a unique role for GluR6 in controlling abnormalities related to the behavioral symptoms of mania, such as hyperactivity or psychomotor agitation, aggressiveness, driven or increased goal-directed ..
  32. Streim J, Porsteinsson A, Breder C, Swanink R, Marcus R, McQuade R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole for the treatment of psychosis in nursing home patients with Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16:537-50 pubmed publisher
    ..aripiprazole did not confer specific benefits for the treatment of psychotic symptoms; but psychological and behavioral symptoms, including agitation, anxiety, and depression, were improved with aripiprazole, with a low risk of AEs.
  33. Papatriantafyllou J, Viskontas I, Papageorgiou S, Miller B, Pavlic D, Bingol A, et al. Difficulties in detecting behavioral symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration across cultures. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23:77-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with FTD in Greece and Turkey are diagnosed later in the disease, presumably because their behavioral symptoms are not easily detected by the medical system in these countries...
  34. Prado Jean A, Couratier P, Druet Cabanac M, Nubukpo P, Bernard Bourzeix L, Thomas P, et al. Specific psychological and behavioral symptoms of depression in patients with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..BPSD are common and a major problem. Before addressing them as isolated symptoms, it is important to consider comorbidity with depression in order to optimize the therapeutic approach. ..
  35. Davison T, Hudgson C, McCabe M, George K, Buchanan G. An individualized psychosocial approach for "treatment resistant" behavioral symptoms of dementia among aged care residents. Int Psychogeriatr. 2007;19:859-73 pubmed
    b>Behavioral symptoms of dementia are common among residents in mainstream aged care settings, and have a substantial impact on residents and professional caregivers...
  36. Wall C, Rummans T, Aksamit A, Krahn L, Pankratz V. Psychiatric manifestations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a 25-year analysis. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;17:489-95 pubmed
    ..Psychiatric manifestations are an early and prominent feature of sporadic CJD, often occurring prior to formal diagnosis. ..
  37. Selbaek G, Kirkevold Ø, Engedal K. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances and the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22:843-9 pubmed
    ..Systematic programmes are needed for disseminating skills and providing guidance regarding the evaluation and treatment of these symptoms in nursing homes. ..
  38. Stavitsky K, Brickman A, Scarmeas N, Torgan R, Tang M, Albert M, et al. The progression of cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and functional abilities in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1450-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with DLB had relatively stable behavioral symptoms and visual illusions, whereas patients with AD had a significant increase in these symptoms over time...
  39. Nijk R, Zuidema S, Koopmans R. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Nursing home patients with dementia have a high prevalence of psychotropic drug use. In particular, the association with neuropsychiatric symptoms raises questions of efficacy of these drugs and the risk of chronic use. ..
  40. Bower J. Behavioral symptoms in patients with breast cancer and survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:768-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Behavioral symptoms are a common adverse effect of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment and include disturbances in energy, sleep, mood, and cognition...
  41. Dombrovski A, Mulsant B, Ferrell R, Lotrich F, Rosen J, Wallace M, et al. Serotonin transporter triallelic genotype and response to citalopram and risperidone in dementia with behavioral symptoms. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:37-45 pubmed publisher
    The risk/benefit ratio of pharmacotherapy for behavioral symptoms of dementia is questionable: second-generation antipsychotics are poorly tolerated, and the efficacy of alternative treatments, for example, selective serotonin-reuptake ..
  42. Kawanabe T, Yoritaka A, Shimura H, Oizumi H, Tanaka S, Hattori N. Successful treatment with Yokukansan for behavioral and psychological symptoms of Parkinsonian dementia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:284-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Yokukansan improves BPSD in both PD and PDD patients without worsening their cognitive function, ability to perform activities of daily living, or parkinsonism. ..
  43. Tang Y, Kranzler H, Gelernter J, Farrer L, Pearson D, Cubells J. Transient cocaine-associated behavioral symptoms rated with a new instrument, the scale for assessment of positive symptoms for cocaine-induced psychosis (SAPS-CIP). Am J Addict. 2009;18:339-45 pubmed publisher
    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a variety of behavioral symptoms. The current report describes the assessment of cocaine-related behavioral symptoms (CRB) using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms of Cocaine-Induced ..
  44. Mizukami K, Asada T, Kinoshita T, Tanaka K, Sonohara K, Nakai R, et al. A randomized cross-over study of a traditional Japanese medicine (kampo), yokukansan, in the treatment of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TJ-54 did not show any effect on either cognitive function or ADL. No serious adverse reactions were observed. The present study suggests that TJ-54 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with BPSD. ..
  45. Apostolova L, Cummings J. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review of the literature. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;25:115-26 pubmed
    ..Large prospective longitudinal studies would greatly contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnostic and prognostic value of the neuropsychiatric features in MCI. ..
  46. Findling R. Pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 Suppl 10:26-31 pubmed
    ..Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of PDDs, some of the behavioral symptoms may be treated pharmacologically...
  47. Engelborghs S, Dermaut B, Mariën P, Symons A, Vloeberghs E, Maertens K, et al. Dose dependent effect of APOE epsilon4 on behavioral symptoms in frontal lobe dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:285-92 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, APOE has disease-specific effects on BPSD in FTD and PDD/DLB patients, given the reported associations of APOE epsilon4 with aggression (FTD) and of APOE epsilon2 with delusions (PDD/DLB). ..
  48. Hasegawa J, Kuzuya M, Iguchi A. Urinary incontinence and behavioral symptoms are independent risk factors for recurrent and injurious falls, respectively, among residents in long-term care facilities. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010;50:77-81 pubmed publisher
    Numerous risk factors of falls, including urinary incontinence and behavioral symptoms have been identified among elderly people in long-term care settings...
  49. Friederich H, Herzog W. Cognitive-behavioral flexibility in anorexia nervosa. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2011;6:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The conceptualization of AN as a neurodevelopmental striatocortical disorder may help to develop new promising treatment approaches for this severe disorder. ..
  50. Zago W, Buttini M, Comery T, Nishioka C, Gardai S, Seubert P, et al. Neutralization of soluble, synaptotoxic amyloid ? species by antibodies is epitope specific. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, taken with prior studies, suggest that N-terminal anti-A? antibodies effectively interact with both soluble and insoluble forms of A? and therefore appear particularly well suited for testing the A? hypothesis of AD. ..
  51. Tarren Sweeney M. An investigation of complex attachment- and trauma-related symptomatology among children in foster and kinship care. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2013;44:727-41 pubmed publisher
  52. Schiemann Delgado J, Yang H, Loge C, Stalvey T, Jones J, Legoff D, et al. A long-term open-label extension study assessing cognition and behavior, tolerability, safety, and efficacy of adjunctive levetiracetam in children aged 4 to 16 years with partial-onset seizures. J Child Neurol. 2012;27:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In children, adjunctive levetiracetam was associated with long-term stability in cognitive functioning and improvement in emotional/behavioral functioning over time. ..
  53. Garrett A, Reiss A, Howe M, Kelley R, Singh M, Adleman N, et al. Abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activation to facial expressions in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing activation over time in superior temporal and visual cortices suggests difficulty processing or disengaging attention from emotional faces in BD. ..