pelvic inflammatory disease

Summary

Summary: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.

Top Publications

  1. Simms I, Stephenson J, Mallinson H, Peeling R, Thomas K, Gokhale R, et al. Risk factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82:452-7 pubmed
    To investigate factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). A case-control study was used to investigate demographic and behavioural factors, and causative agents associated with PID...
  2. Satterwhite C, Yu O, Raebel M, Berman S, Howards P, Weinstock H, et al. Detection of pelvic inflammatory disease: development of an automated case-finding algorithm using administrative data. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:428351 pubmed publisher
    ICD-9 codes are conventionally used to identify pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from administrative data for surveillance purposes. This approach may include non-PID cases...
  3. Owusu Edusei K, Bohm M, Chesson H, Kent C. Chlamydia screening and pelvic inflammatory disease: Insights from exploratory time-series analyses. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:652-7 pubmed publisher
    Screening for chlamydia has been reported to reduce pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) at the individual level. However, information on population-level association (or causality) is scant...
  4. Mugo N, Kiehlbauch J, Nguti R, Meier A, Gichuhi J, Stamm W, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:807-12 pubmed
    ..To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis...
  5. Smith K, Tsevat J, Ness R, Wiesenfeld H, Roberts M. Quality of life utilities for pelvic inflammatory disease health states. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:307-11 pubmed
    Quality of life utilities for health states associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) have been estimated but not directly measured...
  6. Smith K, Cook R, Roberts M. Time from sexually transmitted infection acquisition to pelvic inflammatory disease development: influence on the cost-effectiveness of different screening intervals. Value Health. 2007;10:358-66 pubmed
    To prevent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), some experts recommend screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI) every 12 months, with more frequent screening suggested in higher-risk women...
  7. Shih T, Gaydos C, Rothman R, Hsieh Y. Poor provider adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention treatment guidelines in US emergency department visits with a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:299-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is commonly diagnosed in US emergency departments (EDs)...
  8. Gift T, Gaydos C, Kent C, Marrazzo J, Rietmeijer C, Schillinger J, et al. The program cost and cost-effectiveness of screening men for Chlamydia to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:S66-75 pubmed publisher
    Because men transmit Chlamydia trachomatis to women, screening men to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease in women may be a viable strategy. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach requires careful assessment...
  9. Franchi L, Patrelli T, Berretta R, Rolla M, Gizzo S, Gramellini D, et al. Role of D-dimer testing in severe pelvic inflammatory disease: a new usable marker to assess the need for fertility-impairing surgery?. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2372-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), like many other inflammatory diseases, can be characterized by an inflammation-induced activation of the coagulation cascade, resulting in the production of D-dimers...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Stanback J, Shelton J. Pelvic inflammatory disease attributable to the IUD: modeling risk in West Africa. Contraception. 2008;77:227-9 pubmed publisher
    In Africa, use of the intrauterine device (IUD) is avoided because of perceived risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI)...
  2. Ross J, Cronje H, Paszkowski T, Rakoczi I, Vildaite D, Kureishi A, et al. Moxifloxacin versus ofloxacin plus metronidazole in uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease: results of a multicentre, double blind, randomised trial. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82:446-51 pubmed
    ..and safety of moxifloxacin monotherapy with ofloxacin plus metronidazole in women with uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease. Women from hospitals throughout 13 countries received a 14 day course of either oral moxifloxacin, 400 ..
  3. Taylor B, Darville T, Ferrell R, Ness R, Haggerty C. Racial variation in toll-like receptor variants among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..adaptor molecule TIRAP between 205 African American women and 51 white women with clinically suspected pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). A permutated P < .007 was used to assess significance...
  4. Eschenbach D. Treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:961-3 pubmed
  5. Tsai H, Tee Y, Hsieh Y, Chiou H, Lin C, Tsai H, et al. Elevated plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1 protein and its gene polymorphism in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:610-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the gene polymorphism in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and healthy controls...
  6. Davies B, Turner K, Ward H. Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease after Chlamydia infection in a prospective cohort of sex workers. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:230-4 pubmed publisher
    There is uncertainty in the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) after chlamydia infection...
  7. Tsai H, Su P, Lee T, Tee Y, Lin L, Yang S, et al. Significant elevation and correlation of plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin and its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..associated lipocalin (NGAL) and its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  8. Herzog S, Heijne J, Althaus C, Low N. Describing the progression from Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae to pelvic inflammatory disease: systematic review of mathematical modeling studies. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39:628-37 pubmed publisher
    Chlamydia screening is recommended to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  9. Taylor B, Darville T, Tan C, Bavoil P, Ness R, Haggerty C. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis polymorphic membrane proteins in inflammation and sequelae among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:989762 pubmed publisher
    ..Seropositivity to chlamydial PmpA may represent a biomarker of increased risk of sequelae secondary to infection with C. trachomatis. ..
  10. Heublein S, Lenhard M, Vrekoussis T, Schoepfer J, Kuhn C, Friese K, et al. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is expressed in normal human ovaries and is upregulated in ovarian endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease involving the ovary. Reprod Sci. 2012;19:1197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-nine patients (ovarian endometriosis, n = 26; ovarian pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], n = 10; normal ovaries/endometrium, n = 30/13) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
  11. Price M, Ades A, de Angelis D, Welton N, Macleod J, Soldan K, et al. Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease following Chlamydia trachomatis infection: analysis of prospective studies with a multistate model. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..estimate the probability that a Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection will cause an episode of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the reduction in such episodes among women with CT that could be achieved by annual screening...
  12. Taylor B, Ness R, Darville T, Haggerty C. Microbial correlates of delayed care for pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:434-8 pubmed publisher
    We studied the microbial correlates of time to care and long-term outcomes among pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients, as delayed care may increase the risk for reproductive sequelae...
  13. Rekart M, Gilbert M, Meza R, Kim P, Chang M, Money D, et al. Chlamydia public health programs and the epidemiology of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the goal of Chlamydia control is to prevent reproductive complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy, an understanding of recent trends in these conditions is needed to fully ..
  14. Tsai H, Wang P, Tee Y, Lin L, Hsieh Y, Yang S. Imbalanced serum concentration between cathepsin B and cystatin C in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of cathepsin B and cystatin C and the ratio of cathepsin B to cystatin C in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and speculate whether those are helpful indicators for the diagnosis of PID...
  15. Chen M, Pan Y, Britt H, Donovan B. Trends in clinical encounters for pelvic inflammatory disease and epididymitis in a national sample of Australian general practices. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:384-6 pubmed
    Trends in the frequency of clinical encounters for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and epididymitis in Australian general practice were determined via a national representative study of general practice activity between 1998 and 2003...
  16. Bohm M, Newman L, Satterwhite C, Tao G, Weinstock H. Pelvic inflammatory disease among privately insured women, United States, 2001-2005. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:131-6 pubmed publisher
    We explored the utility of using insurance claims data for surveillance of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  17. Ross J, Judlin P, Nilas L. European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:662-6 pubmed
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains one of the most important consequences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting in severe morbidity and acting as the economic justification for STI screening programmes...
  18. Agarwal N, Kulshrestha V, Kriplan A. Clinical eficacy of placentrex injection in pelvic inflammatory disease. J Indian Med Assoc. 2010;108:117-8, 122 pubmed
    Combination of placentrex injection with antimicrobial therapy is a better option for treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) than only antimicrobial therapy; which also gives more sustained effect and lesser recurrences...
  19. Smith K, Ness R, Wiesenfeld H, Roberts M. Cost-effectiveness of alternative outpatient pelvic inflammatory disease treatment strategies. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:960-6 pubmed
    Effectiveness differences between outpatient pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) treatment regimens are uncertain, but significant differences in cost exist. To examine the influence of antibiotic costs on PID therapy cost-effectiveness...
  20. Savaris R, Teixeira L, Torres T, Edelweiss M, Moncada J, Schachter J. Comparing ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or doxycycline for pelvic inflammatory disease: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:53-60 pubmed
    To evaluate the equivalence of ceftriaxone plus doxycycline or azithromycin for cases of mild pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  21. Trautmann G, Kip K, Richter H, Soper D, Peipert J, Nelson D, et al. Do short-term markers of treatment efficacy predict long-term sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:30.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess whether short-term markers, often used to measure clinical cure after treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease, predict sequelae of lack of pregnancy, recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, and chronic pelvic pain...
  22. Roberts T, Robinson S, Barton P, Bryan S, McCarthy A, Macleod J, et al. Cost effectiveness of home based population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in the UK: economic evaluation of chlamydia screening studies (ClaSS) project. BMJ. 2007;335:291 pubmed
    ..Cost effectiveness based on major outcomes averted, defined as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, or neonatal complications...
  23. Haggerty C. Evidence for a role of Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:65-9 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted pathogen frequently identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease, the infection and inflammation of a woman's upper genital tract...
  24. Cherpes T, Wiesenfeld H, Melan M, Kant J, Cosentino L, Meyn L, et al. The associations between pelvic inflammatory disease, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, and positive herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:747-52 pubmed
    Roles for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in pelvic inflammatory disease pathogenesis are well delineated; however, the etiologic contributions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Trichomonas vaginalis ..
  25. Herzog S, Althaus C, Heijne J, Oakeshott P, Kerry S, Hay P, et al. Timing of progression from Chlamydia trachomatis infection to pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modelling study. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:187 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain...
  26. Judlin P. Current concepts in managing pelvic inflammatory disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:83-7 pubmed publisher
    The management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has significantly changed during the last two decades. Moreover, some recent bacterial findings have led to recent changes in this management.
  27. Lareau S, Beigi R. Pelvic inflammatory disease and tubo-ovarian abscess. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:693-708, vii pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is common infection among reproductive-aged women. The presentation ranges from acute severe illness to a more indolent and mild clinical picture...
  28. Blenning C, Muench J, Judkins D, Roberts K. Clinical inquiries. Which tests are most useful for diagnosing PID?. J Fam Pract. 2007;56:216-20 pubmed
  29. Balamuth F, Zhao H, Mollen C. Toward improving the diagnosis and the treatment of adolescent pelvic inflammatory disease in emergency departments: results of a brief, educational intervention. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26:85-92 pubmed publisher
    To assess the utility of an abbreviated teaching tool (ATT) in improving emergency medicine pediatricians' knowledge of the diagnosis and the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  30. Haggerty C, Ness R. Newest approaches to treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of recent randomized clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:953-60 pubmed
    Treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) should provide high rates of clinical and microbiological cure for a range of pathogens and should ultimately prevent reproductive morbidity...
  31. Chang C, Wang P, Su P, Lin D, Ying T, Yang S, et al. Significant elevation of plasma pentraxin 3 in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:1655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of PTX3 in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and correlate it with the severity and outcome of PID.
  32. Yang H, Jung S, Han H, Kim A, Lee Y, Cha S, et al. [Clinical feature of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: analysis of 25 cases]. Korean J Hepatol. 2008;14:178-84 pubmed publisher
    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is defined as perihepatitis associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  33. French C, Hughes G, Nicholson A, Yung M, Ross J, Williams T, et al. Estimation of the rate of pelvic inflammatory disease diagnoses: trends in England, 2000-2008. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:158-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is difficult to define and diagnose; therefore, a standardized methodology for identifying and monitoring PID diagnoses is required...
  34. Oakeshott P, Aghaizu A, Hay P, Reid F, Kerry S, Atherton H, et al. Is Mycoplasma genitalium in women the "New Chlamydia?" A community-based prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:1160-6 pubmed publisher
    The role of Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease is unclear. We conducted a cohort study to determine the prevalence and predictors of M...
  35. Adams E, Turner K, Edmunds W. The cost effectiveness of opportunistic chlamydia screening in England. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:267-74; discussion 274-5 pubmed
    ..This study aims to estimate the cost effectiveness of (a) the NCSP strategy (annual screening offer to men and women aged under 25 years) and (b) alternative screening strategies...
  36. Ness R, Soper D, Richter H, Randall H, Peipert J, Nelson D, et al. Chlamydia antibodies, chlamydia heat shock protein, and adverse sequelae after pelvic inflammatory disease: the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Study. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:129-35 pubmed
    Among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we assessed the associations among antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EB), antibodies to chlamydia heat shock protein (Chsp60), rates of pregnancy, and PID recurrence.
  37. Rasmussen C, Faber M, Jensen A, Høgdall E, Høgdall C, Blaakær J, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:1459-64 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.
  38. Aghaizu A, Adams E, Turner K, Kerry S, Hay P, Simms I, et al. What is the cost of pelvic inflammatory disease and how much could be prevented by screening for chlamydia trachomatis? Cost analysis of the Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) trial. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:312-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe healthcare settings attended by women with clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), to calculate the cost of a PID episode and to estimate how many cases could be prevented in London annually at current chlamydia screening ..
  39. Taylor B, Darville T, Ferrell R, Kammerer C, Ness R, Haggerty C. Variants in toll-like receptor 1 and 4 genes are associated with Chlamydia trachomatis among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:603-9 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the innate immune response. We examined whether TLR variants are associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  40. Walker C, Wiesenfeld H. Antibiotic therapy for acute pelvic inflammatory disease: the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 3:S111-22 pubmed
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a substantial cause of reproductive morbidity in young women...
  41. Trent M, Judy S, Ellen J, Walker A. Use of an institutional intervention to improve quality of care for adolescents treated in pediatric ambulatory settings for pelvic inflammatory disease. J Adolesc Health. 2006;39:50-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the impact of a quality improvement intervention for outpatient management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on provider compliance with published guidelines and to explore issues affecting patient adherence to outpatient ..
  42. Taylor Robinson D, Stacey C, Jensen J, Thomas B, Munday P. Further observations, mainly serological, on a cohort of women with or without pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:712-8 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis in the upper genital tract but whose laparoscopic findings indicate normality. So far as patient care is concerned, the only way of preventing damage to the upper genital tract is to treat early on the basis of suspicion...
  43. Gray Swain M, Peipert J. Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;18:503-10 pubmed
    We discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents.
  44. Taylor Robinson D, Jensen J, Svenstrup H, Stacey C. Difficulties experienced in defining the microbial cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..genitalium. To some extent this is consistent with the infrequency of acute M. genitalium infections in this cohort of women...
  45. Low N, Bender N, Nartey L, Shang A, Stephenson J. Effectiveness of chlamydia screening: systematic review. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of register-based and opportunistic chlamydia screening interventions...
  46. Short V, Jensen J, Nelson D, Murray P, Ness R, Haggerty C. Mycoplasma genitalium among young, urban pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2010;2010:984760 pubmed publisher
    ..As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB...
  47. Jaiyeoba O, Lazenby G, Soper D. Recommendations and rationale for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:61-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the most common serious infections of nonpregnant women of reproductive age. Management of PID is directed at containment of infection...
  48. Haggerty C, Taylor B. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:959816 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)...
  49. Bell J, Bergin I, Schmidt K, Zochowski M, Aronoff D, Patton D. Nonhuman primate models used to study pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:675360 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a global health concern that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility...
  50. Bakken I, Ghaderi S. Incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in a large cohort of women tested for Chlamydia trachomatis: a historical follow-up study. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:130 pubmed publisher
    ..Chlamydia trachomatis is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease. Testing rates among young Norwegian women are high. Young women diagnosed with C. trachomatis are often worried about future complications...
  51. Wiesenfeld H, Hillier S, Meyn L, Amortegui A, Sweet R. Subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:37-43 pubmed publisher
    The reported incidence of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has decreased but rates of tubal infertility have not, suggesting that a large proportion of PID leading to infertility may be undetected...
  52. Charonis G, Larsson P. Use of pH/whiff test or QuickVue Advanced pH and Amines test for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and prevention of postabortion pelvic inflammatory disease. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:837-43 pubmed
    Untreated bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a risk factor for postabortion pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  53. Trent M, Chung S, Forrest L, Ellen J. Subsequent sexually transmitted infection after outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:1022-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the frequency of recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the average time until subsequent infection following a baseline PID diagnosis, and age- and insurance-related ..
  54. Short V, Totten P, Ness R, Astete S, Kelsey S, Haggerty C. Clinical presentation of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection versus Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:41-7 pubmed publisher
    Women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) often present with a spectrum of symptoms. The characteristics of nongonococcal, nonchlamydial PID have not been well described...
  55. Blake D, Maldeis N, Barnes M, Hardick A, Quinn T, Gaydos C. Cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis using cervical swabs, urine, and self-obtained vaginal swabs in a sexually transmitted disease clinic setting. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia screening strategies that use different methods of specimen collection: cervical swabs, urines, and self-obtained vaginal swabs...
  56. Soper D. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:419-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection-caused inflammatory continuum from the cervix to the peritoneal cavity...
  57. Joo S, Kim M, Lim J, Kim J, Kim K. CT diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome: value of the arterial phase scan. Korean J Radiol. 2007;8:40-7 pubmed
    ..We wanted to evaluate the role of the arterial phase (AP) together with the portal venous phase (PP) scans in the diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) with using computed tomography (CT)...
  58. Vicetti Miguel R, Chivukula M, Krishnamurti U, Amortegui A, Kant J, Sweet R, et al. Limitations of the criteria used to diagnose histologic endometritis in epidemiologic pelvic inflammatory disease research. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..neutrophils and plasma cells are criteria used to diagnose histologic endometritis in epidemiologic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) research, plasma cell misidentification and nonspecificity may limit the accuracy of these ..
  59. Bender N, Herrmann B, Andersen B, Hocking J, van Bergen J, Morgan J, et al. Chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility: cross-national study. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..routine data in selected countries, chlamydia control activities and rates of chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and infertility and to compare trends in chlamydia positivity with rates of ..
  60. Deng J, Tovar J. Pancytopenia with levofloxacin therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease in an otherwise healthy young patient. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1692-3 pubmed
  61. Haggerty C, Ness R. Epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006;4:235-47 pubmed
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease, the infection and inflammation of the female upper genital tract, is a common cause of infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy...
  62. Haggerty C, Totten P, Astete S, Ness R. Mycoplasma genitalium among women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:30184 pubmed
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a frequent condition of young women, often resulting in reproductive morbidity...
  63. Oakeshott P, Kerry S, Aghaizu A, Atherton H, Hay S, Taylor Robinson D, et al. Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c1642 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether screening and treating women for chlamydial infection reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease over the subsequent 12 months.
  64. Land J, van Bergen J, Morre S, Postma M. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and the cost-effectiveness of screening. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:189-204 pubmed publisher
    The majority of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are asymptomatic, but may give rise to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal infertility...
  65. Trent M, Chung S, Burke M, Walker A, Ellen J. Results of a randomized controlled trial of a brief behavioral intervention for pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23:96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine the effectiveness of a brief behavioral intervention, provided at the time of diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, on subsequent behaviors by patients who were urban adolescents in a community in which sexually ..
  66. Short V, Totten P, Ness R, Astete S, Kelsey S, Murray P, et al. The demographic, sexual health and behavioural correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among women with clinically suspected pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:29-31 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma genitalium has been identified as a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a clinical syndrome associated with inflammation of the female upper genital tract and serious reproductive sequelae...
  67. Blandford J, Gift T. Productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection and associated pelvic inflammatory disease in reproductive-aged women. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:S117-21 pubmed
  68. Choi T, Kang J, Chung S, Ahn Y. [Chlamydia trachomatis antibody in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome]. Korean J Lab Med. 2008;28:293-8 pubmed publisher
    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis (FHC) syndrome is inflammation of the liver capsule associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. We measured Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in 30 female patients with acute abdominal pain for diagnosis of FHC-syndrome, ..
  69. Lee S, Lin C, Wang P, Han C, Yang S, Chang J, et al. Significant association of elevated concentration of plasma YKL-40 with disease severity in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 2012;26:136-42 pubmed publisher
    To date, no study reports the implication of YKL-40 in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Therefore, we investigate the levels of plasma YKL-40 in patients with PID and further associate its expression with the severity of disease.
  70. Hubacher D, Grimes D, Gemzell Danielsson K. Pitfalls of research linking the intrauterine device to pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121:1091-8 pubmed publisher
    Correctly diagnosing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) using noninvasive clinical criteria remains challenging...
  71. Jurstrand M, Jensen J, Magnuson A, Kamwendo F, Fredlund H. A serological study of the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:319-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between M genitalium antibodies and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) using a lipid-associated membrane protein-enzyme immunoassay (LAMP-EIA)..
  72. Taylor B, Darville T, Haggerty C. Does bacterial vaginosis cause pelvic inflammatory disease?. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:117-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the infection and inflammation of the female genital tract, results in serious reproductive morbidity including infertility and ectopic pregnancy...
  73. Thomassin Naggara I, Dubernard G, Lafont C, Chopier J, Darai E, Bazot M. [Imaging in pelvic inflammatory disease]. J Radiol. 2008;89:134-41 pubmed
    This is a review of evolutive aspects in pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis, endometritis, pyosalpinx, tubo ovarian abscess) assessed by different imaging modalities (Ultrasound, CT, MRI and hysterosalpingography).
  74. Haggerty C, Totten P, Astete S, Lee S, Hoferka S, Kelsey S, et al. Failure of cefoxitin and doxycycline to eradicate endometrial Mycoplasma genitalium and the consequence for clinical cure of pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:338-42 pubmed publisher
    As Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we examined the efficacy of a commonly used PID antimicrobial in treating M genitalium upper genital tract infection.
  75. Doxanakis A, Hayes R, Chen M, Gurrin L, Hocking J, Bradshaw C, et al. Missing pelvic inflammatory disease? Substantial differences in the rate at which doctors diagnose PID. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:518-23 pubmed publisher
    The clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is subjective. Our aim was to determine if the pattern of diagnosis of PID among experienced clinicians varied compared with the diagnosis of genital warts.
  76. Kim J, Kim Y, Jeong W, Song S, Cho O. Perihepatitis with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on MDCT: characteristic findings and relevance to PID. Abdom Imaging. 2009;34:737-42 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the prevalence and image characteristics of perihepatitis, as well as the relationship with some computed tomography (CT) manifestations of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  77. Bjartling C, Osser S, Persson K. Mycoplasma genitalium in cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease among women at a gynecologic outpatient service. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;206:476.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to analyze the prevalence and clinical manifestations of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a heterogeneous population of women...
  78. Haggerty C, Ness R. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Womens Health (Lond). 2008;4:383-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the infection and inflammation of the female upper genital tract, is a common cause of infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy...
  79. Morishita K, Gushimiyagi M, Hashiguchi M, Stein G, Tokuda Y. Clinical prediction rule to distinguish pelvic inflammatory disease from acute appendicitis in women of childbearing age. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:152-7 pubmed
    We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule to distinguish pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from acute appendicitis in women of childbearing age.
  80. Simms I, Horner P. Has the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease following chlamydial infection been overestimated?. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:285-6 pubmed publisher
  81. De Seta F, Banco R, Turrisi A, Airoud M, De Leo R, Stabile G, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from Chlamydia trachomatis versus PID from Neisseria gonorrhea: from clinical suspicion to therapy. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2012;147:423-30 pubmed
    b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most significant complication of sexually transmitted infections in childbearing-age women and it represents an important public health problem because of its long-term sequelae (chronic pelvic ..
  82. Bjartling C, Osser S, Persson K. The association between Mycoplasma genitalium and pelvic inflammatory disease after termination of pregnancy. BJOG. 2010;117:361-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5% and 2.8%, respectively. The M. genitalium was strongly associated with post-termination pelvic inflammatory disease (odds ratio 6.29, 95% CI 1.56-25.2)...
  83. Risser W, Risser J. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:727-31 pubmed
    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women...
  84. Sheldon I, Rycroft A, Dogan B, Craven M, Bromfield J, Chandler A, et al. Specific strains of Escherichia coli are pathogenic for the endometrium of cattle and cause pelvic inflammatory disease in cattle and mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9192 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; metritis) or endometritis affects approximately 40% of cattle after parturition...