empyema

Summary

Summary: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.

Top Publications

  1. Grijalva C, Nuorti J, Zhu Y, Griffin M. Increasing incidence of empyema complicating childhood community-acquired pneumonia in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:805-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent regional reports suggest an increase in the incidence of childhood pneumonia complicated by empyema. We assessed whether early decreases in pneumonia hospitalization rates were sustained and trends in such ..
  2. Chao C, Gau S, Lai C. Empyema caused by Aeromonas species in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:933-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Extra-intestinal infections by Aeromonas species, such as pleural cavity, are rare. Herein, we described the six patients who developed Aeromonas spp.-related empyema, and was successfully treated with antimicrobial agent and drainage.
  3. Melloni G, Carretta A, Ciriaco P, Negri G, Voci C, Augello G, et al. Decortication for chronic parapneumonic empyema: results of a prospective study. World J Surg. 2004;28:488-93 pubmed
    Despite advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, and supportive therapy, chronic parapneumonic empyema is still associated with considerable morbidity and mortality...
  4. Okumura Y, Takeda S, Asada H, Inoue M, Sawabata N, Shiono H, et al. Surgical results for chronic empyema using omental pedicled flap: long-term follow-up study. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:1857-61 pubmed
    Successful treatment of chronic empyema remains a challenge for thoracic surgeons. Herein, we report our 17 years of experience with the omental pedicled flap procedure for management of chronic empyema secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis.
  5. Munoz Almagro C, Gala S, Selva L, Jordan I, Tarrago D, Pallares R. DNA bacterial load in children and adolescents with pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the direct detection and quantification of pneumococcal DNA bacterial load (DBL) in patients with pneumonia and empyema. DBL and molecular serotype detection was determined by DNA quantification of the pneumolysin (ply) gene and an ..
  6. Singleton R, Holman R, Wenger J, Christensen K, Bulkow L, Zulz T, et al. Trends in hospitalization for empyema in Alaska Native children younger than 10 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:528-30 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed hospitalizations for empyema among Alaska Native (AN) children and the general population of US children <10 years of age during the years 1998 to 2007. We also analyzed invasive pneumococcal disease in AN children...
  7. Jaffe A, Balfour Lynn I. Management of empyema in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005;40:148-56 pubmed
    The incidence of empyema complicating community-acquired pneumonia is increasing and causes significant childhood morbidity...
  8. Tan T, Mason E, Wald E, Barson W, Schutze G, Bradley J, et al. Clinical characteristics of children with complicated pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pediatrics. 2002;110:1-6 pubmed
    The frequency of children who are hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by necrosis, empyema/complicated parapneumonic effusion, and lung abscess seems to be increasing...
  9. Sahn S. Pleural thickening, trapped lung, and chronic empyema as sequelae of tuberculous pleural effusion: don't sweat the pleural thickening. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:461-4 pubmed

More Information

Publications67

  1. Aboud F, Verghese A. Evarts Ambrose Graham, empyema, and the dawn of clinical understanding of negative intrapleural pressure. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:198-203 pubmed
    ..By contrast, empyema has been known since antiquity; from the time of Hippocrates, treatment has consisted of open drainage...
  2. Strachan R, Cornelius A, Gilbert G, Gulliver T, Martin A, McDonald T, et al. Bacterial causes of empyema in children, Australia, 2007-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    An increase in the incidence of empyema worldwide could be related to invasive pneumococcal disease caused by emergent nonvaccine replacement serotypes...
  3. Takiguchi Y, Ishikawa S, Shinbo Y. [A case of chronic empyema caused by Salmonella Livingstone with soft-tissue abscess]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;46:191-4 pubmed
    ..Salmonella Livingstone was isolated from the aspiration specimen of the capsular effusion. Chronic empyema caused by Salmonella Livingstone with soft-tissue abscess was diagnosed, and was treated with 400 mg per day ..
  4. Tsai Y, Chen S, Hsieh C, Chang C, Tzao C. Treatment of empyema and bronchopleural fistula by bovine pericardium and latissimus flap. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;95:e39-40 pubmed publisher
    Management of empyema with bronchopleural fistula remains a challenge. A 38-year-old man who had bullous emphysema was hospitalized on account of a right-sided necrotizing pneumonia complicated by empyema that mandated a tube drainage...
  5. Byington C, Hulten K, Ampofo K, Sheng X, Pavia A, Blaschke A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of pediatric pneumococcal empyema from 2001 to 2007 in Utah. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:520-5 pubmed publisher
    Utah had a high rate of pediatric pneumococcal empyema (PPE) prior to licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000...
  6. St Peter S, Tsao K, Spilde T, Keckler S, Harrison C, Jackson M, et al. Thoracoscopic decortication vs tube thoracostomy with fibrinolysis for empyema in children: a prospective, randomized trial. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:106-11; discussion 111 pubmed publisher
    Management of empyema has been debated in the literature for decades...
  7. Bishara J, Goldberg E, Ashkenazi S, Yuhas Y, Samra Z, Saute M, et al. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 for diagnosing empyema. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:251-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to evaluate whether sTREM-1 in pleural fluid can distinguish pleural empyema from postthoracotomy-related pleural effusion and effusions of other etiologies.
  8. Simank H, Wadi B, Bernd L. [Joint empyema]. Orthopade. 2004;33:327-31 pubmed
    ..Early surgical revision is recommended in cases of insufficient recovery...
  9. Tarrago D, Fenoll A, Sanchez Tatay D, Arroyo L, Munoz Almagro C, Esteva C, et al. Identification of pneumococcal serotypes from culture-negative clinical specimens by novel real-time PCR. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:828-34 pubmed publisher
    Pneumococcal parapneumonic empyema is an increasingly common complication in children...
  10. Mizell K, Patterson K, Carter J. Empyema necessitatis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3534-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Empyema necessitatis is a rare complication of empyema in which the pleural infection spreads outside of the pleural space to involve the soft tissues of the chest wall...
  11. Varker K, Ng T. Management of empyema cavity with the vacuum-assisted closure device. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:723-5 pubmed
    Management of empyema after pulmonary resection remains a challenging problem...
  12. Strachan R, Snelling T, Jaffe A. Increased paediatric hospitalizations for empyema in Australia after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91:167-73 pubmed publisher
    To examine rates of paediatric hospitalization for empyema and pneumonia in Australia before and after the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).
  13. Carter J, Laurini J, Evans T, Estrada B. Neonatal Candida parapsilosis meningitis and empyema related to epidural migration of a central venous catheter. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..parapsilosis. Imaging studies subsequently revealed a subdural empyema related to epidural migration of a central venous catheter (CVL)...
  14. Burgos J, Lujan M, Falco V, Sanchez A, Puig M, Borrego A, et al. The spectrum of pneumococcal empyema in adults in the early 21st century. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:254-61 pubmed publisher
    Increased rates of empyema have been reported in children after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
  15. Eltringham G, Kearns A, Freeman R, Clark J, Spencer D, Eastham K, et al. Culture-negative childhood empyema is usually due to penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular serotype 1. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:521-2 pubmed
  16. Wu P, Huang L, Chang I, Lu C, Shao P, Tsai F, et al. The epidemiology of hospitalized children with pneumococcal/lobar pneumonia and empyema from 1997 to 2004 in Taiwan. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:861-6 pubmed publisher
    Pneumococcal/lobar pneumonia and empyema have an important impact on the health of children worldwide. There has been no epidemiological study of pneumococcal/lobar pneumonia and empyema in Taiwan, a middle-income Asian population...
  17. Meier A, Hess C, Cilley R. Complications and treatment failures of video-assisted thoracoscopic debridement for pediatric empyema. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:367-71 pubmed publisher
    Video-assisted thoracoscopic debridement (VATD) is a well-established intervention to treat pediatric empyema. There is ongoing controversy at what stage in the treatment algorithm it should be utilized...
  18. Wilkosz S, Edwards L, Bielsa S, Hyams C, Taylor A, Davies R, et al. Characterization of a new mouse model of empyema and the mechanisms of pleural invasion by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:180-7 pubmed publisher
    Although empyema affects more than 65,000 people each year in the United States and in the United Kingdom, there are limited data on the pathogenesis of pleural infection...
  19. Obando I, Camacho Lovillo M, Porras A, Gandía González M, Molinos A, Vazquez Barba I, et al. Sustained high prevalence of pneumococcal serotype 1 in paediatric parapneumonic empyema in southern Spain from 2005 to 2009. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:763-8 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology and microbiological characteristics of paediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE) before the introduction of the new generation of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (10-valent and 13-valent) are described...
  20. Baracaldo R, Foltzer M, Patel R, Bourbeau P. Empyema caused by Mycoplasma salivarium. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1805-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 49-year-old man with laryngeal cancer and right pleural space infection with M. salivarium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of empyema due to Mycoplasma salivarium.
  21. Galmès J, Li Y, Rajoharison A, Ren L, Dollet S, Richard N, et al. Potential implication of new torque teno mini viruses in parapneumonic empyema in children. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:470-9 pubmed publisher
    An unexplained increase in the incidence of parapneumonic empyema (PPE) in pneumonia cases has been reported in recent years...
  22. Lodge B, Ashley E, Steele M, Perfect J. Aspergillus fumigatus empyema, arthritis, and calcaneal osteomyelitis in a lung transplant patient successfully treated with posaconazole. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1376-8 pubmed
    ..Marked clinical improvement occurred within 6 weeks of initiation of posaconazole therapy; after 6 months, infection had resolved at all sites. The patient has had no recurrence of infection...
  23. Sohnle P, Hahn B. Effect of zinc-reversible growth-inhibitory activity in human empyema fluid on antibiotic microbicidal activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:139-42 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we cultured bacteria in human empyema fluid and used zinc to overcome the growth-inhibitory effect of calprotectin...
  24. Langley J, Kellner J, Solomon N, Robinson J, Le Saux N, McDonald J, et al. Empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia: a Pediatric Investigator's Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:129 pubmed publisher
    Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem...
  25. Thomson A, Hull J, Kumar M, Wallis C, Balfour Lynn I. Randomised trial of intrapleural urokinase in the treatment of childhood empyema. Thorax. 2002;57:343-7 pubmed
    The role of intrapleural fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of childhood empyema has not been established. A randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of intrapleural urokinase was performed in children with parapneumonic empyema.
  26. Perlroth M, Miller J. Pseudoallescheria boydii pneumonia and empyema: a rare complication of heart transplantation cured with voriconazole. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23:647-9 pubmed
    ..Pseudoallescheria boydii pneumonia is a rare occurrence, usually resistant to amphotericin B and other anti-fungal agents. We report a complete response to voriconazole in an immunosuppressed host...
  27. Woo P, Tam D, Lau S, Fung A, Yuen K. Enterococcus cecorum empyema thoracis successfully treated with cefotaxime. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:919-22 pubmed
    We report the first case of Enterococcus cecorum empyema thoracis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a 44-year-old man with underlying cirrhosis. The patient responded to cefotaxime (MIC, 0...
  28. Eskandarlou M, Moaddab A. Chest wall necrosis and empyema resulting from attempting suicide by injection of petroleum into the pleural cavity. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:616-8 pubmed publisher
    ..He had widespread necrosis and infection of the chest wall soft tissue and also had empyema after a suicidal attempt by injection of 40 ml of petroleum into the left hemithorax...
  29. Marquardt G, Setzer M, Seifert V. Protein S-100b for individual prediction of functional outcome in spinal epidural empyema. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:59-62 pubmed
    A study correlating protein S-100b serum levels with postoperative functional outcome in patients with spinal cord compression resulting from epidural empyema.
  30. Picazo J, Ruiz Contreras J, Casado Flores J, Negreira S, del Castillo F, Hernández Sampelayo T, et al. Laboratory-based, 2-year surveillance of pediatric parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema following heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine universal vaccination in Madrid. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:471-4 pubmed publisher
    In October 2006, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was included in the Madrid vaccination calendar, warranting serotype (St) surveillances in pneumococcal pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE).
  31. Ceyhan M, Ozsurekci Y, Gurler N, Ozkan S, Sensoy G, Belet N, et al. Distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes that cause parapneumonic empyema in Turkey. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:972-6 pubmed publisher
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiological cause of complicated pneumonia, including empyema. In this study, we investigated the serotypes of S. pneumoniae that cause empyema in children...
  32. Sibley C, Church D, Surette M, Dowd S, Parkins M. Pyrosequencing reveals the complex polymicrobial nature of invasive pyogenic infections: microbial constituents of empyema, liver abscess, and intracerebral abscess. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:2679-91 pubmed
    ..Defining the polymicrobial nature of invasive pyogenic infections is the first step towards appreciating the clinical and diagnostic implications of these complex communities...
  33. Sasse S, Jadus M, Kukes G. Pleural fluid transforming growth factor-beta1 correlates with pleural fibrosis in experimental empyema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:700-5 pubmed
    ..this study was to determine the sequential levels of TGF-beta1 in the pleural fluid of rabbits that had undergone empyema induction, as fibrosis of the pleural space develops. Thirty-seven rabbits underwent empyema induction...
  34. Lai C, Liu W, Chiu Y, Gau S, Hsueh P. Spontaneous bacterial empyema due to non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a cirrhotic patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73:84-5 pubmed publisher
    ..this report, we described a cirrhotic patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed spontaneous bacterial empyema due to non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae...
  35. Daly M, Riddle D, Ledeboer N, Dunne W, Ritchie D. Tigecycline for treatment of pneumonia and empyema caused by carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1052-7 pubmed
    ..We report a case of nosocomial pneumonia and empyema caused by a KPC-producing isolate of K. pneumoniae at a large midwestern U.S...
  36. Cilloniz C, Ewig S, Polverino E, Munoz Almagro C, Marco F, Gabarrús A, et al. Pulmonary complications of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia: incidence, predictors, and outcomes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:1134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Complicated pneumonia was defined as the presence of one or more pulmonary complications: pleural effusion, empyema, or multilobar infiltrates...
  37. Strachan R, Cornelius A, Gilbert G, Gulliver T, Martin A, McDonald T, et al. A bedside assay to detect streptococcus pneumoniae in children with empyema. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46:179-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Empyema is a complication of pneumonia, commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  38. Byington C, Spencer L, Johnson T, Pavia A, Allen D, Mason E, et al. An epidemiological investigation of a sustained high rate of pediatric parapneumonic empyema: risk factors and microbiological associations. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:434-40 pubmed
    We investigated the increasing incidence of pediatric empyema during the 1990s at Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City...
  39. Grau I, Ardanuy C, Calatayud L, Rolo D, Domenech A, Liñares J, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1)-ST306. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42595 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults...
  40. Kumar D, Samujh R, Rao K. Infected esophageal duplication cyst simulating empyema. Indian Pediatr. 2003;40:423-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of infected esophageal duplication cyst initially confused with empyema in a two years old boy.
  41. Pilkington S, Jackson S, Gillett G. Spinal epidural empyema. Br J Neurosurg. 2003;17:196-200 pubmed
    Spinal epidural empyema is a very rare entity occurring with an estimated incidence of 1 per 10,000 hospital admissions...
  42. Wang W, Hwang T. Extensive subgaleal abscess and epidural empyema in a patient with acute frontal sinusitis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2003;102:338-41 pubmed
    ..Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated left pansinusitis, extensive subgaleal abscess and epidural empyema with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. External frontoethmoidectomy with mucoperiostectomy were performed...
  43. Thomas M, Sheppard C, Guiver M, Slack M, George R, Gorton R, et al. Emergence of pneumococcal 19A empyema in UK children. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97:1070-2 pubmed publisher
    Invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotype 19A has become a major concern, particularly in the USA and Asia. We describe the characteristics of pneumococcal serotype 19A related empyema and changes in its incidence in the UK.
  44. Ampofo K, Herbener A, Blaschke A, Heyrend C, Poritz M, Korgenski K, et al. Association of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and increased hospitalization with parapneumonic empyema in children in Utah. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the relationship between circulating 2009 H1N1 and the occurrence of secondary bacterial parapneumonic empyema in children.
  45. Hsieh Y, Hsueh P, Lu C, Lee P, Lee C, Huang L. Clinical manifestations and molecular epidemiology of necrotizing pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children in Taiwan. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:830-5 pubmed
    ..1-0.5 mu g/mL), were significantly associated with complicated pneumonia (P=.047). Whether the virulence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci is evolving deserves further investigation...
  46. Ho A, Chen C, Yang M, Liu H. Use of the Arndt wire-guided endobronchial blocker to facilitate one-lung ventilation for pediatric empyema during video-assisted thoracoscopy. Chang Gung Med J. 2005;28:104-10 pubmed
    ..surgery (VATS) has emerged as an innovative and popular procedure for the management of postpneumonic empyema in children refractory to a medical response. One-lung ventilation is required during VATS...
  47. Le Monnier A, Carbonnelle E, Zahar J, Le Bourgeois M, Abachin E, Quesne G, et al. Microbiological diagnosis of empyema in children: comparative evaluations by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and pneumococcal antigen detection in pleural fluids. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1135-40 pubmed
    Pleural empyema is an increasingly reported complication of pneumonia in children. Microbiological diagnostic tests for empyema by culture frequently have false-negative results due to previous administration of antibiotics...
  48. Mohamed A, Atef M, Alsebaey A, Musa Elhabshy M, Salama M. Combined spontaneous bacterial empyema and peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017;18:104-107 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneous bacterial empyema (SBEM) is an underestimated condition in patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax with a high mortality...
  49. Jorissen M, Boeck C, van Damme B, Lemahieu S, Ostyn F. Empyema of a concha bullosa in a child with cystic fibrosis (case report). Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1990;44:33-6 pubmed
    An empyema of a concha bullosa or a middle turbinate pyocoele caused unilateral complete chronic nasal obstruction in an 8 year old girl affected by cystic fibrosis and was successfully operated...
  50. Song L, Xiang F, Ye H, Huang H, Yang J, Yu F, et al. Inhibition of angiotensin II and calpain attenuates pleural fibrosis. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2018;48:46-52 pubmed publisher
    Pleural fibrosis is associated with various inflammatory processes such as tuberculous pleurisy and bacterial empyema. There is currently no ideal therapeutic to attenuate pleural fibrosis...
  51. Nagata T, Mukae H, Futsuki Y, Sakito O, Hayashi Y, Sakamoto N, et al. [A case of Paragonimus westermani complicated empyema by Streptococcus pneumoniae]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;48:288-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, a diagnosis of Paragonimiasis westermani was made serological study. After the continuous drainage of the pleural effusion, the patient was treated with praziquantel and antibiotics, and he gradually improved...
  52. Ried M, Graml J, Großer C, Hofmann H, Sziklavari Z. [Para- and Postpneumonic Pleural Empyema: Current Treatment Strategies in Children and Adults]. Zentralbl Chir. 2015;140 Suppl 1:S22-8 pubmed publisher
    Parapneumonic pleural effusions arise from pneumonia and may develop into pleural empyema (PE). PE is defined as collection of pus in the pleural space with secondary inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura...
  53. Pneumatikos I, Bouros D. Pleural effusions in critically ill patients. Respiration. 2008;76:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemothorax in critically ill patients is usually related to trauma or surgical interventions and requires early drainage and possibly surgical exploration...
  54. Mahmood K, Wahidi M. Straightening out chest tubes: what size, what type, and when. Clin Chest Med. 2013;34:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the rationale for using different chest tubes depending on the clinical scenario...
  55. Padda S, Kothary N, Donington J, Cannon W, Loo B, Kee S, et al. Complications of ablative therapies in lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2008;9:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases highlight the caution that should still be observed when recommending lung ablation strategies and the importance of selecting appropriate patients...
  56. Miller D, Lovell E. Antibiotic-induced serotonin syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2011;40:25-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of SS in a 36-year-old woman that occurred after linezolid was added to a drug regimen that included lithium, venlafaxine, and imipramine...
  57. Lin E, Studley M. Biliary tract FDG uptake secondary to stent placement. Clin Nucl Med. 2003;28:318-9 pubmed
  58. Jüngert J, Uberall M, Mayer U, Guggenbichler J, Heininger U. [Papilledema and acute bilateral amaurosis accompanying acute sinusitis]. Klin Padiatr. 2001;213:343-6 pubmed
    ..Acute sinusitis can lead to severe complications. This includes involvement of the optical nerve with visual loss and brain abscess as a life-threatening complication...