bovine respiratory disease complex

Summary

Summary: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.

Top Publications

  1. Stanton A. Challenges and opportunities for managing respiratory disease in dairy calves. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..If management changes can be made for animals that are failing to thrive in a current situation, a more complete recovery may be possible and the welfare and economic costs of BRD may be minimized. ..
  2. Wildman B, Perrett T, Abutarbush S, Guichon P, Pittman T, Booker C, et al. A comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease. Can Vet J. 2008;49:463-72 pubmed
    ..86 CDN/animal in the MLV3-BT2 group. This study demonstrates that it is more cost effective to use an MLV3-BT2 vaccination program than a MLV4-BT1 vaccination program in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF/BRD...
  3. Huang R, Letendre L, Banav N, Fischer J, Somerville B. Pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin in cattle with comparison of plasma and lung tissue concentrations and plasma antibacterial activity. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2010;33:227-37 pubmed publisher
  4. Schaefer A, Cook N, Church J, Basarab J, Perry B, Miller C, et al. The use of infrared thermography as an early indicator of bovine respiratory disease complex in calves. Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:376-84 pubmed
  5. Jones C, Chowdhury S. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:303-21 pubmed publisher
    ..ability to induce immune suppression, BHV-1 is an important agent in the multifactorial disorder, bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC)...
  6. Griffin D, Chengappa M, Kuszak J, McVey D. Bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:381-94 pubmed publisher
  7. McVey D. BRD research needs in the next 10-20 years. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustained funding to train the next generation of research investigators should be addressed as a critical need...
  8. Horwood P, Mahony T. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR detection of three viruses associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex. J Virol Methods. 2011;171:360-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is considered the most significant illness associated with feedlot cattle in North America and possibly worldwide...
  9. Portis E, Lindeman C, Johansen L, Stoltman G. A ten-year (2000-2009) study of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that cause bovine respiratory disease complex--Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni--in the United States and Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:932-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Less than 50% of the isolates tested as susceptible to tetracycline in many of the years. All 3 organisms showed declines in tilmicosin and tulathromycin MIC(50) and MIC(90) values over the years in which they were tested...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Srikumaran S, Kelling C, Ambagala A. Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex. Anim Health Res Rev. 2007;8:215-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and ..
  2. Jones C, Chowdhury S. A review of the biology of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), its role as a cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex and development of improved vaccines. Anim Health Res Rev. 2007;8:187-205 pubmed publisher
    ..BHV-1-induced immune suppression initiates bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which costs the US cattle industry approximately 3 billion dollars annually...
  3. Torres S, Thomson D, Bello N, Nosky B, Reinhardt C. Field study of the comparative efficacy of gamithromycin and tulathromycin for the control of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex in beef feedlot calves at high risk of developing respiratory tract disease. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:839-46 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy of gamithromycin with that of tulathromycin for control of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves. 2,529 weaned crossbred beef calves...
  4. Bach A. Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:1052-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Van Donkersgoed J, Berg J, Hendrick S. Comparison of florfenicol and tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in Alberta feedlot calves. Vet Ther. 2008;9:275-81 pubmed
    ..The net economic advantage of florfenicol over tulathromycin (Can$17.70/treated animal) was based on differences in costs for the trial drug and calf replacement owing to bovine respiratory disease and Histophilus disease case fatality. ..
  6. Hanzlicek G, White B, Renter D, Blasi D. A field study evaluating health, performance, and behavior differences in crossbred beef calves administered different vaccine-parasiticide product combinations. Vaccine. 2010;28:5998-6005 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the most important health issue in beef feeder calves...
  7. Sheridan M, Regev Shoshani G, Martins J, Vimalanathan S, Miller C. Nitric oxide modulates the immunological response of bovine PBMCs in an in vitro BRDc infection model. Res Vet Sci. 2016;109:21-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a multi-factorial disease, involving both viral and bacterial pathogens, that negatively impacts the cattle feedlot industry...
  8. Eberle K, McGill J, Reinhardt T, Sacco R. Parainfluenza Virus 3 Blocks Antiviral Mediators Downstream of the Interferon Lambda Receptor by Modulating Stat1 Phosphorylation. J Virol. 2015;90:2948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, PIV-3 is one of a number of pathogens that contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC)...
  9. Nautrup B, Van Vlaenderen I, Gasper S, Holland R. Estimating the comparative clinical and economic consequences of tulathromycin for treatment of present or anticipated outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in the United States. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:5868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Fewer BRD episodes in cattle treated with tulathromycin not only contributes to overall savings in BRD management but also reduces the necessity of repeated antibiotic treatment, supporting prudent use of antimicrobials in livestock. ..
  10. Hanzlicek G, White B, Renter D, Anderson D, Larson R. Associations between the prevalence of Mollicutes and Mycoplasma bovis and health and performance in stocker calves. Vet Rec. 2011;168:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Nasal swabs and serum were collected on days 0 (arrival), 10, 42 and at the first incidence of bovine respiratory disease complex. The samples were evaluated for Mollicutes (by culture), Mycoplasma bovis (by PCR) and serum ..
  11. Cernicchiaro N, White B, Renter D, Babcock A. Evaluation of economic and performance outcomes associated with the number of treatments after an initial diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in commercial feeder cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:300-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Behura S, Tizioto P, Kim J, Grupioni N, Seabury C, Schnabel R, et al. Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17938 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study serve as a basis for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies and for the selection of cattle with enhanced resistance to BRD. ..
  13. DeDonder K, Apley M, Li M, Gehring R, Harhay D, Lubbers B, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2016;39:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, the findings from this study indicate that higher PK/PD indices were predictive of positive treatment outcomes. ..
  14. Garcia M, Thallman R, Wheeler T, Shackelford S, Casas E. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass traits should be given consideration by future studies that aim to develop selection strategies based on specific traits. ..
  15. Step D, Engelken T, Romano C, Holland B, Krehbiel C, Johnson J, et al. Evaluation of three antimicrobial regimens used as metaphylaxis in stocker calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2007;8:136-47 pubmed
    ..At Site A, morbidity was significantly lower (52%) in Group 1 than in Group 2 (76.3%) and Group 3 (78.4%). At Site B, morbidity was significantly lower in Group 1 (2.6%) than in Group 2 (9.4%) and Group 3 (7.2%). ..
  16. Ilg T. Investigations on the molecular mode of action of the novel immunostimulator ZelNate: Activation of the cGAS-STING pathway in mammalian cells. Mol Immunol. 2017;90:182-189 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vitro observations suggest that ZelNate may act predominantly via the cGAS/STING/IRF3 pathway. ..
  17. Hall J, Isaiah A, Estill C, Pirelli G, Suchodolski J. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179215 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity...
  18. Quinn M, Moore E, Thomson D, Depenbusch B, May M, Higgins J, et al. The effects of feeding flaxseed during the receiving period on morbidity, mortality, performance, and carcass characteristics of heifers. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:3054-61 pubmed publisher
  19. Stanton A, Kelton D, LeBlanc S, Millman S, Wormuth J, Dingwell R, et al. The effect of treatment with long-acting antibiotic at postweaning movement on respiratory disease and on growth in commercial dairy calves. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, BRD after movement to group housing after weaning had a significant effect on the growth of dairy calves. ..
  20. Sweeney M, Brumbaugh G, Watts J. In vitro activities of tulathromycin and ceftiofur combined with other antimicrobial agents using bovine Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolates. Vet Ther. 2008;9:212-22 pubmed
  21. White B, Goehl D, Amrine D, Booker C, Wildman B, Perrett T. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves. Prev Vet Med. 2016;126:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. ..
  22. McGill J, Rusk R, Guerra Maupome M, Briggs R, Sacco R. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151083 pubmed publisher
    ..morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle...
  23. Ellis J. Update on viral pathogenesis in BRD. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the pathogenesis of BHV-1 and BRSV, two very different agents that primarily cause disease in the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively. ..
  24. Holland B, Burciaga Robles L, VanOverbeke D, Shook J, Step D, Richards C, et al. Effect of bovine respiratory disease during preconditioning on subsequent feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef attributes. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:2486-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Segregating animals with multiple BRD treatments and feeding them to an acceptable carcass endpoint may be a viable strategy for increasing value of animals treated for BRD. ..
  25. Booker C, Schunicht O, Guichon P, Jim G, Wildman B, Pittman T, et al. An evaluation of the metaphylactic effect of ceftiofur crystalline free Acid in feedlot calves. Vet Ther. 2006;7:257-74 pubmed
    ..05 dollars and 18.98 dollars in the CCFA-3 and CCFA-7 groups, respectively. In beef calves at ultrahigh risk of developing BRD, it is more cost effective to administer metaphylactic CCFA than tilmicosin at feedlot arrival. ..
  26. Boukahil I, Czuprynski C. Mutual antagonism between Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida when forming a biofilm on bovine bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Vet Microbiol. 2018;216:218-222 pubmed publisher
    Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are two bacterial species implicated in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) that is costly to the beef and dairy cattle industries...
  27. Johnson J, Bryson W, Barringer S, Hunsaker B. Evaluation of on-arrival versus prompted metaphylaxis regimes using ceftiofur crystalline free acid for feedlot heifers at risk of developing bovine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2008;9:53-62 pubmed
    ..In northern, ranch-fresh calves, MTX as a health management practice reduces the incidence of BRD and has better utility when performed on arrival versus relying on morbidity as a signal for antimicrobial administration. ..
  28. Francoz D, Buczinski S, Apley M. Evidence related to the use of ancillary drugs in bovine respiratory disease (anti-inflammatory and others): are they justified or not?. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2012;28:23-38, vii-viii pubmed publisher
    ..This review emphasized the need for articles concerning clinical trials to clearly state study inclusion criteria, and definitions of clinical scores, relapses, and treatment failures to be properly evaluated. ..
  29. Bach A, Tejero C, Ahedo J. Effects of group composition on the incidence of respiratory afflictions in group-housed calves after weaning. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:2001-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that forming groups of animals with a previous BRD history should minimize the incidence of respiratory cases in those groups of calves formed by animals without a previous history of respiratory disease. ..
  30. Larson R. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2015;31:367-80, vi pubmed publisher
    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle...
  31. Lokhandwala S, Fang X, Waghela S, Bray J, Njongmeta L, Herring A, et al. Priming Cross-Protective Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Specific Immunity Using Live-Vectored Mosaic Antigens. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170425 pubmed publisher
    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves...
  32. Cernicchiaro N, White B, Renter D, Babcock A, Kelly L, Slattery R. Associations between the distance traveled from sale barns to commercial feedlots in the United States and overall performance, risk of respiratory disease, and cumulative mortality in feeder cattle during 1997 to 2009. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:1929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..quantifying the effects of transport on feedlot performance and health, and particularly the risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), which is the most common disease of weaned calves after arrival to the feedlot...
  33. Cornelissen J, de Bree F, van der Wal F, Kooi E, Koene M, Bossers A, et al. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:97 pubmed publisher
    ..bovirhinis respectively by testing 44 BALF samples from calves. In conclusion, the RespoCheck PCR assay can be a valuable tool for timely and accurate detection of three Mycoplasma species associated with in bovine respiratory disease. ..
  34. Fulton R, Step D, Wahrmund J, Burge L, Payton M, Cook B, et al. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) infections in transported commingled beef cattle and sole-source ranch calves. Can J Vet Res. 2011;75:191-9 pubmed
    ..If approved vaccines are developed, it would be best to carry out vaccination programs before calves are weaned, giving them sufficient time to gain active immunity before commingling with other cattle...
  35. Henderson L, Miglior F, Sewalem A, Wormuth J, Kelton D, Robinson A, et al. Short communication: genetic parameters for measures of calf health in a population of Holstein calves in New York State. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:6181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..42 to 0.32). Significant differences existed among Holstein sires for calf health during the preweaning period...
  36. Booker C, Abutarbush S, Morley P, Jim G, Pittman T, Schunicht O, et al. Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in Western Canada. Can Vet J. 2008;49:473-81 pubmed
    ..This quantitative pathological study demonstrates that several etiologic agents and pathologic processes are involved in fatal BRD of feedlot cattle...
  37. Levings R, Roth J. Immunity to bovine herpesvirus 1: II. Adaptive immunity and vaccinology. Anim Health Res Rev. 2013;14:103-23 pubmed publisher
    ..suppression caused by the virus potentiates secondary infections and contributes to the costly bovine respiratory disease complex. Vaccination against BHV-1 is widely practiced...
  38. Miles D. Overview of the North American beef cattle industry and the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:101-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Perhaps it is time for the industry to look for ways to reduce death loss by methods that focus on the animal's response to the pathogens instead of continuing to focus on the pathogens...
  39. Hotchkiss E, Dagleish M, Willoughby K, McKendrick I, Finlayson J, Zadoks R, et al. Prevalence of Pasteurella multocida and other respiratory pathogens in the nasal tract of Scottish calves. Vet Rec. 2010;167:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycoplasma-like organisms, BPI-3, BRSV, BoHV-1 and BVDV were detected in 58, 17, four, 0 and eight calves, on 25, five, two, 0 and five of the 68 farms, respectively...
  40. Holman D, Timsit E, Amat S, Abbott D, Buret A, Alexander T. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle before and after transport to a feedlot. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that there is an abrupt shift in the NP microbiota of cattle after transportation to a feedlot. This may have importance for understanding why cattle are most susceptible to BRD after feedlot placement. ..
  41. Fulton R, Confer A. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?. Can Vet J. 2012;53:754-61 pubmed
    ..The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics...
  42. Apley M. Antimicrobials and BRD. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:159-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is likewise imprecise when applied to an individual animal; however, it is valuable on an animal population basis...
  43. Hay K, Morton J, Clements A, Mahony T, Barnes T. Population-level effects of risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2017;140:78-86 pubmed publisher
  44. Illambas J, Potter T, Sidhu P, Rycroft A, Cheng Z, Lees P. Pharmacodynamics of florfenicol for calf pneumonia pathogens. Vet Rec. 2013;172:340 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 24.1 for P multocida and 7.8 and 11.4 for M haemolytica. These data form a rational basis for dosage selection for treatment of calf pneumonia caused by M haemolytica or P multocida...
  45. Cernicchiaro N, Renter D, White B, Babcock A, Fox J. Associations between weather conditions during the first 45 days after feedlot arrival and daily respiratory disease risks in autumn-placed feeder cattle in the United States. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:1328-37 pubmed publisher
  46. Patrick R. A dairy producer's view of respiratory disease. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:111-2 pubmed publisher
    ..If respiratory disease is prevented at an early age, this will ensure the greatest chance that the animals will reach their full genetic potential to produce...
  47. Keele J, Kuehn L, McDaneld T, Tait R, Jones S, Smith T, et al. Genomewide association study of lung lesions in cattle using sample pooling. J Anim Sci. 2015;93:956-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the most expensive disease in beef cattle in the United States costing the industry at least US$1 billion annually...
  48. Larson R, Step D. Evidence-based effectiveness of vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in feedlot cattle for mitigating the incidence and effect of bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2012;28:97-106, 106e1-7, ix pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle...
  49. Thiry J, González Martín J, Elvira L, Pagot E, Voisin F, Lequeux G, et al. Treatment of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in juvenile calves with a single administration of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation. Vet Rec. 2014;174:430 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the product combining florfenicol and flunixin in calves is safe and efficacious in the treatment of outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease. ..
  50. Timsit E, Workentine M, Schryvers A, Holman D, van der Meer F, Alexander T. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot. Vet Microbiol. 2016;187:75-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle...
  51. Eitam H, Vaya J, Brosh A, Orlov A, Khatib S, Izhaki I, et al. Differential stress responses among newly received calves: variations in reductant capacity and Hsp gene expression. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:865-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), a major economic concern to the beef cattle industry all over the world, is triggered by physical, biological and psychological stresses...
  52. Perrett T, Abutarbush S, Wildman B, Fuchs M, Schunicht O, Pollock C, et al. A comparison of florfenicol and tulathromycine for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves. Vet Ther. 2008;9:128-40 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that it is more cost-effective to use florfenicol than tulathromycin for the initial treatment of UF in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF that receive on-arrival metaphylactic tulathromycin...
  53. Jim K. Impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) from the perspective of the Canadian beef producer. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:109-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The major direct costs are attributable to the cost of the feeder, production costs and carcass disposal. The indirect costs are mainly associated with infrastructure and labour...
  54. Boileau M, Kapil S. Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:123-46, table of contents pubmed publisher
  55. Dassanayake R, Falkenberg S, Briggs R, Tatum F, Sacco R. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183610 pubmed publisher
    ..for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied...
  56. Brodersen B. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Cattle vaccinated with formalin-inactivated virus had enhanced disease when inoculated with BRSV. This article discusses various aspects of BRSV, its epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, immunity, and vaccination...
  57. Gorden P, PLUMMER P. Control, management, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease in dairy calves and cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:243-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it seems prudent to focus the management strategies on preventing disease through sound management of the transition period, along with sound vaccination and biosecurity programs...
  58. Richeson J, Kegley E, Powell J, Beck P, Ley B, Ridpath J. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers, and peripheral blood leukocytes. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:1972-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to PI reduced BW gain from d 28 to 42, increased the number of calves treated thrice, and increased chronically ill cattle for AM...
  59. Neibergs H, Zanella R, Casas E, Snowder G, Wenz J, Neibergs J, et al. Loci on Bos taurus chromosome 2 and Bos taurus chromosome 26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:907-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison of BVD-PI dams with unaffected calves detected associations with BVD-PI for all markers tested on BTA2 (P = 3 × 10(-9) to P = 0.005) and for 3 of 7 markers on BTA26 (P = 1.4 × 10(-6) to P = 0.006)...
  60. Schneider M, Tait R, Busby W, Reecy J. An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:1821-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of lung lesions did not have a significant effect on any of the traits; however, there was an association between the presence of active bronchial lymph nodes and less productivity of feedlot cattle...
  61. Aich P, Jalal S, Czuba C, Schatte G, Herzog K, Olson D, et al. Comparative approaches to the investigation of responses to stress and viral infection in cattle. OMICS. 2007;11:413-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, combined OMICS analysis of serum samples revealed that multimethod analysis could be used to discriminate between the complex biological responses to stress and viral infection...
  62. Snowder G, Van Vleck L, Cundiff L, Bennett G, Koohmaraie M, Dikeman M. Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:1885-92 pubmed
  63. Hay K, Morton J, Schibrowski M, Clements A, Mahony T, Barnes T. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2016;127:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots. ..
  64. Fulton R, Blood K, Panciera R, Payton M, Ridpath J, Confer A, et al. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:464-77 pubmed
    ..Clinical illnesses observed in this study were lengthier than those reported 16-20 years ago, based on fatal disease onset, treatment interval, and day of death...
  65. Ridpath J. The contribution of infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses to bovine respiratory disease. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:335-48 pubmed publisher
  66. Babcock A, Renter D, White B, Dubnicka S, Scott H. Temporal distributions of respiratory disease events within cohorts of feedlot cattle and associations with cattle health and performance indices. Prev Vet Med. 2010;97:198-219 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), the most common cause of post-weaning disease in North American beef cattle, is a multifaceted process involving pathogen, host, environment, and management factors...
  67. Rose Dye T, Burciaga Robles L, Krehbiel C, Step D, Fulton R, Confer A, et al. Rumen temperature change monitored with remote rumen temperature boluses after challenges with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mannheimia haemolytica. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:1193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..89). Rumen temperature boluses appear to have potential as a tool for detecting temperature changes associated with adverse health events such as exposure to bovine respiratory disease and BVDV...
  68. McCorquodale C, Sewalem A, Miglior F, Kelton D, Robinson A, Koeck A, et al. Short communication: analysis of health and survival in a population of Ontario Holstein heifer calves. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:1880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation and improved data collection are required to determine the full impact of genetics on health and survival in dairy heifer calves...
  69. Fiore E, Armato L, Morgante M, Muraro M, Boso M, Gianesella M. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle. Can J Vet Res. 2016;80:60-5 pubmed
    ..6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. ..
  70. Farran T, Reinhardt C, Blasi D, Minton J, Elsasser T, Higgins J, et al. Source of dietary lipid may modify the immune response in stressed feeder cattle. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1382-94 pubmed publisher
  71. Raaperi K, Bougeard S, Aleksejev A, Orro T, Viltrop A. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle. Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:4 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated...
  72. Arcangioli M, Aslan H, Tardy F, Poumarat F, Le Grand D. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots. Vet J. 2012;192:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared...
  73. Van Driessche L, Valgaeren B, Gille L, Boyen F, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F, et al. A Deep Nasopharyngeal Swab Versus Nonendoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Isolation of Bacterial Pathogens from Preweaned Calves With Respiratory Disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31:946-953 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent of commensal overgrowth and agreement of BAL with DNS culture results in preweaned calves are unknown...
  74. Leach R, Chitko McKown C, Bennett G, Jones S, Kachman S, Keele J, et al. The change in differing leukocyte populations during vaccination to bovine respiratory disease and their correlations with lung scores, health records, and average daily gain. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, immunological phenotypes maybe used to aid genomic selection indices to select animals with greater rates of protection after BRD vaccination. ..
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    ..haemolytica pneumonia. Effective control of M. haemolytica pneumonia is likely to require a combination of more definitive diagnosis, efficacious vaccines, therapeutic intervention and improved management practices...
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    ..Monitoring reticulo-rumen temperature permits early detection of BRD; however, clinical examination is required to confirm BRD...
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    ..These developments will result in vaccines for respiratory disease that are safer and more efficacious, and provide greater flexibility for use and administration...
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    ..Study challenges include potential for extensive confounding, tremendous variability, the multi-factorial nature of the disease, and inadequate methods for diagnosis...
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    b>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) is a common disease in weaned dairy calves that incurs economic and welfare costs...
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    ..The output also included a relative ranking of the treatments and estimates of the probability that an antibiotic protocol was the worst treatment option...
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    ..The postmortem examination is described, along with the patterns and gross appearance of lesions, considerations for effective sampling from appropriately selected animals, and reasons for discrepant or negative laboratory test results...
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