Summary: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.

Top Publications

  1. De Keyser F, Baeten D, Van den Bosch F, De Vos M, Cuvelier C, Mielants H, et al. Gut inflammation and spondyloarthropathies. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002;4:525-32 pubmed
    ..The recent introduction and positioning of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and other types of SpA is, in large part, based on this concept...
  2. Sherlock J, Joyce Shaikh B, Turner S, Chao C, Sathe M, Grein J, et al. IL-23 induces spondyloarthropathy by acting on ROR-?t+ CD3+CD4-CD8- entheseal resident T cells. Nat Med. 2012;18:1069-76 pubmed publisher
  3. Toussirot E, Saas P, Deschamps M, Pouthier F, Perrot L, Perruche S, et al. Increased production of soluble CTLA-4 in patients with spondylarthropathies correlates with disease activity. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R101 pubmed publisher
    b>Spondylarthropathies (SpA) are characterized by abnormal immune responses including T cell activation. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) is involved in down-regulating immune responses...
  4. Roux C, Brocq O, Breuil V, Albert C, Euller Ziegler L. Safety of anti-TNF-alpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthropathies with concurrent B or C chronic hepatitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:1294-7 pubmed
    To assess the safety of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathies (SA) and concurrent chronic hepatitis B or C.
  5. Faustini F, Zoli A, Ferraccioli G. Immunologic and genetic links between spondylarthropathies and inflammatory bowel diseases. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009;13 Suppl 1:1-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present article is to review clinical and experimental evidences regarding the immunological and genetic links between gut and joint inflammation in IBDs and SpA...
  6. Miceli Richard C, Gestermann N, Amiel C, Sellam J, Ittah M, Pavy S, et al. Effect of methotrexate and anti-TNF on Epstein-Barr virus T-cell response and viral load in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondylarthropathies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R77 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the EBV load and EBV-specific T-cell response in patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) or anti-TNF therapy...
  7. Anandarajah A, Schwarz E. Bone loss in the spondyloarthropathies: role of osteoclast, RANKL, RANK and OPG in the spondyloarthropathies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;649:85-99 pubmed
  8. Sharma S, Choi D, Planck S, Harrington C, Austin C, Lewis J, et al. Insights in to the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathy based on gene expression profiles. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R168 pubmed publisher
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that SpA is characterized by a distinct pattern of gene expression in peripheral blood of affected individuals compared with healthy controls...
  9. Salinas G, De Rycke L, Barendregt B, Paramarta J, Hreggvidstdottir H, Cantaert T, et al. Anti-TNF treatment blocks the induction of T cell-dependent humoral responses. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1037-43 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Baeten D, Kruithof E, De Rycke L, Boots A, Mielants H, Veys E, et al. Infiltration of the synovial membrane with macrophage subsets and polymorphonuclear cells reflects global disease activity in spondyloarthropathy. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R359-69 pubmed
    ..These data support a prominent role for innate immune cells in SpA synovitis and warrant further evaluation of synovial histopathology as a surrogate marker in early-phase therapeutic trials in SpA...
  2. Fantini M, Pallone F, Monteleone G. Common immunologic mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease and spondylarthropathies. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2472-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, accumulating evidence indicates that a T helper 17 cell-mediated immune response may contribute to IBD and IBD-related SpA with a crucial role played by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in CD and to a lesser extent in UC...
  3. Vandooren B, Kruithof E, Yu D, Rihl M, Gu J, De Rycke L, et al. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in peripheral synovitis and down-regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade in spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2942-53 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in spondylarthropathy (SpA) synovitis...
  4. Levering W, Wind H, Granger V, Sintnicolaas K, Hooijkaas H, Reilly J, et al. Long-term stabilized blood samples as controls for flow cytometric HLA-B27 screening: a feasibility study. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2008;74:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated long-term stabilized whole blood specimens as prepared for the UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping EQA scheme (Sheffield, UK)...
  5. Chou C. Why is biologic therapy useful in spondyloarthritis? Knowledge from synovial immunopathologic studies of spondyloarthritis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2012;15:507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain why clinically, arthritis patients can get significant improvement after TNF? blocker treatment...
  6. Shehab D, Al Jarallah K, Al Awadhi A, Al Herz A, Nahar I, Haider M. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion-deletion polymorphism with spondylarthropathies. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:61-7 pubmed
    ..Inflammatory back pain or spondylarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PSA), reactive arthritis enteropathic and ..
  7. Chrapko B, Zwolak R, Nocun A, Gołębiewska R, Majdan M. Radiation synovectomy with 90Y colloid in the therapy of recurrent knee joint effusions in patients with inflammatory joint diseases. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:729-34 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 0.6 and after the therapy 2.00 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.001). The J/B ratio was: before RSV 2.58 +/- 08; after treatment 2.09 +/- 0.9 (P < 0.05). RSV is an effective method to treat recurrent effusions in patients with RA and SPA...
  8. Fitzgerald O, McInnes I. Spondyloarthropathy: disease at the crossroads of immunity. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:949-67 pubmed
    ..With continued emphasis on discovery research, including detailed analysis of novel therapeutic interventions, significant additional breakthroughs in SpA are likely to be forthcoming...
  9. Hofer M. Spondylarthropathies in children--are they different from those in adults?. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:315-28 pubmed
    Juvenile spondylarthropathies (JSpAs) comprise a group of rheumatic diseases distinct from other categories of juvenile arthritis...
  10. Hamdi H, Mariette X, Godot V, Weldingh K, Hamid A, Prejean M, et al. Inhibition of anti-tuberculosis T-lymphocyte function with tumour necrosis factor antagonists. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R114 pubmed
    ..Such a dual effect may explain the increased incidence of TB in patients treated with TNF antagonists as well as possible differences between TNF antagonists for the incidence and the clinical presentation of TB reactivation...
  11. Baeten D, Kruithof E, De Rycke L, Vandooren B, Wyns B, Boullart L, et al. Diagnostic classification of spondylarthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis by synovial histopathology: a prospective study in 154 consecutive patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2931-41 pubmed
  12. Van der Weijden M, van Denderen J, Lems W, Heymans M, Dijkmans B, van der Horst Bruinsma I. Low bone mineral density is related to male gender and decreased functional capacity in early spondylarthropathies. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with spondylarthropathies (SpA) at an early stage of disease...
  13. Van der Weijden M, van der Horst Bruinsma I, van Denderen J, Dijkmans B, Heymans M, Lems W. High frequency of vertebral fractures in early spondylarthropathies. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:1683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..VF remained frequently 'unrecognized' and untreated. VF have been associated with more back pain, reduced Qol, and increased risk of future fractures which stresses the importance of recognition also in early stage SpA...
  14. Kruithof E, De Rycke L, Roth J, Mielants H, Van den Bosch F, De Keyser F, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of etanercept on peripheral joint synovitis in the spondylarthropathies. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:3898-909 pubmed
    ..blockers may have distinct immunomodulatory effects on specific disease manifestations, the present study was carried out to investigate the immunomodulating effects of etanercept on peripheral synovitis in the spondylarthropathies (SpA).
  15. Cao D, van Vollenhoven R, Klareskog L, Trollmo C, Malmstrom V. CD25brightCD4+ regulatory T cells are enriched in inflamed joints of patients with chronic rheumatic disease. Arthritis Res Ther. 2004;6:R335-46 pubmed
    ..Their capacity to suppress both proliferation and cytokine secretion might contribute to a dampening of local inflammatory processes...
  16. Wyns B, Sette S, Boullart L, Baeten D, Hoffman I, De Keyser F. Prediction of diagnosis in patients with early arthritis using a combined Kohonen mapping and instance-based evaluation criterion. Artif Intell Med. 2004;31:45-55 pubmed
    ..This is often an important feature when dealing with diagnosis in human patients...
  17. McGonagle D, Marzo Ortega H, O Connor P, Gibbon W, Pease C, Reece R, et al. The role of biomechanical factors and HLA-B27 in magnetic resonance imaging-determined bone changes in plantar fascia enthesopathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:489-93 pubmed
    ..To study the role of biomechanical factors and HLA-B27 in plantar fasciitis...
  18. Shi S, Ciurli C, Cartman A, Pidoux I, Poole A, Zhang Y. Experimental immunity to the G1 domain of the proteoglycan versican induces spondylitis and sacroiliitis, of a kind seen in human spondylarthropathies. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2903-15 pubmed
    ..The PG versican contains a structurally similar G1 domain (VG1). This study was conducted to determine whether immunity to VG1 would elicit similar pathology in these mice...
  19. Drouart M, Saas P, Billot M, Cedoz J, Tiberghien P, Wendling D, et al. High serum vascular endothelial growth factor correlates with disease activity of spondylarthropathies. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;132:158-62 pubmed
    ..Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. The spondylarthropathies (SpA) are characterized by enthesitis and synovitis, in which blood vessels participate...
  20. D Agostino M, Said Nahal R, Hacquard Bouder C, Brasseur J, Dougados M, Breban M. Assessment of peripheral enthesitis in the spondylarthropathies by ultrasonography combined with power Doppler: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:523-33 pubmed
    ..To assess the prevalence and severity of peripheral enthesitis among the different subtypes of spondylarthropathy (SpA) by using ultrasonography (US) in B mode with power Doppler...
  21. Balint P, Kane D, Wilson H, McInnes I, Sturrock R. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:905-10 pubmed
    ..To compare ultrasonography (US) with clinical examination in the detection of entheseal abnormality of the lower limb in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA)...
  22. Pacheco Tena C, Zhang X, Stone M, Burgos Vargas R, Inman R. Innate immunity in host-microbial interactions: beyond B27 in the spondyloarthropathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002;14:373-82 pubmed
    ..These factors in innate immunity may have important implications for sequelae of infections, such as reactive arthritis...
  23. Heikkilä S, Viitanen J, Kautiainen H, Kauppi M. Functional long-term changes in patients with spondylarthropathy. Clin Rheumatol. 2002;21:119-22 pubmed
    ..Functional Index (BASFI), the Dougados Functional Index (DFI), the Health Assessment Questionnaire for Spondylarthropathies (HAQ-S), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis ..
  24. Van den Bosch F, Kruithof E, Baeten D, Herssens A, De Keyser F, Mielants H, et al. Randomized double-blind comparison of chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (infliximab) versus placebo in active spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:755-65 pubmed
    ..To confirm in a placebo-controlled trial the safety and efficacy profile of infliximab in short-term treatment of patients with active spondylarthropathy (SpA)...
  25. Baeten D, Demetter P, Cuvelier C, Kruithof E, Van Damme N, De Vos M, et al. Macrophages expressing the scavenger receptor CD163: a link between immune alterations of the gut and synovial inflammation in spondyloarthropathy. J Pathol. 2002;196:343-50 pubmed
    ..The correlation with inflammatory parameters, the expression of HLA-DR, the production of TNFalpha but not IL-10, and the reduction by anti-TNFalpha therapy support a role for CD163+ macrophages in the synovial inflammation in SpA...
  26. Cardiel M, Londoño J, Gutierrez E, Pacheco Tena C, Vazquez Mellado J, Burgos Vargas R. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Dougados Functional Index (DFI) in a Spanish speaking populati. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003;21:451-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to translate, adapt and validate these instruments into the Spanish language...
  27. Baeten D, Møller H, Delanghe J, Veys E, Moestrup S, De Keyser F. Association of CD163+ macrophages and local production of soluble CD163 with decreased lymphocyte activation in spondylarthropathy synovitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1611-23 pubmed
    ..Since CD163+ macrophages are selectively increased in spondylarthropathy (SpA) synovitis, we investigated the role of CD163+ macrophages in synovial inflammation...
  28. Hacquard Bouder C, Falgarone G, Bosquet A, Smaoui F, Monnet D, Ittah M, et al. Defective costimulatory function is a striking feature of antigen-presenting cells in an HLA-B27-transgenic rat model of spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1624-35 pubmed
    A disease resembling the human spondylarthropathies develops in HLA-B27-transgenic rats. This disease in rats is mediated by CD4+ T cells, but antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may also play a role...
  29. Barnes M, Aronow B, Luyrink L, Moroldo M, Pavlidis P, Passo M, et al. Gene expression in juvenile arthritis and spondyloarthropathy: pro-angiogenic ELR+ chemokine genes relate to course of arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004;43:973-9 pubmed
  30. Helenius L, Hallikainen D, Helenius I, Meurman J, Könönen M, Leirisalo Repo M, et al. Clinical and radiographic findings of the temporomandibular joint in patients with various rheumatic diseases. A case-control study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99:455-63 pubmed
    ..In screening for suspected TMJ destruction, it would be appropriate to look for restricted maximal mouth opening, masticatory muscle tenderness and restricted laterotrusion. ..
  31. Karimi O, Pena A. Probiotics in arthralgia and spondyloarthropathies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prospective randomized trials are necessary. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2005;97:570-4 pubmed
  32. Schmidt K, Viera J, Reith W. [Degenerative diseases of the spine]. Radiologe. 2011;51:779-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A lack of correlation between the imaging findings and clinical symptoms remains problematic. A meaningful interpretation of x-ray images and MRI can only be made with the appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and possible diseases...
  33. Hügle T, Kovacs H, Heijnen I, Daikeler T, Baisch U, Hicks J, et al. Synovial fluid metabolomics in different forms of arthritis assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:240-5 pubmed
    ..1H-NMR is a fast analytic tool with possible implications in synovial fluid diagnostics. A distinctive metabolism is observed in septic arthritis whereas metabolites in OA are similar to those in inflammatory arthritis. ..
  34. Colbert R, DeLay M, Layh Schmitt G, Sowders D. HLA-B27 misfolding and spondyloarthropathies. Prion. 2009;3:15-26 pubmed
  35. Mouterde G, Carotti M, D Agostino M. [Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in musculoskeletal diseases]. J Radiol. 2009;90:148-55 pubmed
    ..New applications are being developed such as contrast-enhanced US of muscular diseases. This new imaging technique appears to have great potentials for the assessment of musculoskeletal diseases. ..
  36. Dernis E, Said Nahal R, D Agostino M, Aegerter P, Dougados M, Breban M. Recurrence of spondylarthropathy among first-degree relatives of patients: a systematic cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The weight of the non-HLA genetic component was equivalent to that estimated for the HLA locus, and fitted a model of multiplicative interaction between HLA and non-HLA genetic components. ..
  37. Breban M, Miceli Richard C, Zinovieva E, Monnet D, Said Nahal R. The genetics of spondyloarthropathies. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73:355-62 pubmed
    ..However, several independent groups have reported significant associations between ankylosing spondylitis and the IL-1 gene cluster on the long arm of chromosome 2. ..
  38. Cauli A, Mathieu A. Th17 and interleukin 23 in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2012;89:15-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Chou C, Lin K, Wei J, Tsai W, Ho H, Hwang C, et al. Study of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy among first-degree relatives of ankylosing spondylitis probands. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:662-5 pubmed
    ..In these families, a female gender favours the development of USpA rather than AS. A significant subset of sporadic USpA (HLA B27-negative group) has a different genetic predisposition compared with familial USpA. ..
  40. Aydin S, Bas E, Basci O, Filippucci E, Wakefield R, Celikel C, et al. Validation of ultrasound imaging for Achilles entheseal fibrocartilage in bovines and description of changes in humans with spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:2165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ± 0.2 vs 0.5 ± 0.1 mm; p=0.009) compared with women. Ultrasound can visualise EF of the AT insertion, which can be abnormal in cases of spondyloarthritis. This has implications for a better understanding of enthesopathy. ..
  41. Mackiewicz Z, Salo J, Konttinen Y, Kaigle Holm A, Indahl A, Pajarinen J, et al. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand in an experimental intervertebral disc degeneration. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:299-306 pubmed
    ..RANKL inhibitors, like recombinant human osteoprotegerin (OPG), could be interesting drugs to test, not only in osteoporosis, but also in spondylarthrosis. ..
  42. Demirag M, Ozturk M, Goker B, Haznedaroglu S. Intramuscular gold for the treatment of seronegative spondyloarthropathy associated with familial Mediterranean fever. Rheumatol Int. 2008;29:77-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intramuscular gold might be an effective agent. However, care should be taken regarding the development of proteinuria...
  43. Almodovar R, Zarco P, Collantes E, Gonzalez C, Mulero J, Fernandez Sueiro J, et al. Relationship between spinal mobility and disease activity, function, quality of life and radiology. A cross-sectional Spanish registry of spondyloarthropathies (REGISPONSER). Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:439-45 pubmed
    ..001). In our study, wall-occiput distance and lateral cervical rotation showed the strongest correlation to BASRI. Similarly, fingertip-to-floor distance and lateral cervical rotation exhibited the closest correlation to BASFI. ..
  44. Diaz Borjon A, Weyand C, Goronzy J. Treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with biologic agents: opportunities and risks for the elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41:1250-5 pubmed
  45. Westhovens I, Lories R, Westhovens R, Verschueren P, de Vlam K. Anti-TNF therapy and malignancy in spondyloarthritis in the Leuven spondyloarthritis biologics cohort (BIOSPAR). Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014;32:71-6 pubmed
    ..3 for females and 130.6 for males). We see a tendency towards a higher incidence of malignancy in SpA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy. However, it is not clear whether this increased risk is disease-related or treatment-related. ..
  46. Hoppé E, Masson C, Audran M, Drillon M, Andreu M, Saraux A, et al. Whipple's disease diagnosed during biological treatment for joint disease. Joint Bone Spine. 2010;77:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whipple's disease must be ruled out in patients with joint disease, as patients with this spontaneously fatal condition should not receive immunosuppressive agents. ..
  47. Chatzikyriakidou A, Voulgari P, Drosos A. What is the role of HLA-B27 in spondyloarthropathies?. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:464-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge of HLA-B27 aiming to understand its potential use in clinical practice of SpAs diagnosis and to direct its future studies. ..
  48. Koksvik H, Hagen K, Rødevand E, Mowinckel P, Kvien T, Zangi H. Patient satisfaction with nursing consultations in a rheumatology outpatient clinic: a 21-month randomised controlled trial in patients with inflammatory arthritides. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:836-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The study is registered as a clinical trial at the ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00403676). ..
  49. Talpin A, Costantino F, Bonilla N, Leboime A, Letourneur F, Jacques S, et al. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients display altered functional capacity and deregulated gene expression. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:417 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression study showed an inverse correlation between ADAMTS15 and CITED2. Moreover, the Wnt signaling pathway appeared as deregulated in SpA MD-DCs, a finding which may be connected to Th17-driven inflammatory responses. ..
  50. Antoniou A, Guiliano D, Lenart I, Burn G, Powis S. The oxidative folding and misfolding of human leukocyte antigen-b27. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:669-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The misfolding of HLA-B27 has been associated with its redox status and this is postulated to be involved in disease development. Here we discuss the impact of the redox status on HLA-B27 biosynthesis and function. ..
  51. Desrame J, Lechevalier D, Bechade D, Teritehau C, Lecoules S, Raynaud J, et al. [A history... difficult to digest]. Rev Med Interne. 2004;25 Suppl 2:S286-8 pubmed
  52. Kumar S, Kakar A, Gogia A, Byotra S. Skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative spondyloarthropathy: a deceptive presentation. Trop Doct. 2011;41:247-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Skeletal fluorosis is rarely recognized early and is a major cause of morbidity. We report on a 40-year-old man with skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative spondyloarthropathy. ..
  53. Gunaydin I, Pereira P, Fritz J, Konig C, Kotter I. Magnetic resonance imaging guided corticosteroid injection of sacroiliac joints in patients with spondylarthropathy. Are multiple injections more beneficial?. Rheumatol Int. 2006;26:396-400 pubmed
    ..MR guided steroid injection of SIJ is effective and safe. Since there is no exposure to radiation it could be performed many times. Repeated injections seem to be beneficial for primary non-responders and patients who relapsed...
  54. Méric J, Grandgeorge Y, Lotito G, Pham T. Walking before an ultrasound assessment increases the enthesis score significantly. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:961 pubmed publisher
  55. Thakar S, Rajshekhar V. Evaluation of pain as a preference-based health status measure in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy undergoing central corpectomy. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to ascertain the intensity of various pain scores in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) before and after surgery, and to assess their correlation with other outcome measures...
  56. Thielen A, Barde C, Janer V, Borradori L, Saurat J. Reiter syndrome triggered by adalimumab (Humira) and leflunomide (Arava) in a patient with ankylosing spondylarthropathy and Crohn disease. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:188-9 pubmed
  57. Juan A, Ros I. Spondyloarthropathies and aortic dissection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131:1209-10; author reply 1210 pubmed
  58. Finckh A. [Diagnostic strategy in presence of diffuse pain]. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3:1562, 1565-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of an alternative etiology, the diagnosis of FM must be considered in presence of a cluster of symptoms associating diffuse pain, asthenia and a certain number of tender points...
  59. Sari I, Birlik M, Cavdar C, Sarioglu S, Akpinar H, Onen F, et al. Mesalazine-associated acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with spondylarthropathy. N Z Med J. 2005;118:U1662 pubmed
  60. Benitez del Castillo J, Diaz Valle D, Pato E, López Abad C, Alejandre N. [Articular diseases and uveitis]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2008;31 Suppl 3:83-95 pubmed
    ..The collaboration of ophthalmologists, rheumatologists and internal medicine specialists is very important for the correct management and treatment of these patients...
  61. De Rycke L, Vandooren B, Kruithof E, De Keyser F, Veys E, Baeten D. Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade treatment down-modulates the increased systemic and local expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 in spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:2146-58 pubmed
  62. Roure F, Elhaï M, Burki V, Fabreguet I, Koumakis E, Payet J, et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriasis in spondyloarthritis: a descriptive analysis of 275 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34:82-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the prevalence of psoriasis among a cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), to describe the clinical characteristics of psoriasis and associations with other manifestations...
  63. Kiltz U, Baraliakos X, Braun J. [Spondyloarthritis - the novel concept. An introduction to the diagnosis and treatment of axial spondyloarthritis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2012;137:1745-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This subset is characterized by the absence of structural changes on conventional x-rays. In this review we describe the clinical symptoms, the diagnosis and therapy of patients with axial SpA...
  64. Sung S, Kim H, Kwon J. MRI assessment of sacroiliitis for the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthropathy: comparison of fat-saturated T2, STIR and contrast-enhanced sequences. Br J Radiol. 2017;90:20170090 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in knowledge: Coronal STIR with axial T2FS may be sufficient for diagnosis spondyloarthropathy without use of contrast administration. ..
  65. De La Mata J, Maese J, Martinez J, Rosario P, Loza E. Current evidence of the management of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: a systematic literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;40:421-9, 429.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the efficacy of available drugs in undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (u-SpA)...
  66. Goulenok T, Meune C, Gossec L, Dougados M, Kahan A, Allanore Y. Usefulness of routine electrocardiography for heart disease screening in patients with spondyloarthropathy or rheumatoid arthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2010;77:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the usefulness of routine electrocardiography for heart disease screening in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  67. Deng X, Liu X, Xu N. Comparative study on low back pain misdiagnosed as spondyloarthropathy. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The various criteria for spondyloarthropathy may be more effective in combination, along with other clinical information like these clinical features...
  68. Christophers E. Comorbidities in psoriasis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:529-34 pubmed
    ..In addition, biochemical and immunologic observations point toward an inflammatory immune mechanism that uses tools of the innate defense armamentarium...
  69. Sudo H, Ito M, Abumi K, Kotani Y, Takeuchi T, Yasui K, et al. Long-term follow up of surgical outcomes in patients with cervical disorders undergoing hemodialysis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:313-9 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term follow up and clinical results after surgical treatment of cervical disorders in patients undergoing hemodialysis...
  70. Szekanecz Z, Szucs G, Szanto S, Koch A. Chemokines in rheumatic diseases. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:91-102 pubmed
  71. Ritchlin C. Doxycycline in undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2005;7:171-2; discussion 172 pubmed
  72. Haugeberg G, Bennett A, McGonagle D, Emery P, Marzo Ortega H. Bone loss in very early inflammatory back pain in undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy: a 1-year observational study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1364-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, lumbar spine and hand in patients with early IBP and to look for possible biomarkers associated with this change...
  73. Benjamin M, McGonagle D. The enthesis organ concept and its relevance to the spondyloarthropathies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;649:57-70 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, we review the extent and types ofenthesis organs and show how a patho-anatomic appreciation of these structures leads to a new platform for understanding the pathogenesis of SpA...
  74. Villaverde V, Carmona L, López Robledillo J, Serrano S, Gobbo M. Motivations and objections to implement a spondyloarthritis integrated care pathway. A qualitative study with primary care physicians. Reumatol Clin. 2013;9:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous to the development of a clinical pathway (CP) for early spondyloarthritis (SpA), a qualitative study was performed to know the attitude of primary care physicians (PCP) with respect to CP implementation...
  75. Gunal E, Kamali S, Gul A, Ocal L, Konice M, Aral O, et al. Clinical evaluation and comparison of different criteria for classification in Turkish patients with psoriatic arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2008;28:959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant agreement was present between criteria but generally kappa values were less than 0.5. The pattern of PsA can differ with time and the implementation of the available classification criteria showed considerable differences...
  76. Helenius L, Meurman J, Helenius I, Kari K, Hietanen J, Suuronen R, et al. Oral and salivary parameters in patients with rheumatic diseases. Acta Odontol Scand. 2005;63:284-93 pubmed
    ..The findings may reflect the autoimmune inflammation of the salivary glands frequently observed in these patients...
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