spondylitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Cheung W, Luk K. Pyogenic spondylitis. Int Orthop. 2012;36:397-404 pubmed publisher
    Pyogenic spondylitis is a neurological and life threatening condition. It encompasses a broad range of clinical entities, including pyogenic spondylodiscitis, septic discitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and epidural abscess...
  2. Guzey F, Emel E, Bas N, Hacisalihoglu S, Seyithanoglu M, Karacor S, et al. Thoracic and lumbar tuberculous spondylitis treated by posterior debridement, graft placement, and instrumentation: a retrospective analysis in 19 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;3:450-8 pubmed
    Surgical treatment of thoracic and lumbar tuberculous spondylitis is controversial. An anterior approach is usually recommended...
  3. Pappas G, Seitaridis S, Akritidis N, Tsianos E. Treatment of brucella spondylitis: lessons from an impossible meta-analysis and initial report of efficacy of a fluoroquinolone-containing regimen. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;24:502-7 pubmed
    Although spondylitis is the most common of the complications of brucellosis, and is often debilitating and difficult to treat, there is no consensus on the preferred combination of antibiotics used...
  4. Meybeck A, Fortin C, Abgrall S, Adle Biassette H, Hayem G, Ruimy R, et al. Spondylitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1465-6 pubmed
    ..However, spondylitis due to mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon...
  5. Stabler A, Reiser M. Imaging of spinal infection. Radiol Clin North Am. 2001;39:115-35 pubmed
    ..Infectious spondylitis is characterized by the involvement of two adjacent vertebrae and the intervening disk with severe BME and ..
  6. Fayazi A, Ludwig S, Dabbah M, Bryan Butler R, Gelb D. Preliminary results of staged anterior debridement and reconstruction using titanium mesh cages in the treatment of thoracolumbar vertebral osteomyelitis. Spine J. 2004;4:388-95 pubmed
    ..In our cohort of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, the use of titanium mesh cages has not been associated with early recurrence of infection. ..
  7. Muller E, Russe O, Muhr G. [Osteomyelitis of the spine]. Orthopade. 2004;33:305-15 pubmed
    ..The management of spinal infections consists of antimicrobial therapy over 6-8 weeks. Surgical intervention is indicated in neurologically compromised patients for spinal instability and abscesses...
  8. Danchaivijitr N, Temram S, Thepmongkhol K, Chiewvit P. Diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in tuberculous spondylitis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:1581-9 pubmed
    To systemically evaluate MR imaging features of tuberculous spondylitis and to find features that may help differentiating tuberculosis from other spinal diseases.
  9. Stratov I, Korman T, Johnson P. Management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis: report of failure of liposomal amphotericin B and response to voriconazole in an immunocompetent host and literature review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:277-83 pubmed
    ..On review, the addition of another agent, in particular 5-fluorocytosine, appears to be more beneficial. The patient reported here responded rapidly to voriconazole, a promising new antifungal agent for Aspergillus infections...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Chang M, Wu H, Lee C, Liu C, Chen T. Tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis: comparative magnetic resonance imaging features. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:782-8 pubmed
    We retrospectively compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of tuberculous (TB) spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis.
  2. Sucu H, Ciçek C, Rezanko T, Bezircioglu H, Ersahin Y, Tunakan M, et al. Percutaneous computed-tomography-guided biopsy of the spine: 229 procedures. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73:532-7 pubmed
    ..We aimed to find out if there is any factor influencing the success rate of the spinal biopsy using our biopsy series...
  3. Guignard S, Hubert D, Dupont B, Anract P, Alioua D, Guerini H, et al. Multifocal Scedosporium apiospermum spondylitis in a cystic fibrosis patient. J Cyst Fibros. 2008;7:89-91 pubmed
    We report the first case of multifocal Scedosporium apiospermum spondylitis in a cystic fibrosis patient...
  4. Forrester D. Infectious spondylitis. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2004;25:461-73 pubmed
    ..Four other conditions may mimic infectious spondylitis: degenerative disk disease associated with Modic type 1 changes, pseudoarthrosis in ankylosing spondylitis, ..
  5. Englert C, Aebert H, Lenhart M, Solleder A, Nerlich M, Neumann C. Thoracic spondylitis from a mycotic (Streptococcus pneumoniae) aortic aneurysm: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:E373-5 pubmed
    ..Successful surgical treatment and recurrence-free survival after 4 years are described...
  6. Navarro Martínez A, Navarro E, Castaño M, Solera J. Rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis by quantitative real-time PCR: a case report of brucellar spondylitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:385-7 pubmed
    ..The high sensitivity and specificity of this assay allowed the diagnosis of brucellar spondylitis within 24 h, a result that we were unable to obtain through the use of conventional methods.
  7. Kumar P, Mahmoodi S, Kalaparambil Moosa N, Edgar M, Samt H, Hussain R. Salmonella paratyphi spondylitis: a case report. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:754-5 pubmed
    ..From a review of the literature this is the first reported case with bacteriological confirmation. The rarity of Salmonella paratyphi spondylitis and the options for treatment are discussed.
  8. Korovessis P, Repantis T, Iliopoulos P, Hadjipavlou A. Beneficial influence of titanium mesh cage on infection healing and spinal reconstruction in hematogenous septic spondylitis: a retrospective analysis of surgical outcome of twenty-five consecutive cases and review of literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:E759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Single institution, single surgeon retrospective review...
  9. Lubrano E, Marchesoni A, Olivieri I, D Angelo S, Spadaro A, Parsons W, et al. Psoriatic arthritis spondylitis radiology index: a modified index for radiologic assessment of axial involvement in psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1006-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop and validate a modified index for assessing the radiologic axial involvement in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in a group of patients with established disease...
  10. Blondel B, Fuentes S, Metellus P, Adetchessi T, Dufour H. Percutaneous internal fixation in the management of lumbar spondylitis: report of two cases. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2009;95:220-3 pubmed publisher
    Surgically managed bacterial spondylitis is rare, and a variety of operative techniques are currently available, without any real consensus...
  11. Ivo R, Sobottke R, Seifert H, Ortmann M, Eysel P. Tuberculous spondylitis and paravertebral abscess formation after kyphoplasty: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E559-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Case report...
  12. Cheung W, Luk K. Clinical and radiological outcomes after conservative treatment of TB spondylitis: is the 15 years' follow-up in the MRC study long enough?. Eur Spine J. 2013;22 Suppl 4:594-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservative treatment with chemotherapy is still the main stay of treatment. This article focuses on the clinical and radiological outcomes, and problems with conservative treatment...
  13. Nakamura A, Odaka M, Hirata K. [Case of diabetes mellitus associated with cervical pyogenic spondylitis and meningoencephalitis secondary to retropharyngeal abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae]. Brain Nerve. 2008;60:571-4 pubmed
    ..Based on the diagnosis of cervical pyogenic spondylitis and meningoencephalitis secondary to retropharyngeal abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the patient ..
  14. Okada Y, Miyamoto H, Uno K, Sumi M. Clinical and radiological outcome of surgery for pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis: comparisons of surgical techniques and disease types. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:620-7 pubmed publisher
    Current surgical techniques for patients with pyogenic spondylitis (PS) and tuberculous spondylitis (TS) are as follows: anterior debridement/decompression and fusion with bone autografts (A); anterior debridement/decompression and ..
  15. Martin L, Martin M, Barnes H. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens. Avian Dis. 2011;55:273-8 pubmed
    ..Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation ..
  16. Korovessis P, Petsinis G, Koureas G, Iliopoulos P, Zacharatos S. One-stage combined surgery with mesh cages for treatment of septic spondylitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;444:51-9 pubmed
    There is a controversy regarding most effective operative method for treatment of pyogenic spondylitis and whether to use metallic implants on the site of infection...
  17. Robbins K, Suyemoto M, Lyman R, Martin M, Barnes H, Borst L. An outbreak and source investigation of enterococcal spondylitis in broilers caused by Enterococcus cecorum. Avian Dis. 2012;56:768-73 pubmed
    Enterococcus cecorum was isolated from spondylitis lesions in broilers from two flocks in North Carolina that were experiencing increased mortality...
  18. Kapoor S, Agarwal P, Jain B, Kumar R. Video-assisted thoracoscopic decompression of tubercular spondylitis: clinical evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:E605-10 pubmed
    A prospective, observational study using a novel procedure of video-assisted thoracoscopy and conventional, long spinal instruments for decompression of dorsal tubercular spondylitis.
  19. Lübben B, Tombach B, Rudack C. [Tubercular spondylitis with retropharyngeal abscess]. HNO. 2004;52:820-3 pubmed
    ..She was diagnosed as having extensive tubercular osteodestruction of the second cervical spine body, including epidural and large retropharyngeal abscesses...
  20. Benli I, Alanay A, Akalin S, Kis M, Acaroglu E, Ateş B, et al. Comparison of anterior instrumentation systems and the results of minimum 5 years follow-up in the treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis. Kobe J Med Sci. 2004;50:167-80 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that anterior instrumentation is a safe and effective method in the treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis. There were no significant differences between the two instrumentation systems in terms of sagittal alignment ..
  21. Aouba A, Vuillemin Bodaghi V, Mutschler C, De Bandt M. Crowned dens syndrome misdiagnosed as polymyalgia rheumatica, giant cell arteritis, meningitis or spondylitis: an analysis of eight cases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004;43:1508-12 pubmed
    ..The crowned dens syndrome, related to microcrystalline deposition in the peri-odontoid articular and abarticular structures, is mainly responsible for acute or chronic cervical pain...
  22. Yu S, Chen W, Lin W, Chen Y, Tu Y. Serious pyogenic spondylitis following vertebroplasty--a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:E209-11 pubmed
    The aim of this case report is to examine the problem of serious pyogenic spondylitis that may follow vertebroplasty.
  23. Peeters H, Vander Cruyssen B, Laukens D, Coucke P, Marichal D, Van Den Berghe M, et al. Radiological sacroiliitis, a hallmark of spondylitis, is linked with CARD15 gene polymorphisms in patients with Crohn's disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:1131-4 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms in the CARD15 gene have been linked to higher susceptibility for Crohn's disease. In particular, associations have been found with ileal and fibrostenosing disease, young age at onset of disease, and familial cases...
  24. Son J, Jee W, Jung C, Kim S, Ha K. Aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine in an immunocompromised patient: a case report. Korean J Radiol. 2007;8:448-51 pubmed
    Aspergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis. Moreover, early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment can prevent the serious complications of fungal infection...
  25. Suess O, Weise L, Brock M, Kombos T. Debridement and spinal instrumentation as a single-stage procedure in bacterial spondylitis/spondylodiscitis. Zentralbl Neurochir. 2007;68:123-32 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to provide further evidence in support of debridement and instrumentation as a single-stage procedure for spinal infection...
  26. Jayaswal A, Upendra B, Ahmed A, Chowdhury B, Kumar A. Video-assisted thoracoscopic anterior surgery for tuberculous spondylitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;460:100-7 pubmed
    In the absence of major deformity, the major goal of surgery in tuberculous spondylitis is to achieve adequate cord decompression and débridement of diseased tissue...
  27. Danaviah S, Govender S, Cassol S. Histopathology and genotyping in infectious spondylitis of HIV- and HIV+ patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;460:50-5 pubmed
    ..the histological features of the disease and the occurrence of atypical opportunistic organisms in infectious spondylitis in an HIV/TB endemic region...
  28. Queiro R, Alperi M, Lopez A, Sarasqueta C, Riestra J, Ballina J. Clinical expression, but not disease outcome, may vary according to age at disease onset in psoriatic spondylitis. Joint Bone Spine. 2008;75:544-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the clinical expression and disease outcome in psoriatic spondylitis (PsS) may vary according to age at disease onset.
  29. Sura R, Creden A, Van Kruiningen H. Pseudomonas-associated discospondylitis in a two-month-old llama. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:349-52 pubmed
    ..Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intervertebral disc space and from cerebrospinal fluid. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of Pseudomonas-associated discospondylitis in a llama...
  30. Jung N, Jee W, Ha K, Park C, Byun J. Discrimination of tuberculous spondylitis from pyogenic spondylitis on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:1405-10 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of MRI for discrimination between tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis.
  31. Chen J, Lee S. Antibiotic-polymethylmethacrylate strut: an option for treating cervical pyogenic spondylitis. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:90-5 pubmed
    ..osteomyelitis; however, there have been no reports of an antibiotic-PMMA strut for treating spinal pyogenic spondylitis. In this case report we describe a 57-year-old woman with C5-6 pyogenic spondylitis, progressive kyphotic ..
  32. Tali E. Spinal infections. Eur J Radiol. 2004;50:120-33 pubmed
    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis...
  33. Govender S. Spinal infections. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:1454-8 pubmed
  34. Chen S, Lin W, Lee C, Chou W. Spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm: incidence, risk factors, outcome and management experience. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:439-444 pubmed publisher
    Infective spondylitis occurring concomitantly with mycotic aneurysm is rare...
  35. Lee I, Lee J, Kim S, Jun S, Suh K. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis: preliminary study. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009;33:587-92 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing between tuberculous and pyogenic spondylitis with that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  36. Jacques P, Elewaut D, Mielants H. Interactions between gut inflammation and arthritis/spondylitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The spectrum of spondyloarthritis is characterized by the intriguing co-occurrence of gut and joint inflammation, although no obvious anatomical link exists...
  37. Tran T, Dorris M, Satumtira N, Richardson J, Hammer R, Shang J, et al. Additional human beta2-microglobulin curbs HLA-B27 misfolding and promotes arthritis and spondylitis without colitis in male HLA-B27-transgenic rats. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:1317-27 pubmed
    Ankylosing spondylitis and related spondylarthritides are associated with HLA-B27, and also with intestinal inflammation, by unknown mechanisms...
  38. Tofuku K, Koga H, Yone K, Komiya S. Continuous irrigation in pyogenic spondylitis accompanied by iliopsoas abscess. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E382-7 pubmed
    A retrospective assessment of 12 patients with pyogenic spondylitis accompanied by iliopsoas abscess treated by continuous irrigation with our new method between March 2003 and July 2005.
  39. Schmid K, Boszczyk B, Bierschneider M, Zarfl A, Robert B, Jaksche H. Spondylitis following vertebroplasty: a case report. Eur Spine J. 2005;14:895-9 pubmed
    b>Spondylitis is a rare complication of vertebroplasty with only one case report having been published to date. We report a further case of spondylitis after vertebroplasty that was managed successfully with conservative therapy.
  40. Buyukbebeci O, Karakurum G, Daglar B, Maralcan G, Güner S, Gulec A. Tuberculous spondylitis: abscess drainage after failure of anti-tuberculous therapy. Acta Orthop Belg. 2006;72:337-41 pubmed
    ..Drains were removed after two to three days. None of the patients required a second operation. Complications, such as spinal instability, vertebral collapse, or death did not occur...
  41. Benli I, Kaya A, Acaroglu E. Anterior instrumentation in tuberculous spondylitis: is it effective and safe?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;460:108-16 pubmed
    Radical anterior débridement and strut grafting is the gold standard in the surgical treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis. For many years anterior instrumentation was avoided due to concerns about infection until recently...
  42. Fukuta S, Miyamoto K, Masuda T, Hosoe H, Kodama H, Nishimoto H, et al. Two-stage (posterior and anterior) surgical treatment using posterior spinal instrumentation for pyogenic and tuberculotic spondylitis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:E302-8 pubmed
    A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical outcomes of patients with pyogenic or tuberculotic spondylitis who were treated with two-stage surgery (first stage: placement of posterior instrumentation; second stage: anterior ..
  43. Shi S, Ciurli C, Cartman A, Pidoux I, Poole A, Zhang Y. Experimental immunity to the G1 domain of the proteoglycan versican induces spondylitis and sacroiliitis, of a kind seen in human spondylarthropathies. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2903-15 pubmed
    ..immunity to the G1 domain of the cartilage proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan (AG1) leads to the development of spondylitis as well as polyarthritis in BALB/c mice. The PG versican contains a structurally similar G1 domain (VG1)...
  44. Jaramillo de la Torre J, Bohinski R, Kuntz C. Vertebral osteomyelitis. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006;17:339-51, vii pubmed
    ..Most VO can be treated nonsurgically, but 10% to 20% of cases require open surgical treatment. Excellent clinical outcomes can be achieved with appropriate medical and surgical treatment...
  45. Linhardt O, Matussek J, Refior H, Krodel A. Long-term results of ventro-dorsal versus ventral instrumentation fusion in the treatment of spondylitis. Int Orthop. 2007;31:113-9 pubmed
    ..study examines prospectively the randomised, long-term, clinical and radiological results of the treatment of spondylitis patients by ventro-dorsal or ventral spine fusion...
  46. Hanaoka N, Kawasaki Y, Sakai T, Nakamura T, Nanamori K, Nakamura E, et al. Percutaneous drainage and continuous irrigation in patients with severe pyogenic spondylitis, abscess formation, and marked bone destruction. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;4:374-9 pubmed
    ..of percutaneous suction aspiration has recently become viewed as an effective management strategy for pyogenic spondylitis unresponsive to conservative treatment...
  47. Ha K, Kim Y. Postoperative spondylitis after posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages. Eur Spine J. 2004;13:419-24 pubmed
    ..7 mm (range 4-46 mm) and 5.6 degrees (range 0-15 degrees ), respectively. Anterior radical debridement with the removal of all implants would be an effective way to manage patients with postoperative spondylitis after a PLIF using cages.
  48. Ito K, Kubota K, Morooka M, Hasuo K, Kuroki H, Mimori A. Clinical impact of (18)F-FDG PET/CT on the management and diagnosis of infectious spondylitis. Nucl Med Commun. 2010;31:691-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) on the management of patients with infectious spondylitis.
  49. Korovessis P, Petsinis G, Koureas G, Iliopoulos P, Zacharatos S. Anterior surgery with insertion of titanium mesh cage and posterior instrumented fusion performed sequentially on the same day under one anesthesia for septic spondylitis of thoracolumbar spine: is the use of titanium mesh cages safe?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1014-9 pubmed
    ..Retrospective study...
  50. Bodur H, Erbay A, Colpan A, Akinci E. Brucellar spondylitis. Rheumatol Int. 2004;24:221-6 pubmed
    ..out a prospective analysis of 86 patients with brucellosis, and 26 (30%) cases were diagnosed as brucellar spondylitis. Two patients had cervical involvement, two thoracic, and 21 lumbosacral as seen in MRI...
  51. Sudo H, Hisada Y, Ito M, Kotaki H, Minami A. Burkholderia pickettii spondylitis. Spinal Cord. 2005;43:499-502 pubmed
    Case report describing Burkholderia pickettii spondylitis in a healthy adult.
  52. Bayindir Y, Sonmez E, Aladag A, Buyukberber N. Comparison of five antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of brucellar spondylitis: a prospective, randomized study. J Chemother. 2003;15:466-71 pubmed
    ..The best antimicrobial combination and schedule for the treatment of brucellosis with spondylitis has not yet been clearly determined...
  53. Currie S, Galea Soler S, Barron D, Chandramohan M, Groves C. MRI characteristics of tuberculous spondylitis. Clin Radiol. 2011;66:778-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Spondylitis is the most common osseous manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Although treatable, it continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity...
  54. Tsuji Y, Okita Y, Niwaya K, Tsukube T, Doita M, Marui T, et al. Allograft replacement of common iliac artery mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides fragilis vertebral spondylitis--a case report. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2003;37:441-4 pubmed
    Mycotic aneurysm secondary to vertebral spondylitis is a rare but life-threatening pathology with high mortality and morbidity...
  55. Fu T, Yang S, Tsai T, Chen L, Lai P, Niu C, et al. Percutaneous endoscopic debridement and drainage in immunocompromised patients with complicated infectious spondylitis. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2010;19:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not clear whether PEDD can be effective in treating cases of complicated infectious spondylitis with significant abscess formation or vertebral destruction...
  56. Pintado García V. [Infectious spondylitis]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2008;26:510-7 pubmed
    ..aureus is the most frequent form of the disease, but tuberculosis and brucellosis are still common causes of spondylitis in Spain. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and the diagnosis is often delayed...
  57. Yang S, Fu T, Chen L, Niu C, Lai P, Chen W. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage for infectious spondylitis. Int Orthop. 2007;31:367-73 pubmed
    Fifteen patients with infectious spondylitis were treated by percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage (PEDD) and associated appropriate parenteral antibiotics...
  58. Zanolari P, Konar M, Tomek A, Hoby S, Meylan M. Paraparesis in an adult alpaca with discospondylitis. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1256-60 pubmed
  59. Yilmaz M, Mete B, Kantarci F, Ozaras R, Ozer H, Mert A, et al. Tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spondylitis: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings and assessment of its value. South Med J. 2007;100:613-4 pubmed