respiratory tract infections

Summary

Summary: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Schuetz P, Muller B, Christ Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD007498 pubmed publisher
  2. Litvin C, Ornstein S, Wessell A, Nemeth L, Nietert P. Use of an electronic health record clinical decision support tool to improve antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections: the ABX-TRIP study. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28:810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This multi-method intervention appears to have had a sustained impact on reducing the use of broad spectrum antibiotics for ARIs. This intervention shows promise for promoting judicious antibiotic use in primary care. ..
  3. Rees J, Hendricks K, Barry E, Peacock J, Mott L, Sandler R, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation and upper respiratory tract infections in a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1384-92 pubmed publisher
    ..84-1.54) or colds (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, .87-1.23). Supplementation with 1000 IU/day vitamin D(3) did not significantly reduce the incidence or duration of URTI in adults with a baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ?12 ng/mL. ..
  4. Magnus M, Vestrheim D, Nystad W, HÃ¥berg S, Stigum H, London S, et al. Decline in early childhood respiratory tract infections in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:951-5 pubmed
    ..against invasive pneumococcal disease has been demonstrated, whereas evidence of its impact on respiratory tract infections are less consistent...
  5. Spagnolo P, Fabbri L, Bush A. Long-term macrolide treatment for chronic respiratory disease. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:239-51 pubmed publisher
  6. Rattinger G, Mullins C, Zuckerman I, Onukwugha E, Walker L, Gundlapalli A, et al. A sustainable strategy to prevent misuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51147 pubmed publisher
    ..A CDSS interposed at the time of e-prescription nearly extinguished unwarranted use targeted antibiotics for ARI for four years. This intervention highlights a path toward sustainable antibiotics stewardship for outpatients with ARI. ..
  7. Everard M. 'Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections' - going around in circles, respiratory medicine style. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2012;13:139-43 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections are very common in childhood, particularly the pre-school years...
  8. Gerber J, Prasad P, Fiks A, Localio A, Grundmeier R, Bell L, et al. Effect of an outpatient antimicrobial stewardship intervention on broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing by primary care pediatricians: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;309:2345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most antimicrobial use occurs in outpatients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs)...
  9. Majtan J. Pleuran (?-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus ): an effective nutritional supplement against upper respiratory tract infections?. Med Sport Sci. 2012;59:57-61 pubmed publisher
    Prolonged and high-intensity exercise affects immune function and leads to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in endurance athletes...

More Information

Publications81

  1. MacIntyre C, Wang Q, Seale H, Yang P, Shi W, Gao Z, et al. A randomized clinical trial of three options for N95 respirators and medical masks in health workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further data to inform occupational policy options for HCWs. Clinical trial registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry http://www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN 12609000778280). ..
  2. Ingram J, Cabral C, Hay A, Lucas P, Horwood J. Parents' information needs, self-efficacy and influences on consulting for childhood respiratory tract infections: a qualitative study. BMC Fam Pract. 2013;14:106 pubmed publisher
    ..Parents would value consistent advice from a trusted source that addresses common concerns and supports home care and decision making about help seeking. ..
  3. Souza J, Watanabe A, Carraro E, Granato C, Bellei N. Severe metapneumovirus infections among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients admitted to hospital with respiratory infection. J Med Virol. 2013;85:530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the significance of hMPV in immunocompetent adult patients with severe infections and further investigations are recommended for understanding the impact of this virus...
  4. Schuetz P, Briel M, Christ Crain M, Stolz D, Bouadma L, Wolff M, et al. Procalcitonin to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic treatment in acute respiratory infections: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:651-62 pubmed publisher
    Procalcitonin algorithms may reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs)...
  5. Debiaggi M, Ceresola E, Sampaolo M, Alessandrino E, Brerra R, Piazza A, et al. Epidemiological, molecular and clinical features of enterovirus 109 infection in children and in adult stem cell transplant recipients. Virol J. 2012;9:183 pubmed publisher
  6. Rosenfeld M, Emerson J, McNamara S, Thompson V, Ramsey B, Morgan W, et al. Risk factors for age at initial Pseudomonas acquisition in the cystic fibrosis epic observational cohort. J Cyst Fibros. 2012;11:446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to identify such risk factors in order to inform prevention strategies and identify high-risk populations...
  7. Culebras E, Betriu C, Vázquez Cid E, Lopez Varela E, Rueda S, Picazo J. Detection and genotyping of human respiratory viruses in clinical specimens from children with acute respiratory tract infections. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2013;26:47-50 pubmed
    ..Viruses were identified in 80% of the studied ARTI providing useful information on clinical features and epidemiology of specific agents affecting children in cold months. Multiple viral infections were found in 33.45% of the specimens. ..
  8. Ciofu O, Hansen C, Høiby N. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize the knowledge on disease and treatment of infection with CF-related pathogens...
  9. Bates M, Mudenda V, Mwaba P, Zumla A. Deaths due to respiratory tract infections in Africa: a review of autopsy studies. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19:229-37 pubmed publisher
    According to the WHO, lower respiratory tract infections are one of the most prevalent causes of death in Africa...
  10. Forman M, Advani S, Newman C, Gaydos C, Milstone A, Valsamakis A. Diagnostic performance of two highly multiplexed respiratory virus assays in a pediatric cohort. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiplex nucleic acid tests (NATs) have begun to replace conventional methods as gold standards for respiratory virus detection...
  11. Egli A, Bucher C, Dumoulin A, Stern M, Buser A, Bubendorf L, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Infection. 2012;40:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical course in eight HSCT recipients suffering from hMPV infection...
  12. Dabisch Ruthe M, Vollmer T, Adams O, Knabbe C, Dreier J. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:163 pubmed publisher
    A broad spectrum of pathogens is causative for respiratory tract infections, but symptoms are mostly similar...
  13. Jolliffe D, Griffiths C, Martineau A. Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic review of clinical studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..significant associations between low vitamin D status and increased risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Results from randomised controlled trials were conflicting however, reflecting heterogeneity in dosing ..
  14. Al Tawfiq J, Zumla A, Memish Z. Respiratory tract infections during the annual Hajj: potential risks and mitigation strategies. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19:192-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The available literature on respiratory tract infections at the Hajj pilgrimage - annually attended by 3 million pilgrims from all over the globe - are reviewed.
  15. Yoshida L, Suzuki M, Nguyen H, Le M, Dinh Vu T, Yoshino H, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus: co-infection and paediatric lower respiratory tract infections. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:461-9 pubmed publisher
    Comprehensive population-based data on the role of respiratory viruses in the development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain unclear...
  16. Spurling G, Del Mar C, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R. Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD004417 pubmed publisher
    Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost and antibacterial resistance...
  17. Debiaggi M, Canducci F, Ceresola E, Clementi M. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children. Virol J. 2012;9:247 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades...
  18. Altenburg J, de Graaff C, Stienstra Y, Sloos J, van Haren E, Koppers R, et al. Effect of azithromycin maintenance treatment on infectious exacerbations among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: the BAT randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013;309:1251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrolide antibiotics have been shown beneficial in cystic fibrosis (CF) and diffuse panbronchiolitis, and earlier findings also suggest a benefit in non-CF bronchiectasis...
  19. Schuetz P, Muller B, Christ Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Evid Based Child Health. 2013;8:1297-371 pubmed publisher
  20. Feikin D, Njenga M, Bigogo G, Aura B, Aol G, Audi A, et al. Etiology and Incidence of viral and bacterial acute respiratory illness among older children and adults in rural western Kenya, 2007-2010. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43656 pubmed publisher
    ..Few comprehensive data exist on disease incidence for specific etiologies of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in older children and adults in Africa...
  21. Shan L, Hou P, Wang Z, Liu F, Chen N, Shu L, et al. Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Benef Microbes. 2013;4:329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..95 vs. 8.97±1.07 days; P<0.001). No adverse effects related to S. boulardii were observed. S. boulardii appeared to be effective in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea and AAD in children treated with intravenous antibiotics...
  22. Kohl C, Lesnik R, Brinkmann A, Ebinger A, Radonic A, Nitsche A, et al. Isolation and characterization of three mammalian orthoreoviruses from European bats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43106 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel reoviruses provide a rare chance of gaining insight into possible transmission events and of tracing the evolution of bat viruses...
  23. Spanos A, Theocharis G, Karageorgopoulos D, Peppas G, Fouskakis D, Falagas M. Surveillance of community outbreaks of respiratory tract infections based on house-call visits in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40310 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively evaluated the use of recent, short, historical time-series for recognizing the onset of community outbreaks of respiratory tract infections (RTIs).
  24. Widmer K, Zhu Y, Williams J, Griffin M, Edwards K, Talbot H. Rates of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and influenza virus in older adults. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a prospective study to determine the disease burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in older adults in comparison with influenza virus...
  25. Broers C, Gemke R, Weijerman M, Kuik D, van Hoogstraten I, van Furth A. Frequency of lower respiratory tract infections in relation to adaptive immunity in children with Down syndrome compared to their healthy siblings. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:862-7 pubmed publisher
    Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience respiratory tract infections (RTIs) more frequently than healthy children. We investigated whether this is related to different immunological characteristics associated with DS.
  26. Hussell T, Godlee A, Salek Ardakani S, Snelgrove R. Respiratory viral infections: knowledge based therapeutics. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012;24:438-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future a more precise etiological diagnosis, combined with a knowledge of co-morbidities and an immune signature will lead to the development of more specifically targeted therapeutics...
  27. Serisier D. Inhaled antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections: focus on ciprofloxacin. Drugs Today (Barc). 2012;48:339-51 pubmed publisher
  28. Vodicka T, Thompson M, Lucas P, Heneghan C, Blair P, Buckley D, et al. Reducing antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:e445-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children are common and often result in antibiotic prescription despite their typically self-limiting course.
  29. Agustina R, Kok F, van de Rest O, Fahmida U, Firmansyah A, Lukito W, et al. Randomized trial of probiotics and calcium on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in Indonesian children. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e1155-64 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of calcium and probiotics on the incidence and duration of acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in low-socioeconomic communities of Jakarta, Indonesia.
  30. Schuetz P, Briel M, Mueller B. Clinical outcomes associated with procalcitonin algorithms to guide antibiotic therapy in respiratory tract infections. JAMA. 2013;309:717-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with respiratory tract infection, is measurement of procalcitonin to guide antibiotic prescriptions associated with reduced antibiotic exposure without increases in all-cause mortality or treatment failure?..
  31. Huang Y, Chen R, Wu T, Wei X, Guo A. Association between point-of-care CRP testing and antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of primary care studies. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:e787-94 pubmed publisher
    Most patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are prescribed antibiotics in general practice. However, there is little evidence that antibiotics bring any value to the treatment of most RTIs...
  32. Kim H, Oh S, Yun K, Sung H, Kim M. Comparison of Anyplex II RV16 with the xTAG respiratory viral panel and Seeplex RV15 for detection of respiratory viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..RV16 most frequently missed rhinovirus C. In conclusion, the overall sensitivity of RV16 was better than that of xTAG. However, improvement of the sensitivity for rhinovirus is required...
  33. Deng J, Ma Z, Huang W, Li C, Wang H, Zheng Y, et al. Respiratory virus multiplex RT-PCR assay sensitivities and influence factors in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections. Virol Sin. 2013;28:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Children's Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010...
  34. Jesenak M, Majtan J, Rennerova Z, Kyselovic J, Banovcin P, Hrubisko M. Immunomodulatory effect of pleuran (?-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:395-9 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) represent a very important problem in daily clinical practice because of their significant contribution to morbidity in children...
  35. Misra P, Srivastava R, Krishnan A, Sreenivaas V, Pandav C. Indoor air pollution-related acute lower respiratory infections and low birthweight: a systematic review. J Trop Pediatr. 2012;58:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study is a systematic review conducted to establish a quantitative association between acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) and low birthweight (LBW) attributable to Indoor air pollution (IAP) in under-5 children...
  36. Blasi F, Bocchino M, Di Marco F, Richeldi L, Aliberti S. The role of biomarkers in low respiratory tract infections. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23:429-35 pubmed publisher
    Low respiratory tract infections (LRTI) represent the leading infectious cause of death worldwide and account for substantial use of healthcare resources...
  37. Pavić I, Jurković M, Pastar Z. Risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections in children. Coll Antropol. 2012;36:539-42 pubmed
    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARTI in children...
  38. Yang Y, Wang Z, Ren L, Wang W, Vernet G, Paranhos Baccala G, et al. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic and respiratory virus infections, Beijing, 2009-2010. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45807 pubmed publisher
    To determine the role of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1 2009pdm) in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and its impact on the epidemic of seasonal influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, nasal and throat ..
  39. Camargo C, Ganmaa D, Frazier A, Kirchberg F, Stuart J, Kleinman K, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation and risk of acute respiratory infection in Mongolia. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..41 vs 0.57; P(interaction) = .27). Vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the risk of ARIs in winter among Mongolian children with vitamin D deficiency. ..
  40. Shafik C, Mohareb E, Yassin A, Amin M, El Kholy A, El Karaksy H, et al. Viral etiologies of lower respiratory tract infections among Egyptian children under five years of age. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:350 pubmed publisher
    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are responsible for a considerable number of deaths among children, particularly in developing countries...
  41. Pankovics P, Boros A, Szabo H, Szekely G, Gyurkovits K, Reuter G. Human enterovirus 109 (EV109) in acute paediatric respiratory disease in Hungary. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2012;59:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the possibility that EV109 is able to cause acute respiratory infections, in addition, it might be plays a part in lower respiratory disease with hospitalization in children...
  42. Omrani A, Matin M, Haddad Q, Al Nakhli D, Memish Z, Albarrak A. A family cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus infections related to a likely unrecognized asymptomatic or mild case. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Ninety confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported to the World Health Organization. We report the details of a second family cluster of MERS-CoV infections from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
  43. Zou L, Zhou J, Li H, Wu J, Mo Y, Chen Q, et al. Human adenovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract disease in Guangzhou, China. APMIS. 2012;120:683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The throat and pharyngeal swabs were collected among the children with acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient department from September 2006 to August 2008...
  44. Albrich W, Dusemund F, Bucher B, Meyer S, Thomann R, Kühn F, et al. Effectiveness and safety of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy in lower respiratory tract infections in "real life": an international, multicenter poststudy survey (ProREAL). Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:715-22 pubmed publisher
    In controlled studies, procalcitonin (PCT) has safely and effectively reduced antibiotic drug use for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). However, controlled trial data may not reflect real life.
  45. Gurley E, Homaira N, Salje H, Ram P, Haque R, Petri W, et al. Indoor exposure to particulate matter and the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections among children: a birth cohort study in urban Bangladesh. Indoor Air. 2013;23:379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09). Results from this study suggest that reducing indoor PM2.5 exposure could decrease the frequency of ALRI among infants, the children at highest risk of death from these infections. ..
  46. Mao S, Huang S. Vitamin D supplementation and risk of respiratory tract infections: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..that serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) are inversely associated with the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). However, whether or not vitamin D supplementation prevents RTIs remains inconclusive...
  47. Godbole G, Gant V. Respiratory tract infections in the immunocompromised. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses emerging threats, newer modalities of diagnostic tests and emerging treatment options, and also highlights the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance...
  48. Babady N, Mead P, Stiles J, Brennan C, Li H, Shuptar S, et al. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP assay for detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients at a cancer hospital. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity, simplicity, and random-access platform make FA RVP an excellent choice for laboratory on-demand service with low to medium volume...
  49. Christensen A, Døllner H, Skanke L, Krokstad S, Moe N, Nordbø S. Detection of spliced mRNA from human bocavirus 1 in clinical samples from children with respiratory tract infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:574-80 pubmed publisher
    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a parvovirus associated with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children, but a causal relation has not yet been confirmed...
  50. Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Wang Z, Ren L, Xiao Y, Li J, et al. Coxsackievirus A21, enterovirus 68, and acute respiratory tract infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:821-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus-positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated ..
  51. Tsou Y, Lin C, Lai C, Wang C, Lin C, Chen P, et al. Does Adenotonsillectomy really reduced clinic visits for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections? A national database study in Taiwan. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:677-81 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether adenotonsillectomy reduces upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in the pediatric population.
  52. Ge W, Xu F, Zhao Z, Zhao J, Kan H. Association between diurnal temperature range and respiratory tract infections. Biomed Environ Sci. 2013;26:222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess the association between emergency-room visits for respiratory tract infection (RTI) with diurnal temperature range (DTR), a weather parameter closely associated with urbanization and global climate change...
  53. Simoes E, Patel C, Sung W, Lee C, Loh K, Lucero M, et al. Pathogen chip for respiratory tract infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:945-53 pubmed publisher
    Determining the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been limited for the most part to specific primer PCR-based methods due to their increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other methods, such as tissue ..
  54. Li J, Mao N, Zhang C, Yang M, Wang M, Xu W, et al. The development of a GeXP-based multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of sixteen human respiratory virus types/subtypes. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:189 pubmed publisher
    ..Several multiplex molecular assays are costly. Therefore, there is a need for the development of a rapid and sensitive diagnosis of respiratory viral pathogens...
  55. Cals J, de Bock L, Beckers P, Francis N, Hopstaken R, Hood K, et al. Enhanced communication skills and C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for respiratory tract infection: 3.5-year follow-up of a cluster randomized trial. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of family physicians' use of C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing and/or physician training in enhanced communication skills on office visit rates and antibiotic prescriptions for patients with respiratory tract infections.
  56. Ustun C, Slaby J, Shanley R, Vydra J, Smith A, Wagner J, et al. Human parainfluenza virus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, management, mortality, and changes over time. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012;18:1580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HPIV incidence remains low, but may have delayed onset associated with RIC regimens and improving survival. Effective prophylaxis and treatment for HPIV are needed...
  57. Qurei L, Seto D, Salah Z, Azzeh M. A molecular epidemiology survey of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in children residing in Southern Palestine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42732 pubmed publisher
    ..Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed...
  58. Xu L, He X, Zhang D, Feng F, Wang Z, Guan L, et al. Surveillance and genome analysis of human bocavirus in patients with respiratory infection in Guangzhou, China. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44876 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombination analysis confirmed that HBoV strain GZ9081 was an intra-genotype recombinant strain among HBoV1 variants...
  59. Oppong R, Jit M, Smith R, Butler C, Melbye H, Molstad S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care C-reactive protein testing to inform antibiotic prescribing decisions. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:e465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..offers clinicians a rapid POC test to guide antibiotic prescribing decisions for acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI)...
  60. Little P, Moore M, Kelly J, Williamson I, Leydon G, McDermott L, et al. Delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies for respiratory tract infections in primary care: pragmatic, factorial, randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2014;348:g1606 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the effectiveness of different strategies involving delayed antibiotic prescription for acute respiratory tract infections.
  61. Francis N, Gillespie D, Nuttall J, Hood K, Little P, Verheij T, et al. Antibiotics for acute cough: an international observational study of patient adherence in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62:e429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-adherence to acute antibiotic prescriptions is poorly described and may impact on clinical outcomes, healthcare costs, and interpretation of research. It also results in leftover antibiotics that could be used inappropriately...
  62. Hoffmann J, Rabezanahary H, Randriamarotia M, Ratsimbasoa A, Najjar J, Vernet G, et al. Viral and atypical bacterial etiology of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in a rural tropical area of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43666 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs...
  63. Kocjan B, Gale N, Hocevar Boltezar I, Seme K, Fujs Komlos K, Hosnjak L, et al. Identical human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic variants persist in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis for up to 22 years. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent recurrence of laryngeal papillomas is a consequence of long-term persistence of the identical initial HPV genomic variant...
  64. van der Velden A, Pijpers E, Kuyvenhoven M, Tonkin Crine S, Little P, Verheij T. Effectiveness of physician-targeted interventions to improve antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62:e801-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibiotic use and concomitant resistance are increasing. Literature reviews do not unambiguously indicate which interventions are most effective in improving antibiotic prescribing practice...
  65. Little P, Stuart B, Moore M, Coenen S, Butler C, Godycki Cwirko M, et al. Amoxicillin for acute lower-respiratory-tract infection in primary care when pneumonia is not suspected: a 12-country, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to compare the benefits and harms of amoxicillin for acute lower-respiratory-tract infection with those of placebo both overall and in patients aged 60 years or older...
  66. Abdel Moneim A, Kamel M, Al Ghamdi A, Al Malky M. Detection of bocavirus in children suffering from acute respiratory tract infections in Saudi Arabia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55500 pubmed publisher
    ..Swabs samples from 80 children with respiratory tract infections were examined for the presence of HBoV...
  67. Verlee L, Verheij T, Hopstaken R, Prins J, Salomé P, Bindels P. [Summary of NHG practice guideline 'Acute cough']. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2012;156:A4188 pubmed
    ..In moderately severe croup a single dose of glucocorticoids should be given; children with severe croup should be referred to a paediatrician...
  68. Dini C, Bianchi A. The potential role of vitamin D for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2012;48:319-27 pubmed
    ..Vitamin D has a complex action on the immune system...
  69. Little P, Stuart B, Francis N, Douglas E, Tonkin Crine S, Anthierens S, et al. Effects of internet-based training on antibiotic prescribing rates for acute respiratory-tract infections: a multinational, cluster, randomised, factorial, controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;382:1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Education of physicians and patients can lower prescribing levels, but it frequently relies on highly trained staff. We assessed whether internet-based training methods could alter prescribing practices in multiple health-care systems...
  70. Barrett B, Hayney M, Muller D, Rakel D, Ward A, Obasi C, et al. Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Fam Med. 2012;10:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to evaluate potential preventive effects of meditation or exercise on incidence, duration, and severity of acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness...
  71. Mortatti A, Moreira A, Aoki M, Crewther B, Castagna C, de Arruda A, et al. Effect of competition on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, and upper respiratory tract infections in elite young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:1396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..examined the effect of a 20-day period of competition on salivary cortisol, mucosal immunity, and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in young male soccer players (n = 14)...
  72. van de Pol A, van der Gugten A, van der Ent C, Schilder A, Benthem E, Smit H, et al. Referrals for recurrent respiratory tract infections including otitis media in young children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:906-10 pubmed publisher