mucormycosis

Summary

Summary: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Spellberg B, Walsh T, Kontoyiannis D, Edwards J, Ibrahim A. Recent advances in the management of mucormycosis: from bench to bedside. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1743-51 pubmed publisher
    Recent therapeutic advances have the potential to improve outcomes of mucormycosis. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B (LFAB) have evolved as the cornerstone of primary therapy for mucormycosis...
  2. Santos Gorjón P, Blanco Pérez P, Batuecas Caletrio A, Muñoz Herrera A, Sánchez González F, de la Fuente Cañibano R. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis, a retrospective study of 7 cases. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2010;61:48-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by fungi of the Mucorales order. It has a low incidence and is a potentially lethal infection which generally affects patients who are immunocompromised due to systemic disease...
  3. Xess I, Mohapatra S, Shivaprakash M, Chakrabarti A, Benny G, O Donnell K, et al. Evidence implicating Thamnostylum lucknowense as an etiological agent of rhino-orbital mucormycosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1491-4 pubmed publisher
    In this report, we present a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in a 57-year-old female with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus...
  4. Artal R, Agreda B, Serrano E, Alfonso J, Vallés H. [Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: report on eight cases]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2010;61:301-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a serious condition, usually acute and often fatal, It presents in its most aggressive form in debilitated hosts, usually with diabetic ketoacidosis or immunosuppression...
  5. Giuliani A, Mettimano M, Viviani D, Scagliusi A, Bruno A, Russo A, et al. An uncommon case of systemic Mucormycosis associated with spinal cord infarction in a recently diagnosed diabetic. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:355-8 pubmed
    b>Mucormycosis is a relatively rare, opportunistic, invasive infection caused by various members of the Phycomycetes class [from Greek phyko- seaweed; having a plant body], an extensive taxonomy introduced in 1956 to enlarge the class of ..
  6. Spellberg B, Andes D, Perez M, Anglim A, Bonilla H, Mathisen G, et al. Safety and outcomes of open-label deferasirox iron chelation therapy for mucormycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..profile of open-label, adjunctive deferasirox iron chelation therapy in eight patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis. Deferasirox was administered for an average of 14 days (range, 7 to 21) at 5 to 20 mg/kg of body weight/day...
  7. Macgregor J, Holyoake C, Munks S, Robertson I, Warren K. Preliminary investigation into the prevalence of mucormycosis in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in three catchments in north-west Tasmania. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:190-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the distribution and prevalence of mucormycosis in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) from the Inglis, Emu and Black-Detention catchment areas in north-west Tasmania.
  8. Lewis R, Liao G, Wang W, Prince R, Kontoyiannis D. Voriconazole pre-exposure selects for breakthrough mucormycosis in a mixed model of Aspergillus fumigatus-Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection. Virulence. 2011;2:348-55 pubmed
    b>Mucormycosis is an uncommon fungal infection that has been increasingly reported in severely immunocompromised patients receiving Aspergillus-active antifungals...
  9. Pongas G, Lewis R, Samonis G, Kontoyiannis D. Voriconazole-associated zygomycosis: a significant consequence of evolving antifungal prophylaxis and immunosuppression practices?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 5:93-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an uncommon infection that afflicts severely immunocompromised patients and those with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Li H, Hwang S, Zhou C, Du J, Zhang J. Gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae: a case report and review of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in China over Past 20 years. Mycopathologia. 2013;176:123-8 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by zygomycetes that can be rapidly fatal if unrecognized...
  2. Ibrahim A, Kontoyiannis D. Update on mucormycosis pathogenesis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:508-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an increasingly common fungal infection with unacceptably high mortality...
  3. Saegeman V, Maertens J, Ectors N, Meersseman W, Lagrou K. Epidemiology of mucormycosis: review of 18 cases in a tertiary care hospital. Med Mycol. 2010;48:245-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive mycosis with high morbidity and mortality rates which mainly affects immunocompromised patients...
  4. Ibrahim A, Spellberg B, Walsh T, Kontoyiannis D. Pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S16-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection that occurs in patients who are immunocompromised because of diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and/or increased serum levels of available iron...
  5. Alvarez E, Stchigel A, Cano J, Sutton D, Fothergill A, Chander J, et al. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the emerging mucoralean fungus Apophysomyces: proposal of three new species. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010;27:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These species failed to assimilate esculin, whereas A. elegans was able to assimilate that glycoside. Amphotericin B and posaconazole are the most active in vitro drugs against Apophysomyces. ..
  6. Hofman V, Dhouibi A, Butori C, Padovani B, Gari Toussaint M, Garcia Hermoso D, et al. Usefulness of molecular biology performed with formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded tissue for the diagnosis of combined pulmonary invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in an immunocompromised patient. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:1 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of fatal necrotic pneumonia caused by combined pulmonary invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in a 66 year-old renal transplant recipient...
  7. Alexander B, Schell W, Siston A, Rao C, Bower W, Balajee S, et al. Fatal Apophysomyces elegans infection transmitted by deceased donor renal allografts. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:2161-7 pubmed publisher
    Two patients developed renal mucormycosis following transplantation of kidneys from the same donor, a near-drowning victim in a motor vehicle crash...
  8. Enoch D, Aliyu S, Sule O, Lewis S, Karas J. Posaconazole for the treatment of mucormycosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..there is no strong published clinical evidence to support its role as a single agent in the treatment of mucormycosis. Further studies are required to explore its role as a single agent and in combination therapy for the ..
  9. Rammaert B, Lanternier F, Poiree S, Kania R, Lortholary O. Diabetes and mucormycosis: a complex interplay. Diabetes Metab. 2012;38:193-204 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection that arises particularly in diabetic patients with or without other underlying conditions such as haematological malignancies or the need for solid-organ transplantation...
  10. Piazza R, Thomas W, Stawski W, Ford R. Mucormycosis of the face. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30:520-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report invasive cutaneous mucormycosis involving the face of an extensively burned patient with no prior medical history that would otherwise ..
  11. Liu M, Spellberg B, Phan Q, Fu Y, Fu Y, Lee A, et al. The endothelial cell receptor GRP78 is required for mucormycosis pathogenesis in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1914-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that causes a mortality rate of at least 50% despite first-line therapy...
  12. Alastruey Izquierdo A, Castelli M, Cuesta I, Zaragoza O, Monzon A, Mellado E, et al. In vitro activity of antifungals against Zygomycetes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 5:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Echinocandins are completely inactive in vitro, but may be an interesting option when used in combination with other drugs. ..
  13. Han J, Cheon J, Kim D, Chon H, Kim S, Kim T, et al. [Ileal mucormycosis diagnosed by colonoscopy in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2008;52:179-82 pubmed
    Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection often presents in immunocompromised patients...
  14. Van Sickels N, Hoffman J, Stuke L, Kempe K. Survival of a patient with trauma-induced mucormycosis using an aggressive surgical and medical approach. J Trauma. 2011;70:507-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a deadly angioinvasive fungal infection that is increasing in incidence. Gastrointestinal and abdominal involvement is rare, has higher mortality rates, and is frequently diagnosed late.
  15. Walsh T, Gamaletsou M, McGinnis M, Hayden R, Kontoyiannis D. Early clinical and laboratory diagnosis of invasive pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and disseminated mucormycosis (zygomycosis). Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S55-60 pubmed publisher
    Early diagnosis of invasive mucormycosis is important for timely therapeutic intervention, improved survival, and reduced morbidity...
  16. Gomes M, Lewis R, Kontoyiannis D. Mucormycosis caused by unusual mucormycetes, non-Rhizopus, -Mucor, and -Lichtheimia species. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:411-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucor, and Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) species are the most common members of the order Mucorales that cause mucormycosis, accounting for 70 to 80% of all cases...
  17. Baradkar V, Mathur M, Taklikar S, Rathi M, Kumar S. Fatal rhino-orbito-cerebral infection caused by Saksenaea vasiformis in an immunocompetent individual: first case report from India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:385-7 pubmed
    ..We believe this case to be the first case of rhino-orbito-cerebral infection due to Saksenaea vasiformis and that of second case in an immunocompetent patient in the world...
  18. Kwon Chung K. Taxonomy of fungi causing mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis (zygomycosis) and nomenclature of the disease: molecular mycologic perspectives. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S8-S15 pubmed publisher
    ..was originally described as a convenient and inclusive name for 2 clinicopathologically different diseases, mucormycosis caused by members of Mucorales and entomophthoramycosis caused by species in the order Entomophthorales of ..
  19. Thomas A, Shah S, Mathews M, Chacko N. Apophysomyces elegans - renal mucormycosis in a healthy host: a case report from south India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:269-71 pubmed
    ..Ureterorenoscopy was performed, fungal elements removed and pathological confirmation obtained. The patient subsequently underwent nephrectomy after treatment with amphotericin B. He made an uneventful recovery...
  20. Chakrabarti A, Shivaprakash M, Curfs Breuker I, Baghela A, Klaassen C, Meis J. Apophysomyces elegans: epidemiology, amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, and in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Posaconazole is the most active drug against the isolates, followed by itraconazole. The MICs of amphotericin B against A. elegans were higher than those of the other drugs...
  21. Ben Ami R, Lewis R, Tarrand J, Leventakos K, Kontoyiannis D. Antifungal activity of colistin against mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:484-90 pubmed publisher
    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options...
  22. Doni B, Peerapur B, Thotappa L, Hippargi S. Sequence of oral manifestations in rhino-maxillary mucormycosis. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:331-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis, caused by saprophytic fungi of the order Mucorales of the class Zygomycetes, is a rare opportunistic fungal infection, which has a rapidly progressive and fulminant course with fatal outcome...
  23. Lewis R, Ben Ami R, Best L, Albert N, Walsh T, Kontoyiannis D. Tacrolimus enhances the potency of posaconazole against Rhizopus oryzae in vitro and in an experimental model of mucormycosis. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:834-41 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that tacrolimus, an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, would enhance the in vivo activity of posaconazole against Rhizopus oryzae, the Mucorales species most commonly associated with mucormycosis.
  24. Sochaj M, Claridge M, Green N, Fox A. Intravascular mucormycosis as a cause of arm ischemia in an immunocompromised patient. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50:193-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection primarily affecting patients with immunosuppression. We present a case of upper limb ischemia secondary to mucormycosis...
  25. Skiada A, Lanternier F, Groll A, Pagano L, Zimmerli S, Herbrecht R, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis in patients with hematological malignancies: guidelines from the 3rd European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL 3). Haematologica. 2013;98:492-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an emerging cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, there are no recommendations to guide diagnosis and management...
  26. Abboud C, Bergamasco M, Baia C, Lallee M, Zan A, Zamorano M, et al. Case report of hepatic mucormycosis after liver transplantation: successful treatment with liposomal amphotericin B followed by posaconazole sequential therapy. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:2501-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a rare but emerging fungal infection complicating solid organ transplantation (SOT), with a cumulative incidence of around 2% during the first year after SOT...
  27. Shiva Prasad B, Shenoy A, Nataraj K. Primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in an immunocompetent person. J Postgrad Med. 2008;54:211-3 pubmed
    In the past decade, mucormycosis has emerged as an important lethal infection in diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts...
  28. Quan C, Spellberg B. Mucormycosis, pseudallescheriasis, and other uncommon mold infections. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010;7:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize current knowledge about non-Aspergillus mold infections of the chest, with a focus on risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment...
  29. Anand J, Ghazala K, Chong V. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to colonic mucormycosis. Med J Malaysia. 2011;66:266-7 pubmed
    ..She later developed massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to colonic mucormycosis. Her condition deteriorated rapidly and she died of septicemia...
  30. Woo P, Lau S, Ngan A, Tung E, Leung S, To K, et al. Lichtheimia hongkongensis sp. nov., a novel Lichtheimia spp. associated with rhinocerebral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous mucormycosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;66:274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., to describe this fungus, which caused rhinocerebral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous mucormycosis, respectively, in 3 patients. A significant proportion of L...
  31. Kaushik R, Chander J, Gupta S, Sharma R, Punia R. Fatal primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Saksenaea vasiformis: case report and review of literature. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2012;13:125-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Saksenaea vasiformis is rare. Such infections usually are not suspected, and delay in their diagnosis and treatment results in a poor outcome...
  32. Chew H, Abuzeid A, Singh D, Tai C. Surgical wound mucormycosis necessitating hand amputation: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2008;16:267-9 pubmed
    We report an unusual case of cutaneous mucormycosis in a 17-year-old man who had no risk factors for fungal infection. The aggressive nature of cutaneous mucormycosis is illustrated...
  33. Kasliwal M, Reddy V, Sinha S, Sharma B, Das P, Suri V. Bilateral anterior cerebral artery aneurysm due to mucormycosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report an extremely rare occurrence of bilateral anterior cerebral artery aneurysms caused by mucormycosis. The infection was diagnosed after investigation of prolonged fever following transsphenoidal surgery...
  34. Hamilos G, Samonis G, Kontoyiannis D. Pulmonary mucormycosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32:693-702 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis (formerly zygomycosis) is a life-threatening opportunistic mycosis that infects a broad range of hosts with qualitative or quantitative defects in innate immunity, including patients with severe neutropenia, recipients of ..
  35. Hammond S, Baden L, Marty F. Mortality in hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with mucormycosis, 2001 to 2009. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:5018-21 pubmed publisher
    Mortality due to mucormycosis is high. We assessed clinical characteristics and mortality among stem cell transplant and hematologic malignancy patients diagnosed with mucormycosis from 2001 to 2009...
  36. Spellberg B, Ibrahim A, Roilides E, Lewis R, Lortholary O, Petrikkos G, et al. Combination therapy for mucormycosis: why, what, and how?. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S73-8 pubmed publisher
    The high mortality rate of mucormycosis with currently available monotherapy, particularly in hematology patients, has stimulated interest in studying novel combinations of antifungal agents to determine whether superior outcomes might be ..
  37. Ibrahim A, Gebremariam T, Liu M, Chamilos G, Kontoyiannis D, Mink R, et al. Bacterial endosymbiosis is widely present among zygomycetes but does not contribute to the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1083-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to define the role of rhizoxin production by endosymbionts in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Endosymbiotic bacteria were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 15 (54%) of 28 clinical isolates of ..
  38. Safder S, Carpenter J, Roberts T, Bailey N. The "Black Turbinate" sign: An early MR imaging finding of nasal mucormycosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:771-4 pubmed publisher
    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare angioinvasive fungal infection that has a strong predilection for patients with poorly controlled diabetes and immunosuppression...
  39. Reed C, Bryant R, Ibrahim A, Edwards J, Filler S, Goldberg R, et al. Combination polyene-caspofungin treatment of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:364-71 pubmed publisher
    It has been axiomatic that echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin) are ineffective against mucormycosis. However, on the basis of preclinical data, we recently began treating rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) with combination polyene-..
  40. Lanternier F, Dannaoui E, Morizot G, Elie C, Garcia Hermoso D, Huerre M, et al. A global analysis of mucormycosis in France: the RetroZygo Study (2005-2007). Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S35-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a deadly invasive fungal infection whose characteristics are only partially understood.
  41. Bitar D, Van Cauteren D, Lanternier F, Dannaoui E, Che D, Dromer F, et al. Increasing incidence of zygomycosis (mucormycosis), France, 1997-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Incidence also increased in the population of patients with diabetes mellitus. We conclude that observed trends reflect a genuine increase of zygomycosis cases in at-risk populations...
  42. Garner D, Machin K. Investigation and management of an outbreak of mucormycosis in a paediatric oncology unit. J Hosp Infect. 2008;70:53-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an aggressive and often fatal infection, despite conventional methods of treatment, which predominantly affects immunocompromised patients...
  43. Gupta R, Parelkar S, Oak S, Sanghvi B, Prakash A. Neonatal lingual and gastrointestinal mucormycosis in a case of low anorectal malformation-a rare presentation. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:745-748 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathology of the tissue specimen was suggestive of mucormycosis. Postoperatively, he received intravenous amphotericin B (liposomal) and was started on liquid enteral ..
  44. Aras M, Kara M, Erkilic S, Ay S. Mandibular mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:1362-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by a series of fungi in the Mucorales family in people with immune disorders...
  45. Ibrahim A, Edwards J, Bryant R, Spellberg B. Economic burden of mucormycosis in the United States: can a vaccine be cost-effective?. Med Mycol. 2009;47:592-600 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection which causes unacceptably high morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent mucormycosis is desirable...
  46. Mysorekar V, Rao S. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia with pulmonary mucormycosis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:294-5 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of mixed opportunistic lung infection in the form of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and mucormycosis in a renal transplant recipient...
  47. Spellberg B, Kontoyiannis D, Fredricks D, Morris M, Perfect J, Chin Hong P, et al. Risk factors for mortality in patients with mucormycosis. Med Mycol. 2012;50:611-8 pubmed publisher
    Optimal clinical care and clinical investigation of patients with mucormycosis are limited by absence of controlled trials, and absence of well-defined predictors of mortality or clinical response...
  48. Ma L, Ibrahim A, Skory C, Grabherr M, Burger G, Butler M, et al. Genomic analysis of the basal lineage fungus Rhizopus oryzae reveals a whole-genome duplication. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000549 pubmed publisher
    Rhizopus oryzae is the primary cause of mucormycosis, an emerging, life-threatening infection characterized by rapid angioinvasive growth with an overall mortality rate that exceeds 50%...
  49. Dhingra K, Mandal S, Khurana N. Unsuspected intestinal mucormycosis in a neonate presenting as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2008;18:119-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis of the gut in neonates is rare, difficult to recognize and hence usually fatal. These cases are usually diagnosed initially as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which leads to a delay in specific treatment...
  50. Saegeman V, Maertens J, Meersseman W, Spriet I, Verbeken E, Lagrou K. Increasing incidence of mucormycosis in University Hospital, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1456-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine why incidence of mucormycosis infections was increasing in a large university hospital in Belgium, we examined case data from 2000-2009...
  51. Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Li L, Zhu J, Kang K, Chen L. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor variabilis in an immunocompetent patient. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:243-7 pubmed publisher
    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is an uncommon disease and occurs mainly in patients with immunocompromised disorders...
  52. Shenoi S, Emery H. Successful treatment of invasive gastric mucormycosis in a child with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2010;19:646-9 pubmed publisher
    We describe a child with systemic lupus erythematosus and invasive gastric mucormycosis, who was successfully treated with aggressive antifungal therapy and a unique interventional radiology procedure.
  53. Scheckenbach K, Cornely O, Hoffmann T, Engers R, Bier H, Chaker A, et al. Emerging therapeutic options in fulminant invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:322-8 pubmed publisher
    Five cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RCM) with different courses of illness and outcomes also due to different therapeutical strategies including Posaconazole as a new therapeutic option are described...
  54. Thakur M, Revankar S. In vitro interaction of caspofungin and immunosuppressives against agents of mucormycosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2312-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a rare but refractory mycosis with high mortality. Few therapeutic options are available and novel strategies are needed...
  55. Busca A, Limerutti G, Locatelli F, Barbui A, De Rosa F, Falda M. The reversed halo sign as the initial radiographic sign of pulmonary zygomycosis. Infection. 2012;40:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This case supports earlier observations that RHS may be an early radiological sign of zygomycosis, facilitating an aggressive diagnostic strategy...
  56. Lewis R, Leventakos K, Liao G, Kontoyiannis D. Efficacy of caspofungin in neutropenic and corticosteroid-immunosuppressed murine models of invasive pulmonary mucormycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3584-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CFG administered at 16 mg/kg/day was not significantly better than a saline control for treatment of invasive pulmonary mucormycosis (IPM) in either neutropenic or corticosteroid-immunosuppressed animals.
  57. Sun H, Singh N. Mucormycosis: its contemporary face and management strategies. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:301-11 pubmed publisher
    Several countries have seen rising frequencies of mucormycosis among patients with haematological disorders, malignancies, or diabetes mellitus, and among transplant recipients...
  58. Petrikkos G, Skiada A, Lortholary O, Roilides E, Walsh T, Kontoyiannis D. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S23-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an emerging angioinvasive infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes...
  59. Jung S, Kim S, Park C, Song C, Cho J, Lee J, et al. Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis: consideration of prognostic factors and treatment modality. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:274-9 pubmed publisher
    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is rare, rapidly progressive, potentially life-threatening disease, and it usually occurs in immunocompromised patients...
  60. Talwalkar P. Rhino-occulo-cerebral mucormycosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Assoc Physicians India. 2009;57:407-9 pubmed
    Four successive cases of rhino-occulo-cerebral mucormycosis [ROCM] in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus are described. The clinical presentation is given in details...
  61. Sharma A, Gupta V, Singh R, Kakkar N, Singh S, Bambery P. Angioinvasive pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules in a patient without obvious predisposing factors. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:e269-71 pubmed
    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare, frequently fatal, fungal infection. It is usually seen in the presence of various immunocompromised states, such as diabetes mellitus, haematological malignancy or renal transplantation...
  62. Ibrahim A, Spellberg B, Edwards J. Iron acquisition: a novel perspective on mucormycosis pathogenesis and treatment. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:620-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an increasingly common fungal infection with an unacceptably high mortality despite first-line antifungal therapy. Iron acquisition is a critical step in the causative organisms' pathogenetic mechanism...
  63. Ganesh R, Manikumar S, Vasanthi T. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes mellitus: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2008;28:297-300 pubmed publisher
    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a severe opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. A 14-year-old boy with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis and type 1 diabetes is described...
  64. Neblett Fanfair R, Benedict K, Bos J, Bennett S, Lo Y, Adebanjo T, et al. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2214-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by environmentally acquired molds. We investigated a cluster of cases of cutaneous mucormycosis among persons injured during the May 22, 2011, tornado in Joplin, Missouri.
  65. Elinav H, Zimhony O, Cohen M, Marcovich A, Benenson S. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in patients without predisposing medical conditions: a review of the literature. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:693-7 pubmed publisher
    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare disease, affecting almost exclusively patients with known predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised status, haemochromatosis or major trauma...
  66. McDermott N, Barrett J, Hipp J, Merino M, Richard Lee C, Waterman P, et al. Successful treatment of periodontal mucormycosis: report of a case and literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:e64-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis is an aggressive and potentially devastating fungal infection which typically manifests in pulmonary, rhinocerebral, or disseminated forms in patients with hematologic malignancy...
  67. Lewis R, Lortholary O, Spellberg B, Roilides E, Kontoyiannis D, Walsh T. How does antifungal pharmacology differ for mucormycosis versus aspergillosis?. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 1:S67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..mortality rates remain relatively unchanged for less common, but highly aggressive, mold infections such as mucormycosis. Recent genome sequencing of Rhizopus oryzae revealed evidence of a whole-genome duplication event during the ..
  68. Tsung L, Zhu X, Chu W, Sun D, Cheung K, Leung T. Intraventricular amphotericin for absidiomycosis in an immunocompetent child. Hong Kong Med J. 2010;16:137-40 pubmed
    ..The patient responded to surgical drainage with concomitant intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B...
  69. Page A, Evans A, Snell L, Liles W. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a lung transplant recipient: case report and concise review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10:419-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an invasive, opportunistic fungal infection caused by organisms of the class Zygomycetes...
  70. Kusaba G, Ohsawa I, Ishii M, Inoshita H, Ohi H, Horikoshi S, et al. Evidence of immunopathological traces in mucormycosis: an autopsy case. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:396-400 pubmed publisher
    A 77-year-old diabetic man newly contracted pulmonary mucormycosis. A rapidly progressing clinical course including severe worsening of pneumonia and renal failure culminated in death...
  71. Kontoyiannis D. Invasive mycoses: strategies for effective management. Am J Med. 2012;125:S25-38 pubmed publisher
    ..often depends on a high index of suspicion, taking into account predisposing factors, host cues favoring mucormycosis, and local epidemiology...
  72. Li K, Wen T, Li G. Hepatic mucormycosis mimicking hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a case report and literature review. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1039-42 pubmed
    b>Mucormycosis is a rare but invasive opportunistic fungal infection associated with a high mortality rate, and normally occurs in immunocompromised patients...
  73. Ibrahim A. Host cell invasion in mucormycosis: role of iron. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14:406-11 pubmed publisher
    Clinical hallmarks of mucormycosis infections include the unique susceptibility of patients with increased available serum iron, the propensity of the organism to invade blood vessels, and defective phagocytic function...