cryptococcosis

Summary

Summary: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.

Top Publications

  1. Perfect J, Dismukes W, Dromer F, Goldman D, Graybill J, Hamill R, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:291-322 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality...
  2. Kronstad J, Attarian R, Cadieux B, Choi J, D Souza C, Griffiths E, et al. Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:193-203 pubmed publisher
  3. Goulart L, Rosa e Silva L, Chiapello L, Silveira C, Crestani J, Masih D, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii genes preferentially expressed during rat macrophage infection. Med Mycol. 2010;48:932-41 pubmed publisher
    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated yeast agents of cryptococcosis and facultative intracellular pathogens. The interaction of these yeasts with macrophages is essential for containing the infection...
  4. Qiu Y, Davis M, Dayrit J, Hadd Z, Meister D, Osterholzer J, et al. Immune modulation mediated by cryptococcal laccase promotes pulmonary growth and brain dissemination of virulent Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47853 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that laccase-induced changes in polarization of CD4+ T cells contribute to CNS dissemination. ..
  5. Stie J, Fox D. Blood-brain barrier invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans is enhanced by functional interactions with plasmin. Microbiology. 2012;158:240-58 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans can invade BMEC by a plasmin-dependent mechanism, in vitro, and that small, or minimal, surface capsule expression during the blood-borne phase of cryptococcosis may promote virulence by means of plasmin(ogen) acquisition.
  6. Byrnes E, Li W, Ren P, Lewit Y, Voelz K, Fraser J, et al. A diverse population of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGIII in southern Californian HIV/AIDS patients. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002205 pubmed publisher
    ..gattii molecular types influencing infection of immunocompetent (VGI/VGII) vs. immunocompromised (VGIII/VGIV) hosts. ..
  7. D Souza C, Kronstad J, Taylor G, Warren R, Yuen M, Hu G, et al. Genome variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging pathogen of immunocompetent hosts. MBio. 2011;2:e00342-10 pubmed publisher
    Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in healthy individuals in western North America, despite previous characterization of the fungus as a pathogen in tropical or subtropical regions...
  8. Litvintseva A, Carbone I, Rossouw J, Thakur R, Govender N, Mitchell T. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19688 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%...
  9. Ngamskulrungroj P, Chang Y, Roh J, Kwon Chung K. Differences in nitrogen metabolism between Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, the two etiologic agents of cryptococcosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34258 pubmed publisher
    Two members of the Cryptococcus neoformans-gattii species complex, the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis, can be differentiated by biological, biochemical, serological and molecular typing techniques...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Ye F, Xie J, Zeng Q, Chen G, Zhong S, Zhong N. Retrospective analysis of 76 immunocompetent patients with primary pulmonary cryptococcosis. Lung. 2012;190:339-46 pubmed publisher
    Pulmonary cryptococcosis typically occurs in immunocompromised patients, but it can also occur in immunocompetent patients...
  2. Del Poeta M, Casadevall A. Ten challenges on Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:303-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis has become a significant public global health problem worldwide...
  3. Kannangai R, Sachithanandham J, Mahadevan A, Abraham A, Sridharan G, Desai A, et al. Association of neurotropic viruses in HIV-infected individuals who died of secondary complications of tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, or toxoplasmosis in South India. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1022-5 pubmed publisher
    ..JCV was detectable in the CSF of 62% of cases and in 42% of brain tissues, with higher loads in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) (P < 0.05)...
  4. Zhu P, Zhai B, Lin X, Idnurm A. Congenic strains for genetic analysis of virulence traits in Cryptococcus gattii. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The two congenic strains show the same virulence in different models of cryptococcosis and equivalent levels of competition in coinfection assays...
  5. Albuquerque P, Rodrigues M. Research trends on pathogenic Cryptococcus species in the last 20 years: a global analysis with focus on Brazil. Future Microbiol. 2012;7:319-29 pubmed publisher
    Recent data demonstrates that cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii kills approximately 600,000 people per year in the world...
  6. Huang S, Long M, Wu C, Kwon Chung K, Chang Y, Chi F, et al. Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells is mediated through the lipid rafts-endocytic pathway via the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3 (DYRK3). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that the lipid raft-dependent endocytosis process mediates C. neoformans internalization into HBMEC and that the CD44 protein of the hosts, cytoskeleton, and intracellular kinase-DYRK3 are involved in this process. ..
  7. Espinel Ingroff A, Aller A, Canton E, Castañón Olivares L, Chowdhary A, Cordoba S, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:5898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of clinical breakpoints, our ECVs may aid in the detection of isolates with acquired resistance mechanisms and should be listed in the revised CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M27-S3 documents. ..
  8. Sellers B, Hall P, Cine Gowdie S, Hays A, Patel K, Lockhart S, et al. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen in the Southeastern United States. Am J Med Sci. 2012;343:510-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians need to be aware of this fungal emerging pathogen in the Southern United States. ..
  9. Dzoyem J, Kechia F, Ngaba G, Lunga P, Lohoue P. Prevalence of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients in Yaounde, Cameroon. Afr Health Sci. 2012;12:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Cryptococcus neoformans is encapsulated yeast which causes life-threatening infections in up to 40% of AIDS patients in Africa...
  10. Pappas P. Cryptococcal infections in non-HIV-infected patients. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2013;124:61-79 pubmed
    ..Approximately 1 million cases of cryptococcosis occur throughout the world, and is it estimated that there are 650,000 associated deaths annually...
  11. Iatta R, Hagen F, Fico C, Lopatriello N, Boekhout T, Montagna M. Cryptococcus gattii infection in an immunocompetent patient from Southern Italy. Mycopathologia. 2012;174:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The C. gattii strain was found to be closely related, but not identical, to other C. gattii strains from the Mediterranean area...
  12. Aminnejad M, Diaz M, Arabatzis M, Castaneda E, Lazera M, Velegraki A, et al. Identification of novel hybrids between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of mating-type allelic patterns by PCR revealed that the isolates were ?A aB. This is the first study discovering novel natural hybrids between C. neoformans molecular type VNI and C. gattii molecular type VGII...
  13. Negroni R. Cryptococcosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30:599-609 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal infection, caused by encapsulated yeast of the genus Cryptococcus, C neoformans and C gattii...
  14. Cogliati M, Chandrashekar N, Esposto M, Chandramuki A, Petrini B, Viviani M. Cryptococcus gattii serotype-C strains isolated in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Mycoses. 2012;55:262-8 pubmed publisher
    During a retrospective study on cryptococcosis carried out in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, four Cryptococcus gattii strains were isolated from one HIV-positive and three HIV-negative patients, two of which had unknown predisposing ..
  15. Tseng H, Liu C, Ho M, Lu P, Lo H, Lin Y, et al. Microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis in Taiwan, 1997-2010. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61921 pubmed publisher
    ..study was undertaken to determine the distribution of genotypes, clinical characteristics and outcomes of 219 patients with proven cryptococcosis at 20 hospitals representative of all geographic areas in Taiwan during 1997-2010.
  16. Carriconde F, Gilgado F, Arthur I, Ellis D, Malik R, van de Wiele N, et al. Clonality and ?-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16936 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure...
  17. Wang L, Zhai B, Lin X. The link between morphotype transition and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002765 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, ZNF2 overexpression abolishes fungal virulence in murine models of cryptococcosis. Thus, Znf2 bridges the sex-independent morphotype transition and fungal pathogenicity...
  18. Rohatgi S, Gohil S, Kuniholm M, Schultz H, Dufaud C, Armour K, et al. Fc gamma receptor 3A polymorphism and risk for HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. MBio. 2013;4:e00573-13 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation...
  19. Morera N, Juan Sallés C, Torres J, Andreu M, Sanchez M, Zamora M, et al. Cryptococcus gattii infection in a Spanish pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and asymptomatic carriage in ferrets and humans from its environment. Med Mycol. 2011;49:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Postmortem exam revealed disseminated cryptococcosis with prominent neurologic involvement...
  20. Fujimoto H, Suito T, Oyama T. [Pulmonary cryptococcosis preoperatively diagnosed as lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka. 2012;65:493-5 pubmed
    ..Since the diagnosis was an inflammatory node, further procedure was not performed. Histopathological examination of the permanent specimen revealed a diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis.
  21. Chow S, Casadevall A. Evaluation of Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan-protein conjugate as vaccine candidate against murine cryptococcosis. Vaccine. 2011;29:1891-8 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the GalXM-protein conjugate to induce robust immune responses although no evidence was obtained that such responses contributed to host defense...
  22. Mihara T, Izumikawa K, Kakeya H, Ngamskulrungroj P, Umeyama T, Takazono T, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans in non-HIV associated cryptococcosis in Nagasaki, Japan. Med Mycol. 2013;51:252-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is primarily caused by two Cryptococcus species, i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Both include several genetically diverse subgroups that can be differentiated using various molecular strain typing methods...
  23. Rodrigues G, Primo F, Tedesco A, Braga G. In vitro photodynamic inactivation of Cryptococcus neoformans melanized cells with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine nanoemulsion. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Internalization of ClAlPc by C. neoformans was confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the degree of uptake was dependent on PS concentration...
  24. Mora D, Da Cunha Colombo E, Ferreira Paim K, Andrade Silva L, Nascentes G, Silva Vergara M. Clinical, epidemiological and outcome features of patients with cryptococcosis in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:321-7 pubmed publisher
    Nearly one million of cryptococcosis cases occur yearly around the world, involving mainly HIV-infected patients who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) or present poor adherence...
  25. Harris J, Lockhart S, Debess E, Marsden Haug N, Goldoft M, Wohrle R, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: clinical aspects of infection with an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:1188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe this outbreak and compare clinical aspects of infection in the United States among patients infected with different Cg genotypes...
  26. Wozniak K, Hardison S, Kolls J, Wormley F. Role of IL-17A on resolution of pulmonary C. neoformans infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17204 pubmed publisher
    ..studies evaluated the role of interleukin (IL)-17A in the induction of protective immunity against pulmonary cryptococcosis in mice. Protection against pulmonary infection with C...
  27. Brizendine K, Baddley J, Pappas P. Predictors of mortality and differences in clinical features among patients with Cryptococcosis according to immune status. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60431 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection causing substantial morbidity and mortality...
  28. Hagen F, Colom M, Swinne D, Tintelnot K, Iatta R, Montagna M, et al. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1618-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere...
  29. Chowdhary A, Randhawa H, Sundar G, Kathuria S, Prakash A, Khan Z, et al. In vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles and genotypes of 308 clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii serotype B from north-western India. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:961-7 pubmed publisher
    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are aetiological agents of cryptococcosis, a major opportunistic systemic mycosis of increasing global importance...
  30. Valdez P, Vithayathil P, Janelsins B, Shaffer A, Williamson P, Datta S. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses antifungal immunity by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 4 function and interleukin-17 expression in T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:668-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that host- or pathogen-derived PGE2 can act directly on Th17 cells during differentiation to inhibit IL-17-dependent antimicrobial responses. ..
  31. Wozniak K, Hardison S, Olszewski M, Wormley F. Induction of protective immunity against cryptococcosis. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:387-94 pubmed publisher
    Cryptococcus neoformans, the predominant etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections of the central nervous system in immune compromised individuals resulting in high ..
  32. Fu M, Wang Y, Lin Y, Zhang L, Luo W, Zhao T, et al. [Fungal infection induced by Cryptococcus neoformans aerosol inhalation in immunosuppressed Balb/c mice]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2012;32:169-72 pubmed
    ..To explore the feasibility of inducing fungal infection by Cryptococcus neoformans aerosol inhalation in immunosuppressed Balb/c mice...
  33. Freire A, Dos Santos Bentes A, De Lima Sampaio I, Matsuura A, Ogusku M, Salem J, et al. Molecular characterisation of the causative agents of Cryptococcosis in patients of a tertiary healthcare facility in the state of Amazonas-Brazil. Mycoses. 2012;55:e145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of Cryptococcus gattii (VGI, VGII, VGIII and VGIV), it is important to identify the specific groups causing cryptococcosis in different geographical regions...
  34. Rohatgi S, Pirofski L. Molecular characterization of the early B cell response to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Immunol. 2012;189:5820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans and contribute to early fungal clearance. Thus, B-1a B cells provide a first line of defense during pulmonary C. neoformans infection in mice...
  35. Hu G, Wang J, Choi J, Jung W, Liu I, Litvintseva A, et al. Variation in chromosome copy number influences the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans and occurs in isolates from AIDS patients. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:526 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the genome plasticity and phenotypes of monosomic and disomic strains, and compared their virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis
  36. Okubo Y, Wakayama M, Ohno H, Yamamoto S, Tochigi N, Tanabe K, et al. Histopathological study of murine pulmonary cryptococcosis induced by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2013;66:216-21 pubmed
    ..gattii: one includes some mechanisms to escape from host recognition via macrophage and another includes a high performance of pulmonary structural alteration. These characteristics may be associated with the high virulence of C. gattii...
  37. Osterholzer J, Chen G, Olszewski M, Zhang Y, Curtis J, Huffnagle G, et al. Chemokine receptor 2-mediated accumulation of fungicidal exudate macrophages in mice that clear cryptococcal lung infection. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:198-211 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that clearance of cryptococcal lung infection requires the CCR2-mediated massive accumulation of fungicidal ExMs derived from circulating Ly-6C(high) monocytes...
  38. Lingegowda B, Koh T, Ong H, Tan T. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 2011;52:e160-2 pubmed
    b>Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection that occurs worldwide. Infections caused by Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans are commonly associated with immunocompromised patients, while those caused by C...
  39. Arora S, Olszewski M, Tsang T, McDonald R, Toews G, Huffnagle G. Effect of cytokine interplay on macrophage polarization during chronic pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1915-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This cytokine interplay modulates Mac differentiation, including generation of an intermediate caMac/aaMac phenotype, which in turn may support chronic "steady-state" fungal infection and the resultant ABPM pathology...
  40. Walraven C, Gerstein W, Hardison S, WORMLEY F, Lockhart S, Harris J, et al. Fatal disseminated Cryptococcus gattii infection in New Mexico. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28625 pubmed publisher
    ..Virulence studies in a mouse pulmonary model of infection demonstrated that the strain was less virulent than other C. gattii strains. This represents the first documented case of C. gattii likely acquired in New Mexico...
  41. Hardison S, Herrera G, Young M, Hole C, Wozniak K, Wormley F. Protective immunity against pulmonary cryptococcosis is associated with STAT1-mediated classical macrophage activation. J Immunol. 2012;189:4060-8 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans yeasts. Finally, the classical activation phenotype of protective anticryptococcal macrophages is likely mediated via STAT1 signal transduction pathways...
  42. Bartlett K, Cheng P, Duncan C, Galanis E, Hoang L, Kidd S, et al. A decade of experience: Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..been over a decade since Cryptococcus gattii was first recognized as the causative organism of an outbreak of cryptococcosis on Vancouver Island, British Columbia...
  43. Ngamskulrungroj P, Price J, Sorrell T, Perfect J, Meyer W. Cryptococcus gattii virulence composite: candidate genes revealed by microarray analysis of high and less virulent Vancouver island outbreak strains. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16076 pubmed publisher
    Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. Unlike C. neoformans, C...
  44. Marr K. Cryptococcus gattii as an important fungal pathogen of western North America. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10:637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger prospective studies to evaluate and optimize clinical management are needed...
  45. Liu T, Wang Y, Stukes S, Chen Q, Casadevall A, Xue C. The F-Box protein Fbp1 regulates sexual reproduction and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans, which likely represents a conserved novel virulence control mechanism that involves the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteolysis pathway...
  46. Kim J, Crary B, Chang Y, Kwon Chung K, Kim K. Cryptococcus neoformans activates RhoGTPase proteins followed by protein kinase C, focal adhesion kinase, and ezrin to promote traversal across the blood-brain barrier. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans activates RhoGTPases and subsequently FAK, ezrin, and PKC? to promote their traversal across the HBMEC monolayer, which is the critical step for cryptococcal brain infection and development of meningitis...
  47. Gullo F, Rossi S, Sardi J, Teodoro V, Mendes Giannini M, Fusco Almeida A. Cryptococcosis: epidemiology, fungal resistance, and new alternatives for treatment. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:1377-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is an important systemic mycosis and the third most prevalent disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals...
  48. Perfect J. The impact of the host on fungal infections. Am J Med. 2012;125:S39-51 pubmed publisher
  49. Brizendine K, Baddley J, Pappas P. Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32:727-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection (IFI), caused predominantly by Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii, that affects both immunocompromised (IC) and non-IC patients...
  50. Harris J, Lockhart S, Chiller T. Cryptococcus gattii: where do we go from here?. Med Mycol. 2012;50:113-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This review synthesizes existing data and raises issues that remain to be addressed...
  51. Meiring S, Quan V, Cohen C, Dawood H, Karstaedt A, McCarthy K, et al. A comparison of cases of paediatric-onset and adult-onset cryptococcosis detected through population-based surveillance, 2005-2007. AIDS. 2012;26:2307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed paediatric cryptococcal disease with adult-onset disease in the South African population...
  52. Taniguchi D, Sawada T, Ryu C, Nagayasu T. [Post-renal transplant pulmonary cryptococcosis, which was difficult to differentiate from a pulmonary tumor]. Kyobu Geka. 2012;65:804-7 pubmed
    ..diagnosis of inflammatory granuloma was made, and the patient was finally diagnosed as having pulmonary cryptococcosis based on the histopathology, and received fluconazole postoperatively...
  53. Chowdhary A, Rhandhawa H, Prakash A, Meis J. Environmental prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in India: an update. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2012;38:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Reference is made to long-term colonization of an abandoned, old timber beam of sal wood (Shorea robusta) by a melanin positive (Mel(+)) variant of Cryptococcus laurentii that was pathogenic to laboratory mice...
  54. Chen S, Korman T, Slavin M, Marriott D, Byth K, Bak N, et al. Antifungal therapy and management of complications of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe antifungal therapy and management of complications due to Cryptococcus gattii infection in 86 Australian patients followed for at least 12 months...
  55. Chang C, Dorasamy A, Gosnell B, Elliott J, Spelman T, Omarjee S, et al. Clinical and mycological predictors of cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. AIDS. 2013;27:2089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..neurological deterioration after commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), mostly because of cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS)...
  56. Chaturvedi V, Chaturvedi S. Cryptococcus gattii: a resurgent fungal pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 2011;19:564-71 pubmed publisher
    Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans are causal agents of cryptococcosis, which manifests as pneumonia and meningitis. C...
  57. Macdougall L, Fyfe M, Romney M, Starr M, Galanis E. Risk factors for Cryptococcus gattii infection, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001), or have a history of invasive cancer (p<0.001). Although C. gattii is commonly believed to infect persons with apparently healthy immune systems, several immunosuppressive and pulmonary conditions seem to be risk factors...
  58. Wozniak K, Young M, Wormley F. Protective immunity against experimental pulmonary cryptococcosis in T cell-depleted mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of these studies was to determine if protection against experimental pulmonary cryptococcosis can be generated in T cell-deficient hosts...
  59. McTaggart L, Richardson S, Seah C, Hoang L, Fothergill A, Zhang S. Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease...
  60. Byrnes E, Bartlett K, Perfect J, Heitman J. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:895-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Infections in patients and animals can be severe and often fatal if untreated. We review the molecular epidemiology, population structure, clinical manifestations, and ecological niche of this emerging pathogen...
  61. Lindsley M, Mekha N, Baggett H, Surinthong Y, Autthateinchai R, Sawatwong P, et al. Evaluation of a newly developed lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:321-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals mostly occurring in resource-limited countries...
  62. Iwata T, Nagano T, Tomita M, Suehiro Y, Nakatsuka S, Kimura H, et al. Adalimumab-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;17:390-3 pubmed
    This is the first report of adalimumab-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis. A 56-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis without a history of pulmonary disease was simultaneously administered adalimumab (40 mg/2 wks), methotrexate (4 mg/..
  63. Yuchong C, Fubin C, Jianghan C, Fenglian W, Nan X, Minghui Y, et al. Cryptococcosis in China (1985-2010): review of cases from Chinese database. Mycopathologia. 2012;173:329-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptococcosis is a potential fatal disease, especially in immunocompromised patients. In China, the profile of cryptococcosis is unclear. Therefore, we summarize the epidemiology and therapy of cryptococcosis in china.
  64. Parkes Ratanshi R, Wakeham K, Levin J, Namusoke D, Whitworth J, Coutinho A, et al. Primary prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease with fluconazole in HIV-positive Ugandan adults: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease in patients awaiting or starting antiretroviral therapy in Uganda...
  65. García Rodas R, Zaragoza O. Catch me if you can: phagocytosis and killing avoidance by Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:147-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we will discuss the consequences of the different outcomes for the type of infection produced in the host...
  66. Bratton E, El Husseini N, Chastain C, Lee M, Poole C, STURMER T, et al. Comparison and temporal trends of three groups with cryptococcosis: HIV-infected, solid organ transplant, and HIV-negative/non-transplant. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43582 pubmed publisher
    The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of cryptococcosis outlined three key populations at risk of disease: (1) HIV-infected, (2) transplant recipient, and (3) HIV-negative/..
  67. Wozniak K, Kolls J, Wormley F. Depletion of neutrophils in a protective model of pulmonary cryptococcosis results in increased IL-17A production by ?? T cells. BMC Immunol. 2012;13:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrent depletion of neutrophils and ??+ T cells reduced IL-17A levels. Our results suggest that ??+ T cells mediate significant IL-17A production in neutropenic mice during the protective response to C. neoformans infection...
  68. Piehler D, Stenzel W, Grahnert A, Held J, Richter L, Kohler G, et al. Eosinophils contribute to IL-4 production and shape the T-helper cytokine profile and inflammatory response in pulmonary cryptococcosis. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:733-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, eosinophils play an immunoregulatory role that contributes to Th2-dependent susceptibility in allergic inflammation during bronchopulmonary mycosis...
  69. Yu J, Tang K, Xu B, Xie C, Light R. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-AIDS patients. Braz J Infect Dis. 2012;16:531-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical features, management, and prognosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.
  70. Chun C, Brown J, Madhani H. A major role for capsule-independent phagocytosis-inhibitory mechanisms in mammalian infection by Cryptococcus neoformans. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:243-251 pubmed publisher
    ..This genetic dissection provides evidence that capsule-independent antiphagocytic mechanisms are pivotal for successful mammalian infection by C. neoformans...