cataleptic freezing reaction


Summary: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.

Top Publications

  1. Herry C, Ciocchi S, Senn V, Demmou L, Muller C, Lüthi A. Switching on and off fear by distinct neuronal circuits. Nature. 2008;454:600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide a new framework for understanding context-dependent changes of fear behaviour. ..
  2. Gozzi A, Jain A, Giovannelli A, Giovanelli A, Bertollini C, Crestan V, et al. A neural switch for active and passive fear. Neuron. 2010;67:656-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a neural circuit in CeA that biases fear responses toward either passive or active coping strategies...
  3. Resstel L, Joca S, Guimarães F, Correa F. Involvement of medial prefrontal cortex neurons in behavioral and cardiovascular responses to contextual fear conditioning. Neuroscience. 2006;143:377-85 pubmed
    ..They also indicate a cardiovascular response observed during re-exposure of non-conditioned rats to the context is completely dependent on vMPFC integrity. ..
  4. Resstel L, Joca S, Moreira F, Correa F, Guimarães F. Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2006;172:294-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that CBD has anxiolytic-like properties similar to those of diazepam in a rat model of conditioned fear to context. ..
  5. Quinn J, Ma Q, Tinsley M, Koch C, Fanselow M. Inverse temporal contributions of the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex to the expression of long-term fear memories. Learn Mem. 2008;15:368-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly support the consolidation theory of hippocampus function and implicate the mPFC as a site of long-term memory storage/retrieval. ..
  6. Hunt P, Levillain M, Spector B, Kostelnik L. Post-training ethanol disrupts trace conditioned fear in rats: effects of timing of ethanol, dose and trace interval duration. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively the results suggest that ethanol administration impairs post-acquisition memory processing of hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning. ..
  7. Godsil B, Stefanacci L, Fanselow M. Bright light suppresses hyperactivity induced by excitotoxic dorsal hippocampus lesions in the rat. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119:1339-52 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a mild fear stimulus, such as bright light, can suppress DH lesion-evoked hyperactivity, and this hyperactivity results from impaired contextual processing. ..
  8. Mecawi A, Araujo I, Fonseca F, Almeida Pereira G, Cortes W, Rocha F, et al. Behavioural changes induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition during pregnancy and lactation in adult offspring rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:495-500 pubmed publisher
  9. McHugh T, Tonegawa S. CA3 NMDA receptors are required for the rapid formation of a salient contextual representation. Hippocampus. 2009;19:1153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest CA3 contributes both speed and salience to contextual processing and support the theory of competition between multimodal and unimodal conditioned stimuli for associative learning. ..

More Information


  1. Chowdhury N, Quinn J, Fanselow M. Dorsal hippocampus involvement in trace fear conditioning with long, but not short, trace intervals in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119:1396-402 pubmed
    ..Given this difference in time scale along with the use of posttraining DH lesions, hippocampus dependency of trace conditioning is not related to a bridging function or response timing. ..
  2. Lehner M, Wisłowska Stanek A, Taracha E, Maciejak P, Szyndler J, Skórzewska A, et al. The expression of c-Fos and colocalisation of c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors in brain structures of low and high anxiety rats subjected to extinction trials and re-learning of a conditioned fear response. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;92:535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that recovery of a context-related behaviour upon re-learning of contextual fear is accompanied in HR animals by a selective increase in c-Fos expression and GRs-ir in the DG area of the hippocampus. ..
  3. Bethancourt J, Camarena Z, Britton G. Exposure to oral methylphenidate from adolescence through young adulthood produces transient effects on hippocampal-sensitive memory in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009;202:50-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Chang Y, Yang C, Liang Y, Yeh C, Huang C, Hsu K. Estrogen modulates sexually dimorphic contextual fear extinction in rats through estrogen receptor beta. Hippocampus. 2009;19:1142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a crucial role for estrogen in mediating sexually dimorphic contextual fear extinction, and that estrogen-mediated enhancement of fear extinction involves the activation of ERbeta. ..
  5. Resstel L, Correa F, Guimarães F. The expression of contextual fear conditioning involves activation of an NMDA receptor-nitric oxide pathway in the medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2027-35 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that a vMPFC NMDA-NO pathway may play an important role on expression of contextual fear conditioning. ..
  6. Bruchey A, Gonzalez Lima F. Brain activity associated with fear renewal. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:3567-77 pubmed
    ..These findings support Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory as a neural mechanism contributing to the renewal effect. ..
  7. Rabinak C, Maren S. Associative structure of fear memory after basolateral amygdala lesions in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:1284-94 pubmed publisher
  8. Cortese B, Uhde T. Immobilization panic. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1453-4 pubmed
  9. Endres T, Fendt M. Conditioned behavioral responses to a context paired with the predator odor trimethylthiazoline. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121:594-601 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that expression of conditioned fear behavior in response to a TMT-paired context is dependent on the experimental setup used, as well as the strategy of the individual rat. ..
  10. Gomes G, Mello C, da Rosa M, Bochi G, Ferreira J, Barron S, et al. Polyaminergic agents modulate contextual fear extinction in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;93:589-95 pubmed publisher
  11. Eilam D. Die hard: a blend of freezing and fleeing as a dynamic defense--implications for the control of defensive behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29:1181-91 pubmed
  12. Migues P, Hardt O, Wu D, Gamache K, Sacktor T, Wang Y, et al. PKMzeta maintains memories by regulating GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor trafficking. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:630-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that PKMzeta maintains long-term memory by regulating the trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, the postsynaptic expression of which directly predicts memory retention. ..
  13. Lehner M, Taracha E, Skórzewska A, Turzyńska D, Sobolewska A, Maciejak P, et al. Expression of c-Fos and CRF in the brains of rats differing in the strength of a fear response. Behav Brain Res. 2008;188:154-67 pubmed
    ..It was shown that different natural patterns of responding to conditioned aversive stimuli are associated with different involvement of brain structures and with dissimilar neurochemical mechanisms. ..
  14. Villasana L, Rosenberg J, Raber J. Sex-dependent effects of 56Fe irradiation on contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice. Hippocampus. 2010;20:19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Such impairment was not seen for hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Thus, the effects of (56)Fe irradiation on hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning are critically modulated by sex. ..
  15. Ruskin D, LaHoste G. Reduced-volume cues effectively support fear conditioning despite sleep deprivation. Physiol Behav. 2009;96:64-6 pubmed publisher
    ..24 h sleep deprivation, however, blocked contextual fear in the same mice. These results support a pattern of sleep deprivation sparing amygdaloid function but impairing hippocampal function. ..
  16. Gonzalez Lima F, Bruchey A. Extinction memory improvement by the metabolic enhancer methylene blue. Learn Mem. 2004;11:633-40 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that MB administered postextinction could enhance retention of extinction memory through an increase in brain cytochrome oxidase activity. ..
  17. Yokoyama M, Suzuki E, Sato T, Maruta S, Watanabe S, Miyaoka H. Amygdalic levels of dopamine and serotonin rise upon exposure to conditioned fear stress without elevation of glutamate. Neurosci Lett. 2005;379:37-41 pubmed
    ..The periods of elevated dopamine and serotonin were longer on Day 1 than on Day 2. These results suggest that greater amounts of glutamate, dopamine and serotonin are necessary for acquisition than for recall of conditioned fear. ..
  18. Bittencourt A, Nakamura Palacios E, Mauad H, Tufik S, Schenberg L. Organization of electrically and chemically evoked defensive behaviors within the deeper collicular layers as compared to the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat. Neuroscience. 2005;133:873-92 pubmed
  19. Heldt S, Ressler K. Lesions of the habenula produce stress- and dopamine-dependent alterations in prepulse inhibition and locomotion. Brain Res. 2006;1073-1074:229-39 pubmed
    ..Lesioned animals also showed diminished activity at baseline, with hyperlocomotion following apomorphine. These data support the hypothesis that the habenula may be normally involved in stress-dependent regulation of monoamine systems. ..
  20. Kamemori N, Takeuchi T, Hayashida K, Harada E. Suppressive effects of milk-derived lactoferrin on psychological stress in adult rats. Brain Res. 2004;1029:34-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it is suggested that bLF possibly activates an endogenous opioidergic system via nitric oxide synthase activation. ..
  21. Shishelova A. [Manifestation of active and passive defensive behavior in juvenile rats]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2006;56:775-81 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the structure of defensive behavior changes with maturation of principal defensive reactions in rats within the first 40 postnatal days. ..
  22. Malkani S, Wallace K, Donley M, Rosen J. An egr-1 (zif268) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infused into the amygdala disrupts fear conditioning. Learn Mem. 2004;11:617-24 pubmed
  23. Matus Amat P, Higgins E, Sprunger D, Wright Hardesty K, Rudy J. The role of dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala NMDA receptors in the acquisition and retrieval of context and contextual fear memories. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121:721-31 pubmed
    ..However, both DL-AP5 and L-AP5 reduced the expression of fear when they were injected into the amygdala prior to testing for contextual fear. ..
  24. Sanford L, Yang L, Wellman L, Liu X, Tang X. Differential effects of controllable and uncontrollable footshock stress on sleep in mice. Sleep. 2010;33:621-30 pubmed
    ..Contextual freezing was enhanced in both ES and IS mice. The directionally opposite changes in REM suggest that stressor controllability is an important factor in the effects of stress and stressful memories on sleep. ..
  25. Do Monte F, Allensworth M, Carobrez A. Impairment of contextual conditioned fear extinction after microinjection of alpha-1-adrenergic blocker prazosin into the medial prefrontal cortex. Behav Brain Res. 2010;211:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that either systemic or intra-mPFC-alpha-1-adrenergic blockade increased the freezing time in the last extinction sessions, suggesting impairment of the extinction of contextual conditioned fear in rats. ..
  26. Nieto M, Guen S, Kieffer B, Roques B, Noble F. Physiological control of emotion-related behaviors by endogenous enkephalins involves essentially the delta opioid receptors. Neuroscience. 2005;135:305-13 pubmed
    ..These findings could open new perspectives in the treatment of mood disorders using either inhibitors of enkephalin catabolism or delta opioid agonists. ..
  27. Jhou T. Neural mechanisms of freezing and passive aversive behaviors. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:111-4 pubmed
    ..Because freezing pathways may control a variety of other passive aversive behaviors, their elucidation may help understand the mechanisms of addictions and compulsions, which involve a failure of aversive outcomes to inhibit behavior. ..
  28. de Castro Gomes V, Landeira Fernandez J. Amygdaloid lesions produced similar contextual fear conditioning disruption in the Carioca high- and low-conditioned freezing rats. Brain Res. 2008;1233:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that post-training amygdaloid electrolytic lesions lead to similar disruptions in conditioned freezing behavior in both animal lines. ..
  29. Tian S, Gao J, Han L, Fu J, Li C, Li Z. Prior chronic nicotine impairs cued fear extinction but enhances contextual fear conditioning in rats. Neuroscience. 2008;153:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This prior chronic nicotine-induced deficit in cued fear extinction and/or enhanced fear to context may be one of the critical components that contribute to the progression from nicotine dependence to an anxiety disorder. ..
  30. Greenwood B, Strong P, Foley T, Fleshner M. A behavioral analysis of the impact of voluntary physical activity on hippocampus-dependent contextual conditioning. Hippocampus. 2009;19:988-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Wheel running increased BDNF mRNA in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and the basolateral amygdala. Results are consistent with improved hippocampal function following physical activity. ..
  31. Mamiya N, Fukushima H, Suzuki A, Matsuyama Z, Homma S, Frankland P, et al. Brain region-specific gene expression activation required for reconsolidation and extinction of contextual fear memory. J Neurosci. 2009;29:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments establish that reactivated contextual fear memories undergo CREB-dependent reconsolidation or extinction in distinct brain regions. ..
  32. Calvo F, Coimbra N. Interactions between opioid-peptides-containing pathways and GABA(A)-receptors-mediated systems modulate panic-like-induced behaviors elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Brain Res. 2006;1104:92-102 pubmed
  33. Rosen J, West E, Donley M. Not all rat strains are equal: differential unconditioned fear responses to the synthetic fox odor 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline in three outbred rat strains. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:290-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, TMT is a robust unconditioned fear stimulus in rats, and prior negative results from other laboratories were due to the choice of a rat strain (Wistar) that is less responsive to TMT. ..
  34. Burman M, Murawski N, Schiffino F, Rosen J, Stanton M. Factors governing single-trial contextual fear conditioning in the weanling rat. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123:1148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the conjuctive representations underlying the CPFE are NMDA-dependent as early as PND23 in the rat. ..
  35. Endres T, Fendt M. Aversion- vs fear-inducing properties of 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline, a component of fox odor, in comparison with those of butyric acid. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:2324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the hypothesis that TMT indeed has specific fear-inducing properties and that the observed behavioral effects could not simply be reduced to the aversive properties of TMT...
  36. Detert J, Kampa N, Moyer J. Differential effects of training intertrial interval on acquisition of trace and long-delay fear conditioning in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:1318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that training ITI is an important variable to consider when evaluating age or treatment effects, where the optimal ITI may vary with advancing age or pharmacological treatment. ..
  37. Brown T, Wilson A, Cocking D, Sorg B. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity disrupts reconsolidation but not consolidation of a fear memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:66-72 pubmed publisher
  38. Jovanov E, Wang E, Verhagen L, Fredrickson M, Fratangelo R. deFOG--A real time system for detection and unfreezing of gait of Parkinson's patients. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:5151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In a limited test run of 4 test cases the system was able to detect freezing of gait with average latency of 332 ms, and maximum latency of 580 ms. ..
  39. McNally G, Lee B, Chiem J, Choi E. The midbrain periaqueductal gray and fear extinction: opioid receptor subtype and roles of cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119:1023-33 pubmed
    ..These mechanisms are different from the cellular mechanisms for extinction in the amygdala and from the known cellular mechanisms for opioid analgesia in the vlPAG. ..
  40. Guijarro J, Tiba P, Ferreira T, Kawakami S, Oliveira M, Suchecki D. Effects of brief and long maternal separations on the HPA axis activity and the performance of rats on context and tone fear conditioning. Behav Brain Res. 2007;184:101-8 pubmed
    ..e., both manipulations lead to similar performance in hippocampus-dependent and independent memory tasks. ..
  41. Sklan E, Berson A, Birikh K, Gutnick A, Shahar O, Shoham S, et al. Acetylcholinesterase modulates stress-induced motor responses through catalytic and noncatalytic properties. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:741-51 pubmed
    ..Acetylcholinesterase modulates stress-induced motor responses and facilitates resumption of normal motor behavior following stress through both catalytic and noncatalytic features. ..
  42. Coleta M, Campos M, Cotrim M, Lima T, Cunha A. Assessment of luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) neuropharmacological activity. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189:75-82 pubmed publisher
  43. Lehmann H, Lacanilao S, Sutherland R. Complete or partial hippocampal damage produces equivalent retrograde amnesia for remote contextual fear memories. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1278-86 pubmed
    ..These findings support the idea that the hippocampal formation has an essential and long-lasting, possibly permanent, role in memory for contexts...
  44. Laurent V, Westbrook R. Inactivation of the infralimbic but not the prelimbic cortex impairs consolidation and retrieval of fear extinction. Learn Mem. 2009;16:520-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of the IL is discussed in terms of a contemporary neural model of fear extinction. ..
  45. Ruuskanen S, Laaksonen T. Yolk hormones have sex-specific long-term effects on behavior in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Horm Behav. 2010;57:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..As behaviour is strongly linked with fitness, our results suggest that yolk androgens may play a role in determining fitness, and thus play a potentially adaptive role...
  46. Ilin Y, Richter Levin G. ERK2 and CREB activation in the amygdala when an event is remembered as "Fearful" and not when it is remembered as "Instructive". J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our findings support the view that an emotionally charged reminder cue activates the amygdala but that, as a previously fear-evoking memory cue becomes instructive, the involvement of the amygdale lessens. ..
  47. Reynolds J, Ignatowski T, Sud R, Spengler R. An antidepressant mechanism of desipramine is to decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha production culminating in increases in noradrenergic neurotransmission. Neuroscience. 2005;133:519-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, the efficacy of desipramine is due to decreased levels of TNF in the brain induced by this drug, ultimately modifying noradrenergic neurotransmission. ..
  48. Brandão M, Borelli K, Nobre M, Santos J, Albrechet Souza L, Oliveira A, et al. Gabaergic regulation of the neural organization of fear in the midbrain tectum. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29:1299-311 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that GABAergic mechanisms of MT are also called into play when sensory gating of the MT is activated during different emotional states. ..
  49. Kwon J, Choi J. Cornering the fear engram: long-term synaptic changes in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala after fear conditioning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9700-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Ibi D, Nagai T, Koike H, Kitahara Y, Mizoguchi H, Niwa M, et al. Combined effect of neonatal immune activation and mutant DISC1 on phenotypic changes in adulthood. Behav Brain Res. 2010;206:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that combined effect of neonatal polyI:C treatment and DN-DISC1 affects some behavioral and histological phenotypes in adulthood. ..
  51. De Ross J, Avila M, Ruggiero R, Nobre M, Brandao M, Castilho V. The unconditioned fear produced by morphine withdrawal is regulated by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in the midbrain tectum. Behav Brain Res. 2009;204:140-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Li F, Zhang Y, Jing X, Yan C, Shen X. Memory impairment in early sensorimotor deprived rats is associated with suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and altered CREB signaling. Behav Brain Res. 2010;207:458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that early sensorimotor deprivation may alter CREB signaling, decrease Arc activation, suppress neurogenesis and ultimately impair memory. ..
  53. Baran S, Armstrong C, Niren D, Hanna J, Conrad C. Chronic stress and sex differences on the recall of fear conditioning and extinction. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:323-32 pubmed publisher