tracheitis

Summary

Summary: INFLAMMATION of the TRACHEA that is usually associated with RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Hamer D. Treatment of nosocomial pneumonia and tracheobronchitis caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with aerosolized colistin. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:328-30 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa for whom aerosolized colistin proved beneficial as supplemental therapy. Aerosolized colistin merits further consideration as a therapeutic intervention for patients with pulmonary infections due to MDR P. aeruginosa...
  2. Spasova M, Grudeva Popova J, Genev E, Lazarova A, Stoyanova A, Mumdjiev I. Pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheobronchitis caused by Aspergillus spp--contribution of one case with acute myeloid leukemia. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2006;48:93-7 pubmed
    ..The diagnostic methods, therapeutic possibilities and differential diagnosis of this rare infectious complication in immunocompromised patients are discussed. ..
  3. Ahmed Q, Niederman M. Respiratory infection in the chronically critically ill patient. Ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Clin Chest Med. 2001;22:71-85 pubmed
    ..Not all such patients respond to systemic antibiotics, and the use of adjunctive aerosol therapy may have benefit for those with either tracheobronchitis or pneumonia, especially if highly resistant pathogens are present...
  4. Nseir S, Di Pompeo C, Pronnier P, Beague S, Onimus T, Saulnier F, et al. Nosocomial tracheobronchitis in mechanically ventilated patients: incidence, aetiology and outcome. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:1483-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to determine the impact of antibiotics on outcomes of patients with nosocomial tracheobronchitis...
  5. Díaz Sánchez C, Lopez Vina A. [Aspergillus and the lung]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2004;40:114-22 pubmed
  6. Salamone F, Bobbitt D, Myer C, Rutter M, Greinwald J. Bacterial tracheitis reexamined: is there a less severe manifestation?. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131:871-6 pubmed
    Bacterial tracheitis (BT) is a condition that can cause fatal airway obstruction. We evaluated our experience with BT over a 10-year period.
  7. Hopkins A, Lahiri T, Salerno R, Heath B. Changing epidemiology of life-threatening upper airway infections: the reemergence of bacterial tracheitis. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1418-21 pubmed
    As a consequence of evolving medical practice, the epidemiology of potentially life-threatening upper airway infections is changing. We report our experience over 9 years with viral croup, epiglottitis, and bacterial tracheitis.
  8. Nseir S, Favory R, Jozefowicz E, Decamps F, Dewavrin F, Brunin G, et al. Antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Crit Care. 2008;12:R62 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that, in patients with VAT, antibiotic treatment would be associated with reduced duration of mechanical ventilation...
  9. Dallas J, Skrupky L, Abebe N, Boyle W, Kollef M. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a mixed surgical and medical ICU population. Chest. 2011;139:513-518 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to further characterize VAT in terms of incidence, etiology, and impact on patient outcomes...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ramphal R, Cogliano R, Shands J, Small P. Serum antibody prevents lethal murine influenza pneumonitis but not tracheitis. Infect Immun. 1979;25:992-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that serum antibody is protective against severe pulmonary parenchymal disease but not for disease of the ciliated epithelium...
  2. Routsi C, Kaltsas P, Bessis E, Rontogianni D, Kollias S, Roussos C. Airway obstruction and acute respiratory failure due to Aspergillus tracheobronchitis. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:580-2 pubmed
    ..To report a patient with lymphoma who developed Aspergillus tracheobronchitis resulting in airway obstruction and acute respiratory failure...
  3. Oros J, Rodriguez J, Herraez P, Santana P, Fernandez A. Respiratory and digestive lesions caused by Salmonella arizonae in two snakes. J Comp Pathol. 1996;115:185-9 pubmed
    Cases of diphtheritic necrotizing gastritis in a Rosy Boa (Lichanura trivirgata) and of necrotizing tracheitis in a double-headed Kingsnake (Lampropeltis hondurensis), both associated with Salmonella arizonae, are described...
  4. Xavier M, Sales M, Camargo J, Pasqualotto A, Severo L. Aspergillus niger causing tracheobronchitis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a lung transplant recipient: case report. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008;41:200-1 pubmed
    ..The associated predisposing factors and other implications are discussed. Aspergillus niger seems to be a fungal species of low virulence that requires the presence of a severely immunosuppressed host to cause invasive disease...
  5. Sakamoto K, Ukaji K, Mizuno Y. [A case of necrotizing tracheitis and tracheobronchomalacia in a patient with severe motor and intellectual disabilities]. No To Hattatsu. 2008;40:319-23 pubmed
    ..Abrupt hypooxygenation during mechanical ventilation revealed the presence of necrotizing tracheitis, which was improved with removal of necrotic tissues by bronchoscopy and inhalation of steroid thereafter...
  6. Bajoriūniene I, Urboniene D, Simoniene G, Sakalauskas R, Sitkauskiene B. [Lymphocyte subsets in patients with recurrent upper airway infections]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41:203-7 pubmed
    ..first group consisted of patients, who had acute upper airway infections: rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis more than 6 times per last year, sinusitis or otitis more than 4 times per last year...
  7. Cherry J. Clinical practice. Croup. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:384-91 pubmed publisher
  8. Borrelli O, Battaglia M, Galos F, Aloi M, De Angelis D, Moretti C, et al. Non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with suspected pulmonary aspiration. Dig Liver Dis. 2010;42:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..MII-pH monitoring increases the yield in identifying types and proximal extension of reflux episodes, that discriminate between patients with and without pulmonary aspiration. ..
  9. Chu C, Ren H, Xu N, Xia L, Chen D, Zhang J. Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. sesquiterpenes fraction attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;185:263-71 pubmed publisher
    Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. is widely used for its efficiency in treating cough, tracheitis and tonsillitis...
  10. Brooks E, Bryce C, Avery C, Smelser C, Thompson D, Nolte K. 2009 H1N1 fatalities: the New Mexico experience. J Forensic Sci. 2012;57:1512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathologists should be aware that H1N1 may cause extra-pulmonary pathology and perform postmortem cultures and histologic sampling accordingly. ..
  11. Rothenburger J, Himsworth C, Clifford C, Ellis J, Treuting P, Leighton F. Respiratory Pathology and Pathogens in Wild Urban Rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus). Vet Pathol. 2015;52:1210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..was present in 93 of 107 (87%) rats and included rhinitis, submucosal and periglandular lymphoplasmacytic tracheitis, and/or tracheal intraluminal necrotic debris and was significantly associated (P < ...
  12. Hopkins B, Johnson K, Ksiazek J, Sun G, Greinwald J, Rutter M. H1N1 influenza A presenting as bacterial tracheitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142:612-4 pubmed publisher
    Six cases of bacterial tracheitis (BT) occurring early in the 2009 flu season have been isolated in conjunction with the H1N1 strain of influenza A (H1N1). No previous H1N1 cases have presented as BT in the literature to date...
  13. Hassan K, Ali A, Shany S, el Kady M. Experimental co-infection of infectious bronchitis and low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 viruses in commercial broiler chickens. Res Vet Sci. 2017;115:356-362 pubmed publisher
    ..In mixed AIV-H9N2/IBV vaccine challenge, severe tracheitis with bronchial cast formation was observed...
  14. Glezen P, Denny F. Epidemiology of acute lower respiratory disease in children. N Engl J Med. 1973;288:498-505 pubmed
  15. Cohen B. The death of George Washington (1732-99) and the history of cynanche. J Med Biogr. 2005;13:225-31 pubmed
    ..An account is given of the medical treatment and controversies that arose in criticism of the attendant doctors. ..
  16. Lee J, Yoon T, Oh S, Lim S. Treatment of exudative tracheitis with acute airway obstruction under jet ventilation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;139:606-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Marcos Alonso S, Molini Menchón N, Rodriguez Nunez A, Martinon Torres F, Martinón Sánchez J. [Bacterial tracheitis: an infectious cause of upper airway obstruction to be considered in children]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2005;63:164-8 pubmed
    Bacterial tracheitis is a cause of severe upper respiratory airway obstruction. It has been considered a rare entity whose clinical and epidemiological features are not well known...
  18. Skitarelic N, Morovic M, Manestar D. Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncological surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007;35:15-20 pubmed
    ..However, when taking into account the fact that beta-lactamase containing strains have recently been spreading, amoxicillin-clavulanate should be the logical first choice. ..
  19. Tamma P, Turnbull A, Milstone A, Lehmann C, Sydnor E, Cosgrove S. Ventilator-associated tracheitis in children: does antibiotic duration matter?. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1324-31 pubmed publisher
    The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated tracheitis (VAT) has not been defined, which may result in unnecessarily prolonged courses of antibiotics...
  20. Singh A, Bekele A, Patnayak D, Jindal N, Porter R, Mor S, et al. Molecular characterization of quail bronchitis virus isolated from bobwhite quail in Minnesota. Poult Sci. 2016;95:2815-2818 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination revealed fibrinoheterophilic rhinitis, heterophilic bronchitis, heterophilic tracheitis, and interstitial pneumonia in addition to deciliation, desquamation, and necrosis of bronchial respiratory ..
  21. Thom S, Mendiguren I, Fisher D. Smoke inhalation-induced alveolar lung injury is inhibited by hyperbaric oxygen. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2001;28:175-9 pubmed
    ..Based on all parameters tested, smoke inhalation injury was reduced by prophylactic aadministration of HBO2. The beneficial effect appears related to inhibition of neutroophil adhesion to the vasculature. ..
  22. Hubbs A, Cumpston A, Goldsmith W, Battelli L, Kashon M, Jackson M, et al. Respiratory and olfactory cytotoxicity of inhaled 2,3-pentanedione in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:829-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats inhaling 2,3-pentanedione developed necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis comparable to diacetyl-induced injury...
  23. Brash M, Swinton J, Weisz A, Ojkic D. Isolation and identification of duck adenovirus 1 in ducklings with proliferative tracheitis in Ontario. Avian Dis. 2009;53:317-20 pubmed
  24. Chunmei K, Zhujun Z, Xiuhui Z. Effects of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder on the antibody titers to infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine and some nonspecific immune indexes in chickens. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10:70-7 pubmed
    ..01) and the immune organ index (P<0.05). The results indicate that Gan lian Yu ping feng powder effectively improves the immunity in chickens. ..
  25. Hoon Hanks L, Layton M, Ossiboff R, Parker J, Dubovi E, Stenglein M. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus. Virology. 2018;517:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia...
  26. Ward M. Emergency department management of acute respiratory infections. Semin Respir Infect. 2002;17:65-71 pubmed
    ..Careful selection of antimicrobial agents is essential to maximize benefit and prevent overuse, which contributes to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. ..
  27. Kun S, Edwards J, Ward S, Keens T. Hospital readmissions for newly discharged pediatric home mechanical ventilation patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Close to half of these readmissions occurred within the first 3 months post-index discharge. Pneumonia and tracheitis were the most common reasons for readmission; 64% were pulmonary- or tracheostomy-related...
  28. Cox R, Burke A, Traber D, Herndon D, Hawkins H. Production of pro-inflammatory polypeptides by airway mucous glands and its potential significance. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20:172-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, a proinflammatory function of mucous glands might prove to be important in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and asthma...
  29. Hidalgo A. [Radiology of invasive fungal infections of the respiratory tract]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2007;24:14-8 pubmed
    ..The following is a review of the imaging features of different invasive fungal infections we can face in our daily practice. ..
  30. Baek C, Chung Y, Jeong H, Kim S. Comparison of open dilatational tracheostomy with conventional pediatric tracheostomy in a growing animal model. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:2193-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the authors' new tracheostomy procedure could be applied to children who require short-term tracheostomy at any age in clinical settings. ..
  31. Wu N, Huang Y, Li Q, Bai C, Huang H, Yao X. Isolated invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis: a clinical study of 19 cases. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:689-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the iIATB patients had a favourable prognosis with early diagnosis and effective antifungal treatment. The morphological features of intraluminal lesions might be of prognostic value. ..
  32. Sholapurkar S, Slack R, Avery A, Tonge H, Dunster G. Acute tracheitis with severe upper airway obstruction complicating pregnancy. BJOG. 2002;109:221-2 pubmed
  33. Delaney M, Terio K, Colegrove K, Briggs M, Kinsel M. Occlusive fungal tracheitis in 4 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Vet Pathol. 2013;50:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All dolphins had severe, segmental to circumferential fibrosing tracheitis that decreased luminal diameter...
  34. Mattioni J, Portnoy J, Moore J, Carlson D, Sataloff R. Laryngotracheal mucormycosis: Report of a case. Ear Nose Throat J. 2016;95:29-39 pubmed
    ..Timely diagnosis and management are critical for a successful outcome, although the prognosis is poor if the infection is widespread, even with the best of efforts. ..
  35. Lönnrot M, Lynch K, Elding Larsson H, Lernmark A, Rewers M, Torn C, et al. Respiratory infections are temporally associated with initiation of type 1 diabetes autoimmunity: the TEDDY study. Diabetologia. 2017;60:1931-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..independently associated with autoimmunity were common cold, influenza-like illness, sinusitis, and laryngitis/tracheitis, with HRs (95% CI) of 1.38 (1.11, 1.71), 2.37 (1.35, 4.15), 2.63 (1.22, 5.67) and 1.76 (1.04, 2...
  36. Selbst S. Pediatric emergency medicine: legal briefs. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21:801-4 pubmed
  37. Palerm Caraballo L, González Muñoz G, Savón Valdés C, Valdés Ramírez O, González Baez G, Goyenechea Hernandez A, et al. [Seroepidemiological surveillance of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) types 2 and 3 in an infantile population selected in Havana City]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2005;57:169-74 pubmed
    ..9%). The circulation of human parainfluenza viruses was corroborated during all the months of the year and in all the analyzed age groups. It was observed an increase in the positivity percentages with age. ..
  38. Hause B, Huntimer L, Falkenberg S, Henningson J, Lechtenberg K, Halbur T. An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge. Vet Microbiol. 2017;199:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought ..
  39. Barnes C, Berkowitz R, Curtis N, Waters K. Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchial infection in a 6-year-old girl following bone marrow transplantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;59:59-62 pubmed
    ..Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from a biopsy of the lesion. The patient was treated successfully with a prolonged course of amphotericin B and assessed with multiple surveillance bronchoscopies. ..
  40. Strauss R, Mueller A, Wehler M, Neureiter D, Fischer E, Gramatzki M, et al. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:E39-41 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins. ..
  41. Yamazaki Y, Hirai K, Honda T. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:211-3 pubmed
    ..In this case, it was helpful to perform bronchoscopy, protected brushing and tracheotomy immediately in order to avoid choking. ..
  42. Lucas J, Haas E, Masoumi H, Krous H. Sudden death in a toddler with laryngotracheitis caused by human parainfluenza virus-1. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009;12:165-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Lupini C, Cecchinato M, Ricchizzi E, Naylor C, Catelli E. A turkey rhinotracheitis outbreak caused by the environmental spread of a vaccine-derived avian metapneumovirus. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The study shows that disease was caused by exposure to aMPV vaccine-derived virus that was present in the environment, and indicates that such virus is able to circulate for longer than was previously envisaged. ..
  44. Sackner M, Landa J, Hirsch J, Zapata A. Pulmonary effects of oxygen breathing. A 6-hour study in normal men. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:40-3 pubmed
  45. Carrel T, Gygax E, Jenni H, Wagner B. Successful extracorporeal life support using a new micro-diagonal pump in a child with acute laryngotracheobronchitis, lung failure, and untractable septic shock. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:824-5 pubmed
  46. Huang C, Wu H, Lee Y. Extensive tracheobronchitis and lung perforation after alkaline caustic aspiration. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:1670-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report this rare, clinical condition and discuss the possible mechanism and its management...
  47. Martin Loeches I, Papiol E, Almansa R, Lopez Campos G, Bermejo Martin J, Rello J. Intubated patients developing tracheobronchitis or pneumonia have distinctive complement system gene expression signatures in the pre-infection period: a pilot study. Med Intensiva. 2012;36:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains unknown why some intubated patients remain infection-free while others develop tracheobronchitis (VAT) or pneumonia (VAP)...
  48. Zanella A, Dall ara P, Martino P. Avian influenza epidemic in Italy due to serovar H7N1. Avian Dis. 2001;45:257-61 pubmed
    ..The disease was characterized by sinusitis, tracheitis, peritonitis, and pancreatitis. The mortality varied between 5% and 90%...
  49. Warman M, Lahav J, Feldberg E, Halperin D. Invasive tracheal aspergillosis treated successfully with voriconazole: clinical report and review of the literature. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:713-6 pubmed
    ..Otolaryngologists should be familiar with the entity of invasive necrotizing tracheal aspergillosis...
  50. Labourel H, Emeriaud G, Ladwig M, Koch F, Menthonnex E. [Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children with bacterial tracheitis]. Arch Pediatr. 2008;15:279-82 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial tracheitis is a severe cause of acute infectious upper-airway obstruction. Its characteristics include thick purulent secretions with or without plaques or pseudomembrane formation...
  51. Asami T, Koyama S, Watanabe Y, Miwa C, Ushimaru S, Nakashima Y, et al. Tracheobronchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease. Intern Med. 2009;48:1475-8 pubmed
    ..Thereafter, he was treated with inhaled Fluticasone propionate 400 microg/day. After one week his dry cough improved, and after two weeks bronchoscopic findings were improved...
  52. Athanassa Z, Markantonis S, Fousteri M, Myrianthefs P, Boutzouka E, Tsakris A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled colistimethate sodium (CMS) in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38:1779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe inhaled colistin pharmacokinetics in patients with ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) due to polymyxin-only susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (GNB)...
  53. Kruger M, Zinne N, Höffler H, Zhang R, Kropivnitskaja I, Schmitto J, et al. [Ex situ tracheobronchoplastic operations using the organ care system]. Chirurg. 2013;84:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Performing thoracic surgery with the OCS is feasible; however, this approach is reserved for very special indications. Further investigations to optimize technical details of the OCS setup for this purpose are necessary...
  54. Ottolini M, Porter D, Blanco J, Prince G. A cotton rat model of human parainfluenza 3 laryngotracheitis: virus growth, pathology, and therapy. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1713-7 pubmed
    ..Topical glucocorticoid therapy, with or without concurrent topical immunotherapy with antibody to PIV3, did not lead to a rebound of viral replication...
  55. Xia K, Wolf J, Friedman S, Carr Locke D. Granulomatous tracheo-bronchitis associated with Crohn's disease. MedGenMed. 2004;6:18 pubmed
    ..The patient improved with a 6-week oral, followed by an additional 4-week inhaled, corticosteroid treatment. Since then, he has been doing well without relapse of pulmonary symptoms for 2 years...
  56. Craven D, Hudcova J, Lei Y. Diagnosis of ventilator-associated respiratory infections (VARI): microbiologic clues for tracheobronchitis (VAT) and pneumonia (VAP). Clin Chest Med. 2011;32:547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive data indicate that early, appropriate antibiotic therapy improves outcomes for patients with VAP. Recognizing and treating VARI may allow earlier appropriate therapy and improved patient outcomes...
  57. Mhanna M, Elsheikh I, Super D. Risk factors and outcome of Ventilator Associated Tracheitis (VAT) in pediatric trauma patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013;48:176-81 pubmed publisher
    We sought to investigate the risk factors and outcome of Ventilator Associated Tracheitis (VAT) according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) definition in pediatric trauma patients who were ventilated for ?48?hr...
  58. O Donnell S, Anderson G. The effects of formoterol on plasma exudation produced by a localized acute inflammatory response to bradykinin in the tracheal mucosa of rats in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;116:1571-6 pubmed
    ..The data support the view that, at least in rodent airways, beta2-adrenoceptor agonists attenuate, but do not abolish, the microvascular permeability effects of bradykinin, a putative asthma mediator...
  59. Miyabara Y, Yanagisawa R, Shimojo N, Takano H, Lim H, Ichinose T, et al. Murine strain differences in airway inflammation caused by diesel exhaust particles. Eur Respir J. 1998;11:291-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, murine strain differences in response to air pollutants and allergens seem to be related to antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 production and cytokine expression in the lungs...
  60. Jecker P, McWilliam A, Marsh A, Holt P, Mann W, Pabst R, et al. Acute laryngotracheitis in the rat induced by Sendai virus: the influx of six different types of immunocompetent cells into the laryngeal mucosa differs strongly between the subglottic and the glottic compartment. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1645-51 pubmed
    ..The aims were to study both the influx of immunocompetent cells and the adhesion of the pathogen and to correlate them to the different reactions of the laryngeal areas during pseudocroup...
  61. Wilson A, Kaufman M, Thomson R, Gavin P. Fulminant fatal toxic shock syndrome with Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:225-6 pubmed
  62. Kuiken T, Taubenberger J. Pathology of human influenza revisited. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 4:D59-66 pubmed
    ..Further understanding and comparison of the pathology of human and avian influenza virus infections only can be achieved by directed and careful pathological analysis of additional influenza cases...
  63. Ramos A, Segovia J, Gómez Bueno M, Salas C, Lázaro M, Sanchez I, et al. Pseudomembranous Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a heart transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should be aware of AT as a potential cause of respiratory symptoms with few radiographic abnormalities in HT recipients, as delay in performing bronchoscopy could result in an unfavorable prognosis...
  64. Couroucé Malblanc A, Deniau V, Rossignol F, Corde R, Leleu C, Maillard K, et al. Physiological measurements and prevalence of lower airway diseases in Trotters with dorsal displacement of the soft palate. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2010;:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, lower respiratory airway diseases may be associated with DDSP thereby contributing to exercise intolerance in these horses...
  65. Stipkovits L, Glavits R, Palfi V, Beres A, Egyed L, Denes B, et al. Pathologic lesions caused by coinfection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens. Vet Pathol. 2012;49:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone...
  66. O Riordan T, Mao W, Palmer L, Chen J. Assessing the effects of racemic and single-enantiomer albuterol on airway secretions in long-term intubated patients. Chest. 2006;129:124-32 pubmed
  67. Tebruegge M, Pantazidou A, Thorburn K, Riordan A, Round J, de Munter C, et al. Bacterial tracheitis: a multi-centre perspective. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:548-57 pubmed publisher
    The published literature on bacterial tracheitis is limited. We report the first multi-centre study of bacterial tracheitis together with a concise review of the literature...
  68. Xiao P, Zhang X. Adult laryngotracheal surgery. Anesthesiol Clin. 2010;28:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Preoperative assessment and anesthesia management for adult laryngotracheal surgery are reviewed...
  69. Ben Izhak O, Ben Arieh Y. Necrotizing squamous metaplasia in herpetic tracheitis following prolonged intubation: a lesion similar to necrotizing sialometaplasia. Histopathology. 1993;22:265-9 pubmed
    In the last year we have encountered three cases of clinically inapparent herpes simplex virus (HSV) tracheitis in biopsies from patients undergoing tracheostomy following prolonged intubation...
  70. Lamirande E, Nichols D, Owens J, Gaskin J, Jacobson E. Isolation and experimental transmission of a reovirus pathogenic in ratsnakes (Elaphe species). Virus Res. 1999;63:135-41 pubmed
    ..Pneumonia and multifocal subacute proliferative tracheitis were found on necropsy...
  71. Abbassi M, Touati A, Achour W, Cherif A, Jabnoun S, Khrouf N, et al. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia responsible for respiratory infections in neonatal intensive care unit: antibiotic susceptibility and molecular typing. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2009;57:363-7 pubmed publisher
  72. Craven D, Hjalmarson K. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis and pneumonia: thinking outside the box. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51 Suppl 1:S59-66 pubmed publisher
  73. Dominelli G, Shaipanich T. Ulcerative tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol. 2013;20:326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of invasive Aspergillus causing widespread ulcerative tracheobronchitis in a 39-year-old man with an asthma exacerbation requiring intensive care unit admission. ..
  74. Safronenko L, Davydova A, Karpov V, Lukashevich M, Novikov V. [The problems associated with the treatment of stenosing laryngotracheitis in the children (the results of the 35 year-long experience)]. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2017;82:19-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Special emphasis is laid on the advantages of the combined treatment of the patients presenting with this condition based at a specialized infectious department with the participation of an otorhinolaryngologist...
  75. Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke J, Mettenleiter T, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3343-52 pubmed
    ..Unlike inactivated influenza virus vaccines, HA-expressing ILTV recombinants should be suitable for mass application and would also permit serological discrimination between vaccinated and virus-infected animals in the field...
  76. Ellis S. The spectrum of tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. Eur Radiol. 2004;14 Suppl 3:E34-42 pubmed
    ..This review article is intended to describe the radiological features, in the immunocompetent host, that accompany TB and NTM pulmonary infections and highlight the imaging features that would favour an NTM as the causative organism...
  77. Kasai S, Tokuda H, Yoshikawa M, Nishiyama H. [A case of bronchial ulcer due to infection by Mycobacterium abscessus]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;42:919-23 pubmed
    ..After initial multidrug therapy, the patient was placed on clarithromycin for 10 months. No relapse has occurred to date...
  78. Weigl J, Puppe W, Belke O, Neusüss J, Bagci F, Schmitt H. The descriptive epidemiology of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children in Kiel, Germany. Klin Padiatr. 2005;217:259-67 pubmed
    ..Longitudinal, descriptive epidemiological data on different forms of LRI are urgently needed to differentiate this burden, compare population-based incidence rates between countries and to recognize trends...
  79. Pornsuriyasak P, Murgu S, Colt H. Pseudomembranous aspergillus tracheobronchitis superimposed on post-tuberculosis tracheal stenosis. Respirology. 2009;14:144-7 pubmed publisher
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