tonic immobility response


Summary: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.

Top Publications

  1. Kulkarni S, Bhutani M, Bishnoi M. Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;201:435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The coadministration of curcumin along with piperine may prove to be a useful and potent natural antidepressant approach in the management of depression. ..
  2. Wang B, Rathgeber B, Astatkie T, Macisaac J. The stress and fear levels of microwave toe-treated broiler chickens grown with two photoperiod programs. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..05), had no effect on d 22, and increased duration of TI on d 36 (P < 0.05). There was no microwave toe treatment or sex effect on the duration of TI at any ages tested. ..
  3. Prica C, Hascoet M, Bourin M. Is co-administration of bupropion with SSRIs and SNRIs in forced swimming test in mice, predictive of efficacy in resistant depression?. Behav Brain Res. 2008;194:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that bupropion enhances only the serotonergic system. ..
  4. Krzyzosiak A, Szyszka Niagolov M, Wietrzych M, Gobaille S, Muramatsu S, Krezel W. Retinoid x receptor gamma control of affective behaviors involves dopaminergic signaling in mice. Neuron. 2010;66:908-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data argue that control of NAc D2r expression is critical for Rxrgamma-mediated modulation of affective behaviors. ..
  5. Murai R, Noda Y, Matsui K, Kamei H, Mouri A, Matsuba K, et al. Hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex is involved in the emotional deficit induced by repeated treatment with phencyclidine in mice: implications for abnormalities of glutamate release and NMDA-CaMKII signaling. Behav Brain Res. 2007;180:152-60 pubmed
  6. Bondi C, Barrera G, Lapiz M, Bedard T, Mahan A, Morilak D. Noradrenergic facilitation of shock-probe defensive burying in lateral septum of rats, and modulation by chronic treatment with desipramine. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:482-95 pubmed
  7. Campo J, Davila S. Effect of bad collocation of wing tag on feather amelanosis, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, fluctuating asymmetry, and tonic immobility duration in white-faced black spanish hens. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1540-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that bad collocation of the wing tag negatively affects measures of stress, such as the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, fluctuating asymmetry, and tonic immobility duration. ..
  8. Galeotti N, Bartolini A, Ghelardini C. Blockade of intracellular calcium release induces an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:309-16 pubmed
    ..In particular, the blockade of both InsP3Rs and RyRs appears to play an important role in the induction of an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the stimulation of these receptors is involved in a depressant-like response of mice. ..
  9. Torregrossa M, Jutkiewicz E, Mosberg H, Balboni G, Watson S, Woods J. Peptidic delta opioid receptor agonists produce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and regulate BDNF mRNA expression in rats. Brain Res. 2006;1069:172-81 pubmed

More Information


  1. Umehara F, Mishima K, Egashira N, Ogata A, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Elevated anxiety-like and depressive behavior in Desert hedgehog knockout male mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;174:167-73 pubmed
    ..These behavioral abnormalities of Dhh KO male mice may be due to lower testosterone levels with abnormal development of the testes caused by Dhh-null mutation. ..
  2. D Aquila P, Panin F, Serra G. Long-term imipramine withdrawal induces a depressive-like behaviour in the forced swimming test. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;492:61-3 pubmed
  3. Hazard D, Leclaire S, Couty M, Guémené D. Genetic differences in coping strategies in response to prolonged and repeated restraint in Japanese quail divergently selected for long or short tonic immobility. Horm Behav. 2008;54:645-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Schulz D, Huston J, Buddenberg T, Topic B. "Despair" induced by extinction trials in the water maze: relationship with measures of anxiety in aged and adult rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;87:309-23 pubmed
    ..The extinction-despair model is held to provide the promise of a conceptual and empirical model of human depression that is the consequence of withdrawal of reinforcement. ..
  5. Hoshaw B, Evans J, Mueller B, Valentino R, Lucki I. Social competition in rats: cell proliferation and behavior. Behav Brain Res. 2006;175:343-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, prolonged social competition, based on restricted access to palatable substances, produced hierarchies among individuals that were associated with differences in behavior, physiology and hippocampal cell proliferation. ..
  6. Tornberg J, Segerstrale M, Kulesskaya N, Voikar V, Taira T, Airaksinen M. KCC2-deficient mice show reduced sensitivity to diazepam, but normal alcohol-induced motor impairment, gaboxadol-induced sedation, and neurosteroid-induced hypnosis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:911-8 pubmed
    ..Electrophysiological recordings show that the tonic conductance is not affected. The results suggest that KCC2 activity is more critical for behaviors dependent on phasic than tonic GABAergic inhibition. ..
  7. Vilela F, Padilha M, Alves da Silva G, Soncini R, Giusti Paiva A. Antidepressant-like activity of Sonchus oleraceus in mouse models of immobility tests. J Med Food. 2010;13:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..oleraceus in mice. Therefore, a standardized S. oleraceus extract or its purified constituents could be of potential interest for the treatment of depressive disorders...
  8. Beaumont C, Roussot O, Feve K, Vignoles F, Leroux S, Pitel F, et al. A genome scan with AFLP markers to detect fearfulness-related QTLs in Japanese quail. Anim Genet. 2005;36:401-7 pubmed
    ..A significant QTL for BW2 was observed on GL2 and a nearly significant one on GL1. These results may be useful in the understanding of fearfulness in quail and related species provided that fearfulness has the same genetic basis. ..
  9. Avgustinovich D. Anxiety in females induced by long-lasting psychoemotional influences. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2005;35:193-9 pubmed
    ..There was also an increase in the time spent by females close to the partition both 5 min before the start of the conflict and during the intermale conflict. ..
  10. Hill W, Bassi K, Bonaventura L, Sacus J. Prehatch entrainment of circadian rhythms in the domestic chick using different light regimes. Dev Psychobiol. 2004;45:174-86 pubmed
    ..The onset of entrainment is earlier than predicted and suggests that the brain structures mediating circadian rhythms mature sooner than proposed by previous research. ..
  11. Allen P, D anci K, Kanarek R, Renshaw P. Chronic creatine supplementation alters depression-like behavior in rodents in a sex-dependent manner. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:534-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanisms of action are unclear, sex differences in creatine metabolism and the hormonal milieu are likely involved. ..
  12. Ferreira M, Menescal de Oliveira L. Role of dorsal raphe nucleus 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors in tonic immobility modulation in guinea pigs. Brain Res. 2009;1285:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..01 microg) of ketanserine. Since the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) agonists decreased and increased, respectively, the duration of TI, different serotonin receptor subtypes may play distinct roles in the modulation of TI in the guinea pig. ..
  13. Tanaka M, Telegdy G. Antidepressant-like effects of the CRF family peptides, urocortin 1, urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 in a modified forced swimming test in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2008;75:509-12 pubmed publisher
  14. Jones R, Marin R, Satterlee D. Adrenocortical responses of Japanese quail to a routine weighing procedure and to tonic immobility induction. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1675-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, we believe that the use of TI is justified, and it does not require classification as a regulated procedure in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. ..
  15. Pamplona F, Pandolfo P, Duarte F, Takahashi R, Prediger R. Altered emotionality leads to increased pain tolerance in amyloid beta (Abeta1-40) peptide-treated mice. Behav Brain Res. 2010;212:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Abeta(1-40) peptide increases pain tolerance, but not pain sensitivity in mice, which seems to be linked to alterations in cognitive/emotional components of pain processing. ..
  16. Verbeek P, Iwamoto T, Murakami N. Variable stress-responsiveness in wild type and domesticated fighting fish. Physiol Behav. 2008;93:83-8 pubmed
    ..The fighter strain, but not the wild type, adopted a behavioral strategy of immobility from the very beginning of confinement. ..
  17. Kelley S, Alan J, O Buckley T, Mennerick S, Krishnan K, Covey D, et al. Antagonism of neurosteroid modulation of native gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors by (3alpha,5alpha)-17-phenylandrost-16-en-3-ol. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;572:94-101 pubmed
    ..alphaxalone in recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 receptors. These data provide further evidence of the specificity of 17PA and the heterogeneity of neurosteroid recognition sites on GABAA receptors in the CNS. ..
  18. Hellión Ibarrola M, Ibarrola D, Montalbetti Y, Kennedy M, Heinichen O, Campuzano M, et al. The antidepressant-like effects of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke (Verbenaceae) in mice. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the hydro-ethanolic extract and the component(s) of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from A. polystachya, which deserve further investigation...
  19. Yang L, Hu B, Xia Y, Zhang B, Zhao H. Lateral habenula lesions improve the behavioral response in depressed rats via increasing the serotonin level in dorsal raphe nucleus. Behav Brain Res. 2008;188:84-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that the lesion of the LHb could improve the behavioral response of the depressed rats and the 5-HT level of the DRN increased by LHb lesions could be involved in the effects. ..
  20. Hennessy M, Schiml Webb P, Miller E, Maken D, Bullinger K, Deak T. Anti-inflammatory agents attenuate the passive responses of guinea pig pups: evidence for stress-induced sickness behavior during maternal separation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:508-15 pubmed
    ..Together these results provide further support for the hypothesis that the passive behaviors exhibited during prolonged isolation are "stress-induced sickness behaviors" mediated by proinflammatory factors. ..
  21. Bland B, Derie Gillespie D, Mestek P, Jackson J, Crooks R, Cormican A. To move or not: previous experience in a runway avoidance task determines the appearance of hippocampal Type 2 sensory processing theta. Behav Brain Res. 2007;179:299-304 pubmed
    ..Following reversal training to escapable shock, all shock avoidance-trained rats responded with LIA and inescapable shock trained rats, reversed to shock avoidance, displayed theta. ..
  22. Yang Y, Li W, Zhu B, Liu Y, Yang B, Wang H, et al. Sex differences in antidepressant-like effect of chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:735-40 pubmed
    ..The result suggested the antidepressant-like effects of chronic rTMS on behavioral components in FST are gender-dependent. The gender discrepancy related to rTMS should not be neglected in antidepressant treatment of rTMS. ..
  23. Wu X, Kastin A, Hsuchou H, Pan W. The effects of IL2Rgamma knockout on depression and contextual memory. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:319-22 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparison, the auditory fear conditioning test showed increased retention of contextual freezing. Thus, intact IL2Rgamma combats depressive-like behavior. ..
  24. Tsai J. Potential antidepressant effect of infrared irradiation has seasonality. Photomed Laser Surg. 2009;27:943-6 pubmed publisher
    ..602, 0.465, respectively). Taken together with the results of the previous study, the present results indicate that the antidepressant effect of IR irradiation has seasonality. ..
  25. Fiszman A, Mendlowicz M, Marques Portella C, Volchan E, Coutinho E, Souza W, et al. Peritraumatic tonic immobility predicts a poor response to pharmacological treatment in victims of urban violence with PTSD. J Affect Disord. 2008;107:193-7 pubmed
  26. de Lange R, Wiegant V, Stam R. Altered neuropeptide Y and neurokinin messenger RNA expression and receptor binding in stress-sensitised rats. Brain Res. 2008;1212:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These long-term changes in brain neuropeptide systems could offer novel leads for pharmacological modulation of long-term stress-induced sensitisation. ..
  27. Bados A, Toribio L, García Grau E. Traumatic events and tonic immobility. Span J Psychol. 2008;11:516-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude tentatively that tonic immobility may be typical not only of sexual traumas, but of other kinds of directly experienced traumas as well. ..
  28. Chen Y, Dai T, Zeng Y. Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors mediate the analgesic but not hypnotic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics. Pharmacology. 2007;80:151-7 pubmed
    ..05, p < 0.01). These results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may contribute to the analgesic but not to the hypnotic effects induced by ether, enflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. ..
  29. Bilde T, Tuni C, Elsayed R, Pekar S, Toft S. Death feigning in the face of sexual cannibalism. Biol Lett. 2006;2:23-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that death feigning evolved as an adaptive male mating strategy in conjunction with nuptial gift giving under the risk of being victimized by females. ..
  30. Morgan M, Clayton C. Defensive behaviors evoked from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat: comparison of opioid and GABA disinhibition. Behav Brain Res. 2005;164:61-6 pubmed
  31. Jardinaud F, Crete D, Canestrelli C, Ledent C, Roques B, Noble F. CB1 receptor knockout mice show similar behavioral modifications to wild-type mice when enkephalin catabolism is inhibited. Brain Res. 2005;1063:77-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest limited physiological interaction between cannabinoid and opioid systems. ..
  32. Franco J, Posser T, Brocardo P, Trevisan R, Uliano Silva M, Gabilan N, et al. Involvement of glutathione, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BDNF expression in the antidepressant-like effect of zinc in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2008;188:316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It is our hypothesis that up-regulation of neuroprotective effectors (GSH, ERK and BDNF) may be related to the antidepressant properties of zinc, but this will require additional work to be confirmed. ..
  33. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y. Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005;51:265-74 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the increase in immobility time in the TST was induced by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and was thought to be a consequence of motor dysfunction in this mouse model of PD. ..
  34. El Alfy A, Ivey K, Robinson K, Ahmed S, Radwan M, Slade D, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95:434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis. ..
  35. Karasawa J, Shimazaki T, Kawashima N, Chaki S. AMPA receptor stimulation mediates the antidepressant-like effect of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist. Brain Res. 2005;1042:92-8 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with NBQX significantly attenuated the increase in serotonin release by MGS0039. These findings suggest that stimulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors plays a role in mediating the pharmacological effects of MGS0039...
  36. Gigliucci V, Buckley K, Nunan J, O Shea K, Harkin A. A role for serotonin in the antidepressant activity of NG-Nitro-L-arginine, in the rat forced swimming test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;94:524-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data provide further support for a role for 5-HT in the antidepressant-like properties of NOS inhibitors. ..
  37. de Meira Santos Lima M, Braga Reksidler A, Marques Zanata S, Bueno Machado H, Tufik S, Vital M. Different parkinsonism models produce a time-dependent induction of COX-2 in the substantia nigra of rats. Brain Res. 2006;1101:117-25 pubmed
    ..Such time-dependent induction has been found to be relatively constant, a fact of great significance considering the importance of the neuroinflammatory process in Parkinson's disease. ..
  38. Valance D, Boissy A, Despres G, Constantin P, Leterrier C. Emotional reactivity modulates autonomic responses to an acoustic challenge in quail. Physiol Behav. 2007;90:165-71 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, both the basal autonomic activity and the autonomic responses differed according to the emotional reactivity, and changes in autonomic activity appear to be related to the genetic selection process. ..
  39. Tizabi Y, Hauser S, Tyler K, Getachew B, Madani R, Sharma Y, et al. Effects of nicotine on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal volume of female WKY rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further validate the use of WKY rats as an animal model of human depression and signify the importance of inherent genetic differences in final behavioral outcome of nicotine. ..
  40. Nakayama S, Miyatake T. Genetic trade-off between abilities to avoid attack and to mate: a cost of tonic immobility. Biol Lett. 2010;6:18-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study showing a genetic trade-off between abilities to mate and to avoid predation in relation to behavioural syndromes, using individuals exhibiting different behavioural strategies. ..
  41. Dennis R, Muir W, Cheng H. Effects of raclopride on aggression and stress in diversely selected chicken lines. Behav Brain Res. 2006;175:104-11 pubmed
    ..The data further indicate that the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis is directly involved in regulating both stress coping strategy and aggressiveness...
  42. Patra B, Overstreet D, Rezvani A, Cleves M, Parsian A. Analysis of alcohol-related phenotypes in F2 progeny derived from FH/Wjd and ACI/N rat strains reveals independent measures and sex differences. Behav Brain Res. 2007;177:37-44 pubmed
    ..0001) greater effect on forced alcohol intake than the FH father. It is concluded from these analyses that alcohol-related phenotypes are segregating independently and may be influenced by maternal and sex factors. ..
  43. Ohnishi H, Murata T, Kusakari S, Hayashi Y, Takao K, Maruyama T, et al. Stress-evoked tyrosine phosphorylation of signal regulatory protein ? regulates behavioral immobility in the forced swim test. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPalpha is important for regulation of depression-like behavior in the response of the brain to stress. ..
  44. Jiang Y, Jakovcevski M, Bharadwaj R, Connor C, Schroeder F, Lin C, et al. Setdb1 histone methyltransferase regulates mood-related behaviors and expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7152-67 pubmed publisher
  45. Lobato K, Cardoso C, Binfaré R, Budni J, Wagner C, Brocardo P, et al. alpha-Tocopherol administration produces an antidepressant-like effect in predictive animal models of depression. Behav Brain Res. 2010;209:249-59 pubmed publisher
  46. Rahman Z, Ring R, Young K, Platt B, Lin Q, Schechter L, et al. Inhibition of uptake 2 (or extraneuronal monoamine transporter) by normetanephrine potentiates the neurochemical effects of venlafaxine. Brain Res. 2008;1203:68-78 pubmed publisher
  47. Egashira N, Koushi E, Okuno R, Shirakawa A, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, et al. Depression-like behavior and reduced plasma testosterone levels in the senescence-accelerated mouse. Behav Brain Res. 2010;209:142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate that testosterone may play an important role in the depression-like behavior in SAMP10. ..
  48. Gupta A, Mishra P, Kashaw S, Jatav V, Stables J. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of some novel 3-aryl amino/amino-4-aryl-5-imino-Delta2-1,2,4-thiadiazoline. Eur J Med Chem. 2008;43:749-54 pubmed
    ..Some of the compounds were evaluated for the Phenobarbitone induced hypnosis potentiation test. Among the compounds tested, all except 2h showed protection from MES seizures, whereas only 3b was found to be active in the ScPTZ test. ..
  49. Cain C, Blouin A, Barad M. Adrenergic transmission facilitates extinction of conditional fear in mice. Learn Mem. 2004;11:179-87 pubmed
    ..They also provide clear evidence that spaced CS presentations trigger both fear-reducing (extinction) and fear-increasing (incubation) mechanisms. ..
  50. Mathews I, Wilton A, Styles A, McCormick C. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2008;190:33-40 pubmed publisher
  51. Fregoso Aguilar T, Zamudio S. Differential effect of testosterone and repetitive induction on cataleptic and dorsal immobility in mice. Horm Behav. 2006;50:27-32 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that there are multiple immobility systems that can be differentially modulated by brain regions associated with processes of learning. ..
  52. Weil Z, Huang A, Beigneux A, Kim P, Molliver M, Blackshaw S, et al. Behavioural alterations in male mice lacking the gene for D-aspartate oxidase. Behav Brain Res. 2006;171:295-302 pubmed
  53. Kokare D, Singru P, Dandekar M, Chopde C, Subhedar N. Involvement of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in differential ethanol exposure and withdrawal related depression in rat: neuroanatomical-behavioral correlates. Brain Res. 2008;1216:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the alpha-MSH-immunoreactive profile in the PVT and LH did not respond. alpha-MSH in discrete areas may play a role in ethanol-induced antidepressant-like response and withdrawal-induced depression. ..