superinfection

Summary

Summary: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.

Top Publications

  1. Gross K, Porco T, Grant R. HIV-1 superinfection and viral diversity. AIDS. 2004;18:1513-20 pubmed
    Sequential acquisition of viral variants, or HIV-1 superinfection, has been proposed to explain the high fractions of recombinant viruses observed in some geographical regions, but only a few cases of superinfection in humans have been ..
  2. Leverich C, Palmer G, Knowles D, Brayton K. Tick-borne transmission of two genetically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains following superinfection of the mammalian reservoir host. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4066-70 pubmed publisher
    Strain superinfection affects the dynamics of epidemiological spread of pathogens through a host population...
  3. Small C, Shaler C, McCormick S, Jeyanathan M, Damjanovic D, Brown E, et al. Influenza infection leads to increased susceptibility to subsequent bacterial superinfection by impairing NK cell responses in the lung. J Immunol. 2010;184:2048-56 pubmed publisher
    Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined...
  4. Stebbings R, Berry N, Waldmann H, Bird P, Hale G, Stott J, et al. CD8+ lymphocytes do not mediate protection against acute superinfection 20 days after vaccination with a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2005;79:12264-72 pubmed
    In order to test the hypothesis that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate protection against acute superinfection, we depleted >99% of CD8+ lymphocytes in live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) vaccinees from ..
  5. Ghosn J, Thibault V, Delaugerre C, Fontaine H, Lortholary O, Rouzioux C, et al. Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus superinfection in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2008;22:658-61 pubmed publisher
    We report two cases of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) superinfection in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with high-risk sexual behaviour. The two patients had chronic HCV and a history of sexually transmitted infections...
  6. Hartshorn K. New look at an old problem: bacterial superinfection after influenza. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:536-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Rachinger A, Manyenga P, Burger J, Derks van de Ven T, Stolte I, Prins M, et al. Low incidence of HIV-1 superinfection even after episodes of unsafe sexual behavior of homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDS. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1621-8 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection is infection of an HIV-1 seropositive individual with another HIV-1 strain. The rate at which HIV-1 superinfection occurs might be influenced by sexual behavior...
  8. Liaw Y, Chen Y, Sheen I, Chien R, Yeh C, Chu C. Impact of acute hepatitis C virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1024-9 pubmed
    b>Superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not uncommon. Acute hepatitis delta virus (HDV) superinfection is associated with severe and/or progressive liver disease...
  9. Basu D, Kraft C, Murphy M, Campbell P, Yu T, Hraber P, et al. HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection. Retrovirology. 2012;9:76 pubmed publisher
    The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. van der Kuyl A, Cornelissen M. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections. Retrovirology. 2007;4:67 pubmed
    ..known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections...
  2. Manigart O, Courgnaud V, Sanou O, Valea D, Nagot N, Meda N, et al. HIV-1 superinfections in a cohort of commercial sex workers in Burkina Faso as assessed by an autologous heteroduplex mobility procedure. AIDS. 2004;18:1645-51 pubmed
    ..Autologous HMA procedure followed by acrylamide extraction of heteroduplexes allowed identifying HIV-1 co- and super-infections in a large cohort study. HIV-1 super-infection is not an uncommon phenomenon. ..
  3. Berngruber T, Weissing F, Gandon S. Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latency. J Virol. 2010;84:10200-8 pubmed publisher
    Latent viruses generally defend their host cell against superinfection by nonlatent virulent mutants that could destroy the host cell. Superinfection inhibition thus seems to be a prerequisite for the maintenance of viral latency...
  4. Hansen S, Powers C, Richards R, Ventura A, Ford J, Siess D, et al. Evasion of CD8+ T cells is critical for superinfection by cytomegalovirus. Science. 2010;328:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that superinfection of rhesus CMV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) requires evasion of CD8+ T cell immunity by virally encoded ..
  5. Smith D, Wong J, Hightower G, Ignacio C, Koelsch K, Daar E, et al. Incidence of HIV superinfection following primary infection. JAMA. 2004;292:1177-8 pubmed
  6. Forthal D, Landucci G, Chohan B, Richardson B, McClelland R, Jaoko W, et al. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:31-3 pubmed publisher
    ..antibody nor cellular immunity elicited by an initial HIV-1 infection is associated with protection against superinfection with a different HIV-1 strain...
  7. Casado C, Pernas M, Alvaro T, Sandonis V, Garcia S, Rodriguez C, et al. Coinfection and superinfection in patients with long-term, nonprogressive HIV-1 disease. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:895-9 pubmed
    ..patient was diagnosed as being already coinfected, on the basis of the first sample analyzed, but a previous superinfection could not be excluded; the second patient was diagnosed as having a superinfection, on the basis of the 9-year ..
  8. Ellenberg P, Edreira M, Scolaro L. Resistance to superinfection of Vero cells persistently infected with Junin virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:507-22 pubmed
    ..with the arenavirus Junin (JUNV), named V3 and V7, were characterized with respect to their resistance to superinfection with homologous and antigenically related viruses...
  9. Berry N, Stebbings R, Ferguson D, Ham C, Alden J, Brown S, et al. Resistance to superinfection by a vigorously replicating, uncloned stock of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) stimulates replication of a live attenuated virus vaccine (SIVmacC8). J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of SIVmacC8 to confer resistance to superinfection with an uncloned ex vivo derivative of SIVmac251 (SIVmac32H/L28) was investigated...
  10. Caraco T, Glavanakov S, Li S, Maniatty W, Szymanski B. Spatially structured superinfection and the evolution of disease virulence. Theor Popul Biol. 2006;69:367-84 pubmed
    ..We develop a spatially detailed model of superinfection, a form of contest competition between pathogen strains; the probability of superinfection depends explicitly ..
  11. Cacopardo B, Nunnari G, Nigro L. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:371-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an ..
  12. Blish C, Dogan O, Derby N, Nguyen M, Chohan B, Richardson B, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection occurs despite relatively robust neutralizing antibody responses. J Virol. 2008;82:12094-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection by a second human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain indicates that gaps in protective immunity occur during natural infection...
  13. Kosmadakis G, Georgoulias C, Filiopoulos V, Stefanou I, Smirloglou D, Michail S. Lethal Strongyloides stercoralis superinfection in an immunocompromised patient. Ren Fail. 2010;32:750-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A large worm load of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was identified in the sputum. The patient was treated with thiopental 25 mg/kgBW/12 h through a Levine tube and died 24 h later. ..
  14. KELSCHENBACH J, Saini M, Hadas E, Gu C, Chao W, Bentsman G, et al. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings...
  15. Folimonova S. Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein. J Virol. 2012;86:5554-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, ..
  16. Donahue D, Bastarache S, Sloan R, Wainberg M. Latent HIV-1 can be reactivated by cellular superinfection in a Tat-dependent manner, which can lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant recombinant viruses. J Virol. 2013;87:9620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This could occur by superinfection of a latently infected cell...
  17. Gottlieb G, Nickle D, Jensen M, Wong K, Grobler J, Li F, et al. Dual HIV-1 infection associated with rapid disease progression. Lancet. 2004;363:619-22 pubmed
    ..Five of these with AIDS endpoints had dual infection with HIV-1: four were cases of coinfection and one was superinfection. In all five, time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS or to CD4+ T-cell count less than 200 cells per microL ..
  18. Brenner B, Routy J, Quan Y, Moisi D, Oliveira M, Turner D, et al. Persistence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 in primary infection leading to superinfection. AIDS. 2004;18:1653-60 pubmed
    ..Long-term persistence of MDR infections (2-7 years), leading to one observed MDR superinfection is documented. Genotypic changes in circulating viral quasi-species were evaluated over 1...
  19. Duboucher C, Barbier C, Beltramini A, Rona M, Ricome J, Morel G, et al. Pulmonary superinfection by trichomonads in the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung. 2007;185:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the question of an active role of trichomonads in the extension of alveolar lesions or in the limitation of recovery is clearly raised. ..
  20. Blish C, Dogan O, Jaoko W, McClelland R, Mandaliya K, Odem Davis K, et al. Cellular immune responses and susceptibility to HIV-1 superinfection: a case-control study. AIDS. 2012;26:643-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses on the odds of acquiring a second HIV-1 infection (superinfection)...
  21. Speshock J, Doyon Reale N, Rabah R, Neely M, Roberts P. Filamentous influenza A virus infection predisposes mice to fatal septicemia following superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3102-11 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a mouse model of bacterial superinfection in which a mild, self-limiting influenza virus infection is followed by mild, self-limiting superinfection ..
  22. Campbell M, Gottlieb G, Hawes S, Nickle D, Wong K, Deng W, et al. HIV-1 superinfection in the antiretroviral therapy era: are seroconcordant sexual partners at risk?. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5690 pubmed publisher
    ..been reported to occur both during and after primary infection, but the risks and repercussions of dual and superinfection are incompletely understood...
  23. Taylor J, Korber B. HIV-1 intra-subtype superinfection rates: estimates using a structured coalescent with recombination. Infect Genet Evol. 2005;5:85-95 pubmed
    ..If superinfection is rare, then recombining viral genomes will usually be more closely related to each other than to viral ..
  24. Blackard J, Sherman K. Hepatitis C virus coinfection and superinfection. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:519-24 pubmed
    ..Coinfection with 2 or more distinct HCVs has been frequently documented. Moreover, several cases of HCV superinfection have been reported recently...
  25. Claus C, Tzeng W, Liebert U, Frey T. Rubella virus-induced superinfection exclusion studied in cells with persisting replicons. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2769-73 pubmed
    For the first time, homologous superinfection exclusion was documented for rubella virus (RUB) by using Vero cells harbouring persisting RUB replicons...
  26. Meurens F, Schynts F, Keil G, Muylkens B, Vanderplasschen A, Gallego P, et al. Superinfection prevents recombination of the alphaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 1. J Virol. 2004;78:3872-9 pubmed
    ..two successive infections allows the establishment of a barrier, which reduces or prevents any successful superinfection needed to generate recombinant viruses...
  27. van der Kuyl A, Kozaczynska K, Ariën K, Gali Y, Balázs V, Dekker S, et al. Analysis of infectious virus clones from two HIV-1 superinfection cases suggests that the primary strains have lower fitness. Retrovirology. 2010;7:60 pubmed publisher
    Two HIV-1 positive patients, L and P, participating in the Amsterdam Cohort studies acquired an HIV-1 superinfection within half a year from their primary HIV-1 infection (Jurriaans et al., JAIDS 2008, 47:69-73)...
  28. Smith D, Richman D, Little S. HIV superinfection. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:438-44 pubmed
    Worldwide, 16 cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans have been reported since 2002. Superinfection is defined as the reinfection of an individual who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain...
  29. Wildum S, Schindler M, Munch J, Kirchhoff F. Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection. J Virol. 2006;80:8047-59 pubmed
    ..study, we analyzed the kinetics of CD4 down-modulation and the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected T cells to superinfection using proviral HIV-1 constructs containing individual and combined defects in vpu, env, and nef and expressing ..
  30. van der Kuyl A, Kozaczynska K, van den Burg R, Zorgdrager F, Back N, Jurriaans S, et al. Triple HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2557-9 pubmed
  31. Pernas M, Casado C, Fuentes R, Pérez Elías M, Lopez Galindez C. A dual superinfection and recombination within HIV-1 subtype B 12 years after primoinfection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42:12-8 pubmed
    To analyze superinfection in an HIV-1-infected patient showing high-risk practices, viral quasispecies were analyzed in pol and env genes in several plasma samples...
  32. Gottlieb G, Nickle D, Jensen M, Wong K, Kaslow R, Shepherd J, et al. HIV type 1 superinfection with a dual-tropic virus and rapid progression to AIDS: a case report. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:501-9 pubmed
    The occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection has implications for vaccine development and our understanding of HIV pathogenesis and transmission...
  33. Yerly S, Jost S, Monnat M, Telenti A, Cavassini M, Chave J, et al. HIV-1 co/super-infection in intravenous drug users. AIDS. 2004;18:1413-21 pubmed
    ..In recently infected IVDUs, co-infection B/CRF-11 is relatively frequent (5%). In chronically infected IVDUs super-infection may be transient and may occur in patients controlling efficiently HIV infection by the initial strain. ..
  34. Vagefi M, Hollander D, Seitzman G, Margolis T. Bilateral surgically induced necrotising scleritis with secondary superinfection. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:124-5 pubmed
  35. Michel N, Allespach I, Venzke S, Fackler O, Keppler O. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus establishes superinfection immunity by a dual strategy to downregulate cell-surface CCR5 and CD4. Curr Biol. 2005;15:714-23 pubmed
    Viruses frequently render cells refractory to subsequent infection with the same virus. This state of superinfection immunity counteracts potentially detrimental consequences for the infected cell and facilitates high-level replication ..
  36. van de Laar T, Molenkamp R, Van Den Berg C, Schinkel J, Beld M, Prins M, et al. Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Amsterdam. J Hepatol. 2009;51:667-74 pubmed publisher
    This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005...
  37. Folimonova S, Robertson C, Shilts T, Folimonov A, Hilf M, Garnsey S, et al. Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus. J Virol. 2010;84:1314-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, ..
  38. Portugal S, Carret C, Recker M, Armitage A, Gonçalves L, Epiphanio S, et al. Host-mediated regulation of superinfection in malaria. Nat Med. 2011;17:732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Superinfection presents an increased risk of hyperparasitemia and death in less immune individuals but counterintuitively is ..
  39. Boni C, Amadei B, Urbani S, Fisicaro P, Zerbini A, Mori C, et al. Antiviral CD8-mediated responses in chronic HCV carriers with HBV superinfection. Hepatology. 2004;40:289-99 pubmed
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) superinfection in chronic hepatitis C represents a natural model to investigate whether or not hepatitis C virus (HCV) can influence priming and maturation of antiviral T cells; whether or not HBV superinfection, ..
  40. Okamoto S, Kawabata S, Terao Y, Fujitaka H, Okuno Y, Hamada S. The Streptococcus pyogenes capsule is required for adhesion of bacteria to virus-infected alveolar epithelial cells and lethal bacterial-viral superinfection. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6068-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the capsule plays a key role in the invasion of host tissues by GAS following superinfection with IAV and GAS.
  41. Jurriaans S, Kozaczynska K, Zorgdrager F, Steingrover R, Prins J, van der Kuyl A, et al. A sudden rise in viral load is infrequently associated with HIV-1 superinfection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47:69-73 pubmed
    ..increase in the blood plasma HIV-1 viral load in chronically untreated HIV-infected patients and the occurrence of an HIV superinfection, we analyzed the HIV-1 quasispecies in plasma samples before and at peak level in 14 patients.
  42. Ueti M, Tan Y, Broschat S, Castañeda Ortiz E, Camacho Nuez M, Mosqueda J, et al. Expansion of variant diversity associated with a high prevalence of pathogen strain superinfection under conditions of natural transmission. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2354-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection occurs when a second, genetically distinct pathogen strain infects a host that has already mounted an immune response to a primary strain...
  43. Weeks Gorospe J, Hurtig H, Iverson A, Schuneman M, Webby R, McCullers J, et al. Naturally occurring swine influenza A virus PB1-F2 phenotypes that contribute to superinfection with Gram-positive respiratory pathogens. J Virol. 2012;86:9035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of primary influenza virus infection, with only limited assessment in models of Streptococcus pneumoniae superinfection. Specifically, these studies have incorporated isogenic viruses that differ in the PB1-F2 expressed, but there ..
  44. Ronen K, McCoy C, Matsen F, Boyd D, Emery S, Odem Davis K, et al. HIV-1 superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003593 pubmed publisher
    HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection...
  45. Bartha I, Assel M, Sloot P, Zazzi M, Torti C, Schülter E, et al. Superinfection with drug-resistant HIV is rare and does not contribute substantially to therapy failure in a large European cohort. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:537 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection with drug resistant HIV strains could potentially contribute to compromised therapy in patients initially infected with drug-sensitive virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy...
  46. Chan D. HIV-1 superinfection: evidence and impact. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:271-4 pubmed
    b>Superinfection is defined as infection by a second virus during an immunologic steady state, following infection by a primary virus. It is now well established that superinfection with HIV-1 occurs in humans...
  47. Chakraborty B, Valer L, de Mendoza C, Soriano V, Quinones Mateu M. Failure to detect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection in 28 HIV-seroconcordant individuals with high risk of reexposure to the virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:1026-31 pubmed
    We have examined the occurrence of HIV-1 superinfection in 14 HIV-seroconcordant couples (i.e., partners were independently infected with different HIV-1 strains) with high risk of reexposure to the virus...
  48. Smith D, Wong J, Hightower G, Ignacio C, Koelsch K, Petropoulos C, et al. HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection. AIDS. 2005;19:1251-6 pubmed
    HIV interclade B superinfection has previously been described in individuals initially infected with drug resistant virus who then become superinfected by a drug susceptible strain...
  49. Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Pisaturo M, Masiello A, Tonziello G, Sagnelli C, et al. HBV superinfection in HCV chronic carriers: a disease that is frequently severe but associated with the eradication of HCV. Hepatology. 2009;49:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) superinfection in hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic carriers was evaluated in a long-term follow-up study on 29 chronic anti-HCV carriers with acute hepatitis B (AVH-B) (Case group BC) and 29 anti-HCV ..
  50. Mayr L, Powell R, Kinge T, Nyambi P. Sequence analysis of the dimerization initiation site of concordant and discordant viral variants superinfecting HIV type 1 patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011;27:1231-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Redd A, Mullis C, Serwadda D, Kong X, Martens C, Ricklefs S, et al. The rates of HIV superinfection and primary HIV incidence in a general population in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:267-74 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection has been documented in high-risk individuals; however, the rate of superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown.
  52. Quan Y, Xu H, Wainberg M. Defective HIV-1 quasispecies in the form of multiply drug-resistant proviral DNA within cells can be rescued by superinfection with different subtype variants of HIV-1 and by HIV-2 and SIV. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..proviral DNA with other complementary defective proviral DNA or with wild-type viral DNA in the aftermath of superinfection could lead to the rescue of defective provirus and the production of replication-competent virus...
  53. Angel J, Hu Y, Kravcik S, Tsui R, Lee K, Barbour J, et al. Virological evaluation of the 'Ottawa case' indicates no evidence for HIV-1 superinfection. AIDS. 2004;18:331-4 pubmed
    ..response to therapy after starting a new sexual relationship with an infected partner is known as the 'Ottawa superinfection case'...
  54. Maggi F, Andreoli E, Lanini L, Meschi S, Rocchi J, Fornai C, et al. Rapid increase in total torquetenovirus (TTV) plasma viremia load reveals an apparently transient superinfection by a TTV of a novel group 2 genotype. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2571-4 pubmed
    ..The superinfection induced a rapid increase in the plasma TTV load and a decline in immunocomplexed virus...
  55. Templeton A, Kramer M, Jarvis J, Kowalski J, Gange S, Schneider M, et al. Multiple-infection and recombination in HIV-1 within a longitudinal cohort of women. Retrovirology. 2009;6:54 pubmed publisher
  56. Zavitz C, Bauer C, Gaschler G, Fraser K, Strieter R, Hogaboam C, et al. Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. J Immunol. 2010;184:2001-13 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of mechanisms have been proposed by which influenza may predispose to superinfection with an unrelated or heterologous pathogen, but the subsequent interaction between the host, virus, and ..
  57. Fang G, Weiser B, Kuiken C, Philpott S, Rowland Jones S, Plummer F, et al. Recombination following superinfection by HIV-1. AIDS. 2004;18:153-9 pubmed
    There is increasing recognition of recombinant HIV-1 strains globally, but it has been unclear whether recombination results from superinfection during untreated, chronic infection.
  58. Murphy S, Chung Landers M, Honczarenko M, Gaulton G. Linkage of reduced receptor affinity and superinfection to pathogenesis of TR1.3 murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2006;80:4601-9 pubmed
    ..Lastly, decreased receptor affinity of TR1.3 Env correlated with the failure to block superinfection following acute and chronic infection by TR1.3...
  59. Poudel K, Nakahara S, Poudel Tandukar K, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. Unsafe sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 41% (50/123) participants knew about the possibility of HIV superinfection. Our results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention interventions for the Nepalese HIV-positive men.
  60. Willberg C, McConnell J, Eriksson E, Bragg L, York V, Liegler T, et al. Immunity to HIV-1 is influenced by continued natural exposure to exogenous virus. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000185 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued sexual exposure to exogenous HIV-1 was associated with increased HIV-1-specific T cell responses, in the absence of systemic super-infection, and correlated with the level and type of exposure...
  61. Smith J. Superinfection drives virulence evolution in experimental populations of bacteria and plasmids. Evolution. 2011;65:831-41 pubmed publisher
    ..They also show that symbioses between bacteria and plasmids can evolve to be surprisingly antagonistic...
  62. Grebely J, Pham S, Matthews G, Petoumenos K, Bull R, Yeung B, et al. Hepatitis C virus reinfection and superinfection among treated and untreated participants with recent infection. Hepatology. 2012;55:1058-69 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate reinfection and superinfection during treatment for recent hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  63. Waters L, Smit E. HIV-1 superinfection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:42-50 pubmed publisher
    This review describes the nature and frequency of HIV-1 superinfection and provides advice regarding counselling of patients in accordance with national guidelines.
  64. Jarosinski K. Dual infection and superinfection inhibition of epithelial skin cells by two alphaherpesviruses co-occur in the natural host. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37428 pubmed publisher
    Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition...
  65. Smith D, Strain M, Frost S, Pillai S, Wong J, Wrin T, et al. Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfection. Virology. 2006;355:1-5 pubmed
    Occurrences of HIV-1 superinfection offer a unique opportunity to investigate the correlates of immune protection...
  66. Piantadosi A, Chohan B, Chohan V, McClelland R, Overbaugh J. Chronic HIV-1 infection frequently fails to protect against superinfection. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e177 pubmed
    Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection) have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains...
  67. Leontiev V, Maury W, Hadany L. Drug induced superinfection in HIV and the evolution of drug resistance. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:40-50 pubmed
    The rapid evolution of HIV drug resistance is a major cause of AIDS treatment failure. Superinfection, the infection of an already infected cell by additional virions, can be a major factor contributing to the evolution of drug resistance...
  68. Walker T, Song S, Sinkins S. Wolbachia in the Culex pipiens group mosquitoes: introgression and superinfection. J Hered. 2009;100:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..pipiens group strains. A line containing both wPip strain variants superinfection was also generated by embryonic cytoplasmic transfer...
  69. Rachinger A, Navis M, Van Assen S, Groeneveld P, Schuitemaker H. Recovery of viremic control after superinfection with pathogenic HIV type 1 in a long-term elite controller of HIV type 1 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:e86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL for at least 12 months) who experienced a viremic episode after superinfection regained natural viremic control, although the viral loads in the patient's 2 partners, infected with the same ..
  70. Gunthard H, Huber M, Kuster H, Shah C, Schupbach J, Trkola A, et al. HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV-2-infected woman with subsequent control of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:e117-20 pubmed publisher
    A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection...
  71. Quan Y, Liang C, Brenner B, Wainberg M. Multidrug-resistant variants of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) can exist in cells as defective quasispecies and be rescued by superinfection with other defective HIV-1 variants. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The defective MDR provirus was rescued by superinfection with either wild-type HIV-1 or a second replication-defective virus lethally mutated in capsid...
  72. Cortez V, Odem Davis K, McClelland R, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J. HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002611 pubmed publisher
    ..tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection)...
  73. Koning F, Badhan A, Shaw S, Fisher M, Mbisa J, Cane P. Dynamics of HIV type 1 recombination following superinfection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..a circulating recombinant form 19 (CRF19) virus containing transmitted drug resistance mutations followed by superinfection with "wild-type" subtype B virus...
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    ..To estimate the frequency and incidence of dual HIV-1 subtype infections, including superinfections, among recent seroconvertors from a cohort of injection drug users (IDUs)...
  76. Carrillo F, Sanjuan R, Moya A, Cuevas J. The effect of co- and superinfection on the adaptive dynamics of vesicular stomatitis virus. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:69-73 pubmed
    ..populations of the vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus derived from an infectious cDNA, to show that superinfection dynamics promotes faster adaptation than single infection...
  77. Ellenberg P, Linero F, Scolaro L. Superinfection exclusion in BHK-21 cells persistently infected with Junín virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2730-9 pubmed
    ..K3 cells were able to exclude superinfection of the homologous JUNV and the antigenically related Tacaribe virus (TCRV), whereas the non-related ..
  78. Iwabu Y, Mizuta H, Kawase M, Kameoka M, Goto T, Ikuta K. Superinfection of defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with different subtypes of wild-type virus efficiently produces infectious variants with the initial viral phenotypes by complementation followed by recombination. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:504-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Superinfection rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have increasingly been leading to more variation in HIV-1, as evidenced by the emergence of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)...
  79. Streeck H, Li B, Poon A, Schneidewind A, Gladden A, Power K, et al. Immune-driven recombination and loss of control after HIV superinfection. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1789-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This control is often lost after superinfection, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear...
  80. Stegemann S, Dahlberg S, Kröger A, Gereke M, Bruder D, Henriques Normark B, et al. Increased susceptibility for superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during influenza virus infection is not caused by TLR7-mediated lymphopenia. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4840 pubmed publisher
    ..However, infection with IAV alone is rarely fatal. Instead, death associated with IAV is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  81. Rachinger A, van de Ven T, Burger J, Schuitemaker H, van t Wout A. Evaluation of pre-screening methods for the identification of HIV-1 superinfection. J Virol Methods. 2010;165:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..assay (HMA) and the presence of ambiguity codes in population-based sequences - applied for detection of HIV-1 superinfection. HIV-1 env C2-C4 PCR products generated from 48 serum samples isolated from 24 HIV-1 positive and therapy-naï..
  82. Chohan B, Piantadosi A, Overbaugh J. HIV-1 superinfection and its implications for vaccine design. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8:596-601 pubmed
    HIV-1 superinfection, which refers to a subsequent HIV-1 infection from a different source partner after the first HIV-1 infection is established, has now been well documented in multiple populations...
  83. Goulding J, Godlee A, Vekaria S, Hilty M, Snelgrove R, Hussell T. Lowering the threshold of lung innate immune cell activation alters susceptibility to secondary bacterial superinfection. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1086-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that the interaction of CD200R, a myeloid inhibitory receptor, with its ligand, CD200, is critical in the control of innate immune activation in the lung...
  84. Navaneethan U, Venkatesh P, Downs Kelly E, Shen B. Isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challenge. J Crohns Colitis. 2012;6:236-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed Isospora superinfection of the small bowel while receiving systemic corticosteroids for EGE...
  85. Pollak N, Sterns T, Echtenacher B, Mannel D. Improved resistance to bacterial superinfection in mice by treatment with macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6488-92 pubmed
    ..Neutralization of endogenous MIF further enhanced susceptibility to bacterial superinfection after CLP...
  86. Steain M, Wang B, Dwyer D, Saksena N. HIV-1 co-infection, superinfection and recombination. Sex Health. 2004;1:239-50 pubmed
    ..These recombinants are formed when an individual has acquired a co-infection or superinfection with more than one HIV-1 strain or subtype...
  87. Fartoukh M, Prigent H, Thioliere B, Enache Angoulvant A, Garbarg Chenon A, Girot R. Fatal fungal superinfection complicating B19 virus-induced massive bone marrow necrosis in sickle-cell disease. Haematologica. 2006;91:ECR18 pubmed
  88. Piantadosi A, Ngayo M, Chohan B, Overbaugh J. Examination of a second region of the HIV type 1 genome reveals additional cases of superinfection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:1221 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 superinfection may occur at a rate similar to that of initial infection, raising concerns for HIV-1 vaccine strategies predicated on eliciting immune responses similar to those in natural infection...
  89. Fung I, Gambhir M, van Sighem A, de Wolf F, Garnett G. Superinfection with a heterologous HIV strain per se does not lead to faster progression. Math Biosci. 2010;224:1-9 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that superinfection of HIV positive individuals with heterologous HIV strains could lead to faster progression to AIDS, generating concern over the risks of exposure to new infections in those already infected.
  90. Rachinger A, Stolte I, van de Ven T, Burger J, Prins M, Schuitemaker H, et al. Absence of HIV-1 superinfection 1 year after infection between 1985 and 1997 coincides with a reduction in sexual risk behavior in the seroincident Amsterdam cohort of homosexual men. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1309-15 pubmed publisher
    Incidence rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection differ among cohorts and, as yet, only 2 cohorts of homosexual men have been screened...
  91. Mwimanzi P, Hasan Z, Tokunaga M, Gatanaga H, Oka S, Ueno T. Naturally arising HIV-1 Nef variants conferring escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes influence viral entry co-receptor expression and susceptibility to superinfection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;403:422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the cells expressing the Arg75Thr variant Nef significantly impaired protection from superinfection by CCR5-tropic, but not CXCR4-tropic, viruses...
  92. Bruno P, Ricci A, Pezzuto A, Martone L, Gencarelli G, Mariotta S. Severe pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica and complicated by Staphylococcus haemoliticus superinfection. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:401-5 pubmed
    ..induced a rapid improvement of the clinical picture that was resolved in 6 months. Pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica is rare but its identification is necessary to set an appropriate therapy...