puerperal infection


Summary: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.

Top Publications

  1. Maharaj D. Puerperal pyrexia: a review. Part I. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62:393-9 pubmed
    ..review provides background information and definitions, discusses the incidence and risk factors, explains the microbiology and pathophysiology of various infections, and delineates the signs and symptoms of major puerperal infection.
  2. Sheldon I, Rycroft A, Zhou C. Association between postpartum pyrexia and uterine bacterial infection in dairy cattle. Vet Rec. 2004;154:289-93 pubmed
    ..05). Although pyrexia is an indicator of postpartum inflammation, additional clinical signs are necessary to identify uterine bacterial infection...
  3. Alekwe L, Kuti O, Orji E, Ogunniyi S. Comparison of ceftriaxone versus triple drug regimen in the prevention of cesarean section infectious morbidities. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21:638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the effectiveness of single dose ceftriaxone versus multiple doses of ampiclox, gentamicin, and metronidazole to prevent infectious morbidity at elective cesarean section...
  4. Kayihura V, Osman N, Bugalho A, Bergstrom S. Choice of antibiotics for infection prophylaxis in emergency cesarean sections in low-income countries: a cost-benefit study in Mozambique. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:636-41 pubmed
    ..There is a need to assess the cost-benefit of different models of antibiotic administration for the prevention of post cesarean infection, particularly in resource-scarce settings...
  5. Kankuri E, Kurki T, Carlson P, Hiilesmaa V. Incidence, treatment and outcome of peripartum sepsis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:730-5 pubmed
    ..In 43 483 deliveries during 1990-98, laboratory-confirmed bacteremia was found in 41 (5.1%) out of 798 clinically suspected septic infections...
  6. Winani S, Wood S, Coffey P, Chirwa T, Mosha F, Changalucha J. Use of a clean delivery kit and factors associated with cord infection and puerperal sepsis in Mwanza, Tanzania. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52:37-43 pubmed
  7. Sheldon I, Williams E, Miller A, Nash D, Herath S. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Vet J. 2008;176:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacteria modulate endometrial prostaglandin secretion, and perturb ovarian follicle growth and function. Understanding the molecular basis of uterine disease will lead to novel approaches to treating infertility...
  8. Tita A, Rouse D, Blackwell S, Saade G, Spong C, Andrews W. Emerging concepts in antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the current status of antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery, emerging strategies to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing postcesarean infection, and the implications of the emerging practices...
  9. van Dillen J, Zwart J, Schutte J, van Roosmalen J. Maternal sepsis: epidemiology, etiology and outcome. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity related to sepsis. In this review, we focus on new findings concerning epidemiology, etiology and outcome of maternal sepsis in low-income as well as high-income countries...

More Information

Publications132 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jeremejeva J, Orro T, Valdmann M, Kask K. Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:41 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups...
  2. Wittrock J, Proudfoot K, Weary D, von Keyserlingk M. Short communication: Metritis affects milk production and cull rate of Holstein multiparous and primiparous dairy cows differently. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:2408-12 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences were found in any measurement between primiparous cows with and without metritis. These results indicate that metritis in early lactation has long-term effects on multiparous cows but not primiparous cows...
  3. Newton E, Wallace P. Effects of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial flora in women with postcesarean endometritis. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:262-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial and endocervical microflora upon diagnosis of postcesarean endometritis...
  4. Ejlertsen T, Prag J, Pettersson E, Holmskov A. A 7-month outbreak of relapsing postpartum group A streptococcal infections linked to a nurse with atopic dermatitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:734-7 pubmed
    ..Eradication of GAS should be confirmed after completion of treatment...
  5. Yokoe D, Christiansen C, Johnson R, Sands K, Livingston J, Shtatland E, et al. Epidemiology of and surveillance for postpartum infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:837-41 pubmed
    ..Use of automated information routinely collected by HMOs and insurers allows efficient identification of postpartum infections not detected by conventional surveillance...
  6. Williams E, Fischer D, Pfeiffer D, England G, Noakes D, Dobson H, et al. Clinical evaluation of postpartum vaginal mucus reflects uterine bacterial infection and the immune response in cattle. Theriogenology. 2005;63:102-17 pubmed
    ..001), but did not differ significantly between vaginal mucus character scores. The evaluation of the character and odour of vaginal mucus reflects the number of bacteria in the uterus, and the acute phase protein response...
  7. Sheldon I, Lewis G, LeBlanc S, Gilbert R. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology. 2006;65:1516-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have suggested definitions for common postpartum uterine diseases, which can be readily adopted by researchers and veterinarians...
  8. Mosha F, Winani S, Wood S, Changalucha J, Ngasalla B. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a clean delivery kit intervention in preventing cord infection and puerperal sepsis among neonates and their mothers in rural Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Tanzan Health Res Bull. 2005;7:185-8 pubmed
    ..In low resource settings where home birth is common and clean delivery supplies are scarce, disposable kits can be made available through health clinics, markets, pharmacies or other channels to help reduce rates of infection...
  9. Foldi J, Kulcsar M, Pécsi A, Huyghe B, De Sa C, Lohuis J, et al. Bacterial complications of postpartum uterine involution in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;96:265-81 pubmed
  10. Sheldon I, Noakes D, Rycroft A, Pfeiffer D, Dobson H. Influence of uterine bacterial contamination after parturition on ovarian dominant follicle selection and follicle growth and function in cattle. Reproduction. 2002;123:837-45 pubmed
  11. Kadoya A, Iikuni Y, Hosaka S, Okada J, Kondo H. [A SLE case with toxic shock syndrome after delivery]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1996;70:1279-83 pubmed
    ..2 g/day of vancomycin was administered and her symptoms improved. As observed in this case, it is important to consider TSS as one of the complications seen with SLE patients after delivery. ..
  12. Ghani N, Rukanuddin R, Ali T. Prevalence and factors associated with postpartum vaginal infection in the Khyber Agency federally administered tribal areas, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007;57:363-7 pubmed
  13. Morantz C. ACOG releases guidelines for prophylactic antibiotic use in labor and delivery. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:740 pubmed
  14. Silva G, Monteiro F, Mota R, Paiva J, Correia J, Bezerra Filho J, et al. Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in obstetric patients: a series of 55 cases in Brazil. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..RIFLE criteria seem to have association with mortality. There are important factors associated with oliguria and death, which must be prompt recognized to the institution of adequate therapeutic measures. ..
  15. Canisso I, Stewart J, Coutinho da Silva M. Endometritis: Managing Persistent Post-Breeding Endometritis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2016;32:465-480 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these mares are considered subfertile but acceptable pregnancy and foaling rates can be achieved with appropriate breeding management. ..
  16. Mercer B. Preterm premature rupture of the membranes: diagnosis and management. Clin Perinatol. 2004;31:765-82, vi pubmed
  17. Dunn P. Ignac Semmelweis (1818-1865) of Budapest and the prevention of puerperal fever. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90:F345-8 pubmed
    ..Although his findings were hailed by some as comparable to Jenner's introduction of vaccination, for various reasons his ideas failed to gain general acceptance until after his death. ..
  18. Palep Singh M, Jayaprakasan J, Hopkisson J. Peripartum group A streptococcal sepsis: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:977-8 pubmed
    ..Radical surgical intervention improved the condition. A GAS uterine infection should be suspected at an early stage in cases of puerperal pyrexis that do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. ..
  19. Carroll G, Platell C. A case of splenic abscess in the postpartum period. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;42:562-4 pubmed
  20. Mikamo H, Ninomiya M, Sawamura H, Tamaya T. Puerperal intrauterine infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda. J Infect Chemother. 2003;9:341-3 pubmed
    ..The patient complained of high fever, lower abdominal pain, and increasing amounts of malodorous genital discharge; these signs and symptoms responded well to intravenous antimicrobial chemotherapy. ..
  21. Morhason Bello I, Oladokun A, Adedokun B, Obisesan K, Ojengbede O, Okuyemi O. Determinants of post-caesarean wound infection at the University College Hospital Ibadan Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2009;12:1-5 pubmed
    ..Women with lower educational status are more at risk in this study. Therefore, these women need special attention to reduce the risk. ..
  22. Reveiz L, Gaitán H, Cuervo L. Enemas during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD000330 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings speak against the routine use of enemas during labour, therefore, such practice should be discouraged. ..
  23. Reveiz L, Gaitán H, Cuervo L. Enemas during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD000330 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings speak against the routine use of enemas during labour, therefore, such practice should be discouraged. ..
  24. Miranda C M, Navarrete T L. [Semmelweis and his outstanding contribution to medicine: washing hands saves lives]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2008;25:54-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes biographical data of this revolutionary physician and the circumstances of his strange death based on information not often revealed. ..
  25. Miller A, Morgan C, Vyankandondera J. Causes of puerperal and neonatal sepsis in resource-constrained settings and advocacy for an integrated community-based postnatal approach. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;123:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is required to address acceptability, feasibility, and impact of community-based presumptive treatment. ..
  26. Kobayashi N, Ahmed S, Sumi A, Urushibara N, Kawaguchiya M, Aung M. Collaborative Research on Puerperal Infections in Bangladesh. Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2017;72:106-111 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we present our recent experience and outcomes of collaborative research on puerperal infection (PI), which is a poorly defined infectious disease in Bangladesh...
  27. Gallup D, Freedman M, Meguiar R, Freedman S, Nolan T. Necrotizing fasciitis in gynecologic and obstetric patients: a surgical emergency. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:305-10; idscussion 310-1 pubmed
    ..Radiographic studies are often diagnostic of this condition. The triad of pelvic pain, edema, and any sign of septicemia carries an extremely grave prognosis and mandates immediate surgical intervention. ..
  28. Stek A, Mirochnick M, Capparelli E, Best B, Hu C, Burchett S, et al. Reduced lopinavir exposure during pregnancy. AIDS. 2006;20:1931-9 pubmed
    ..Small amounts of lopinavir cross the placenta. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and effectiveness of increased LPV/r dosing during the third trimester of pregnancy should be investigated. ..
  29. Horton R. What will it take to stop maternal deaths?. Lancet. 2009;374:1400-2 pubmed publisher
  30. Lippi D. The strange destiny of Caterina de' Medici and a case of puerperal fever in the sixteenth century. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:650-1 pubmed publisher
    ..The description of the case provides interesting points of contact with modern medicine. ..
  31. Hamilton S, Stevens D, Bryant A. Pregnancy-related group a streptococcal infections: temporal relationships between bacterial acquisition, infection onset, clinical findings, and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to further explore the source of GAS, the specific M types involved, and the pathogenesis of these pregnancy-related infections to generate novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. ..
  32. Shipp T, Zelop C, Cohen A, Repke J, Lieberman E. Post-cesarean delivery fever and uterine rupture in a subsequent trial of labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:136-9 pubmed
    ..0, 95% confidence interval 1.0, 15.5. Postpartum fever after cesarean delivery is associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture during a subsequent trial of labor. ..
  33. Singh N, Perfect J. Immune reconstitution syndrome and exacerbation of infections after pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1192-9 pubmed
  34. Declercq E, Barger M, Cabral H, Evans S, Kotelchuck M, Simon C, et al. Maternal outcomes associated with planned primary cesarean births compared with planned vaginal births. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:669-77 pubmed
    ..3 days to 2.4 days). Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk for maternal rehospitalization after cesarean deliveries to low-risk mothers when counseling women about their choices. II. ..
  35. Noakes T, Borresen J, Hew Butler T, Lambert M, Jordaan E. Semmelweis and the aetiology of puerperal sepsis 160 years on: an historical review. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1-9 pubmed
    ..This statistical analysis supports Semmelweis's hypothesis that 'the cadaveric particles adhering to the hand had ... caused the preponderant mortality in the first Clinic'. ..
  36. SHELTON D. Man-midwifery history: 1730-1930. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32:718-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Any continuing endorsement of Smellie and Hunter effectively demeans the high ethical standards and reputation of current obstetric professionals. ..
  37. Frich J. Medicine and the arts. Semmelweis [excerpt] by Jens Bjørneboe. Commentary. Acad Med. 2002;77:1108-9 pubmed
  38. de Costa C. "The contagiousness of childbed fever": a short history of puerperal sepsis and its treatment. Med J Aust. 2002;177:668-71 pubmed
  39. Yeh S, Chiu C, Lee C, Peng C, Kuan C, Chow K. Evidence of parvovirus B19 infection in patients of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia with dyserythropoietic anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2004;126:428-33 pubmed
  40. Butt I, Khan S, Butt S, Bhutta S. Frequency and treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetric and gynaecological sepsis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2013;23:708-10 pubmed publisher
    ..It showed best sensitivity to vancomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were common causative agent of postoperative infections and puerperal sepsis. ..
  41. Rosenberg J, Love B, Patterson D. Bacterial cure and somatic cell count response of dairy cows with a positive California Mastitis Test at calving to therapy with cephapirin sodium. Vet Ther. 2002;3:381-6 pubmed
    ..05) fewer positive bacterial cultures and somatic cell counts were significantly (P < or =.05) reduced compared with untreated control quarters. ..
  42. Yagi H, Fukushima K, Satoh S, Nakashima Y, Nozaki M, Nakano H. Postpartum retroperitoneal fasciitis: a case report and review of literature. Am J Perinatol. 2005;22:109-13 pubmed
    ..Iliopsoas fasciitis could be considered when patients complain of extreme pain in the pelvic wall, sacroiliac joint region, or thigh-symptoms that are uncommon in uncomplicated endometritis...
  43. Kulas T, Habek D. Infective puerperal endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli. J Perinat Med. 2006;34:342-3 pubmed
  44. Kakogawa J, Orito S, Masuya N, Sadatsuki M, Gomibuchi H, Minoura S. Postpartum maternal pneumococcal meningitis complicated by endocarditis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90:118-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Maintaining a high clinical suspicion and initiating appropriate diagnostic testing and therapeutic interventions promptly are essential to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis. ..
  45. Bastani P, Pourabolghasem S, Pourabolghase S, Abbasalizadeh F, Motvalli L. Comparison of neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with head-pushing and head-pulling methods for impacted fetal head extraction during cesarean delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..008). Owing to a lower rate of abnormal incision and postpartum fever/infection with the pull method, this technique is preferable to the push method. ..
  46. Suleiman A, Mathews A, Jegasothy R, Ali R, Kandiah N. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:190-3 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, seminars have been organized and training modules have been distributed to all involved in the provision of maternity care. ..
  47. Matsuda Y, Kato H, Yamada R, Okano H, Ohta H, Imanishi K, et al. Early and definitive diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome by detection of marked expansion of T-cell-receptor VBeta2-positive T cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:387-9 pubmed
    ..One case-patient showed atypical symptoms. Our results indicate that diagnostic systems incorporating laboratory techniques are essential for rapid, definitive diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome. ..
  48. Tews G, Ebner T, Apfalter P. Acute postpuerperal necrotizing endomyometritis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;86:39-40 pubmed
  49. Schaap T, Schutte J, Zwart J, Schuitemaker N, van Roosmalen J. Fatal meningitis during pregnancy in the Netherlands: a nationwide confidential enquiry. BJOG. 2012;119:1558-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and immediate antibiotic treatment are imperative because of rapid deterioration in pregnant women. In case of doubt, the threshold for antibiotic treatment should be low and close monitoring is warranted. ..
  50. Bailit J, Grobman W, Rice M, Spong C, Wapner R, Varner M, et al. Risk-adjusted models for adverse obstetric outcomes and variation in risk-adjusted outcomes across hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:446.e1-446.e30 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. ..
  51. Liabsuetrakul T, Choobun T, Peeyananjarassri K, Islam Q. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD004455 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research on antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery is needed to conclude whether it is useful for reducing postpartum morbidity. ..
  52. Graham E. Erythromycin. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1992;19:539-49 pubmed
    ..Its uses include the treatment of respiratory tract infections, chlamydial and other genital tract infections in pregnancy, puerperal mastitis, and acute conjunctivitis of the newborn...
  53. Seals R, Wulster Radcliffe M, Lewis G. Modulation of the uterine response to infectious bacteria in postpartum ewes. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2002;47:57-63 pubmed
    ..In vitro PGE, treatment suppressed lymphocyte proliferation, regardless of PROG, and highlights a progesterone-independent level of regulation of uterine immune function. ..
  54. Graham W, Hussein J. The right to count. Lancet. 2004;363:67-8 pubmed
  55. Hashimoto M, Nogaki F, Oida E, Tanaka M, Ito Ihara T, Nomura K, et al. Glomerulonephritis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection that progressed during puerperal period. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2007;11:92-6 pubmed
    ..This case showed that the delivery procedure can cause MRSA nephritis after MRSA infection, and that steroid therapy should be avoided in the early phase of this type of nephritis. ..
  56. Asch D, Nicholson S, Srinivas S, Herrin J, Epstein A. Evaluating obstetrical residency programs using patient outcomes. JAMA. 2009;302:1277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These rankings are stable across individual types of complications and are not associated with residents' licensing examination scores. ..
  57. Starlander G, Lytsy B, Melhus A. Lack of hygiene routines among patients and family members at patient hotels--a possible route for transmitting puerperal fever. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:554-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes a minor outbreak of a group A Streptococcus strain in 2 newly delivered mothers and their newborn babies at a patient hotel. ..
  58. Rechlin D, Wolf M, Koeniger W. [Value of the preventive use of antibiotics following vaginal obstetric operations]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1988;110:570-4 pubmed
    ..In obstetrics this prophylaxis is indicated only in delivery by caesarean section as a perioperative short-time prophylaxis. ..
  59. Stefonek K, Maerz L, Nielsen M, Besser R, Cieslak P. Group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis preceded by positive surveillance cultures. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:846-8 pubmed
    ..The acute sepsis isolates were both M-type 28, but pulsed-field gel electrophoresis determined that the strains were unrelated. Finding group A streptococci on prenatal culture may presage serious postpartum infection. ..
  60. Manakova E, Hubickova Heringova L. [Vaginal and postpregnancy inflamations, risks of their treatment for fetus]. Ceska Gynekol. 2008;73:294-7 pubmed
    ..For the treatment, we have to take in consideration the age of pregnancy and we should use the drugs, that are safe during this period. It is necessary always to compare risks resulting from disorder and from drugs used. ..
  61. Matsubara S, Saito Y, Shimada K, Morisawa Y, Toshima M, Fujita A, et al. Non-surgical management of post-cesarean uterine infection with marked myometrial gas formation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:1240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case suggests that surgical procedure may not always be necessary for post-cesarean gas-forming uterine infection and CT may be useful to detect/follow this condition. ..
  62. Poulsen K, Pillers D, Conway J, Faith N, Czuprynski C. Post-parturient shedding of Listeria monocytogenes in breast milk of infected mice. [corrected]. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013;6:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study clearly show that L. monocytogenes is shed in vaginal secretions and disseminates to the mammary chain, from which it can be shed in the milk of peri-parturient mice. ..
  63. Visser G, Direnzo G. Antenatal corticosteroids for preterm births in resource-limited settings. Lancet. 2015;385:1943-4 pubmed publisher
  64. Roberts R, Bell H, Wall E, Moy J, Hess G, Bower H. Trial of labor or repeated cesarean section. The woman's choice. Arch Fam Med. 1997;6:120-5 pubmed
    ..Costs were 1.7 to 2.4 times greater for ERCS. A woman should be given information on both delivery methods and encouraged to undergo TOL, but her preference for ERCS should be respected. ..
  65. Segel S, Miles A, Clothier B, Parry S, Macones G. Duration of antibiotic therapy after preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:799-802 pubmed
    ..In patients with PPROM, length of antibiotic therapy does not change the rate of a 7-day latency or affect the rate of chorioamnionitis, postpartum endometritis, or neonatal morbidity. ..
  66. Tita A, Hauth J, Grimes A, Owen J, Stamm A, Andrews W. Decreasing incidence of postcesarean endometritis with extended-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Extended-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis involving the addition of azithromycin to standard narrow-spectrum prophylaxis was associated with a significant reduction in postcesarean endometritis. II. ..
  67. Friday O, Edoja O, Osasu A, Chinenye N, Cyril M, Lovney K, et al. Assessment of infection control practices in maternity units in Southern Nigeria. Int J Qual Health Care. 2012;24:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, little is known about the background hospital factors that predispose pregnant women to puerperal infection that leads to mortality...
  68. Giuliodori M, Magnasco R, Becu Villalobos D, Lacau Mengido I, Risco C, de la Sota R. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:3621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the likelihood for having a normal VD (indicative of cure) increased 2.6% for every day of increase in postpartum time and was 2 times higher for cows with clinical metritis than for those with puerperal metritis...
  69. Grover A, Anand I, Varma J, Choudhury R, Khattri H, Sapru R, et al. Profile of right-sided endocarditis: an Indian experience. Int J Cardiol. 1991;33:83-8 pubmed
    ..No drug addict with right-sided infective endocarditis was seen; puerperal sepsis and septic abortion were the commonest causes of isolated right-sided infective endocarditis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  70. Matheson I, Samseth M, Sande H. Ampicillin in breast milk during puerperal infections. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;34:657-9 pubmed
    ..05-0.37% of the dose/kg given to the mother. It is concluded that direct exposure of the breast-fed infant suckling from a mother under treatment with ampicillin or pivampicillin seems to be minimal. ..
  71. Fujiwara Y, Endo S. [A case of toxic shock syndrome secondary to mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2001;75:898-903 pubmed
    ..Also immunoglobulin G against TSST-1 was not detected from her sera both on admission and on discharge, which suggested that the patient belongs to the high risk group of TSS recurrence. ..
  72. Malavaud S, Bou Segonds E, Berrebi A, Castagno R, Assouline C, Connan L. [Determination of nosocomial infection incidence in mothers and newborns during the early postpartum period]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2003;32:169-74 pubmed
    ..2 to 4% in newborns. Regular surveys of the incidence or the prevalence of nosocomial infections are necessary to monitor the effectiveness of educational programs, aimed to reduce hospital acquired infections. ..
  73. Tran S, Caughey A, Musci T. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with puerperal infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:746-50 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with puerperal infection and whether the quality of the meconium is further associated with this risk...
  74. Thoeni A, Zech N, Moroder L, Ploner F. Review of 1600 water births. Does water birth increase the risk of neonatal infection?. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;17:357-61 pubmed
    ..If women are selected appropriately and hygiene rules are respected, water birth appears to be safe for both the mother and neonate. ..
  75. Kourtis A, Bansil P, McPheeters M, Meikle S, Posner S, Jamieson D. Hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the USA prior to and during the era of HAART, 1994-2003. AIDS. 2006;20:1823-31 pubmed
    ..The increase in gestational diabetes among HIV-infected women may be associated, in part, with antiretroviral therapy and merits further attention. ..
  76. Laurenti R, Jorge M, Gotlieb S. [Deaths due to infectious diseases in women: occurrences in pregnancy and puerperium]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2009;55:64-9 pubmed
  77. Faro S, Faro J. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections in obstetric and gynecologic patients. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;55:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Only aggressive surgical management in combination with broad-spectrum antibiotics will offer a chance at improving patient outcomes. ..
  78. Sannmann I, Burfeind O, Voigtsberger R, Heuwieser W. Comparison of two monitoring and treatment strategies for cows with acute puerperal metritis. Theriogenology. 2013;79:961-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These cows did not show signs of APM during the following 5 days. Therefore, these animals were considered as self-recovered leading to a cure rate of at least 21.8% (12 of 55 cows). ..
  79. Sam I, Ng P. Post-partum toxic shock syndrome due to an unexpected source. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22:556 pubmed
  80. Siddiqui M, Goldszmidt E, Fallah S, Kingdom J, Windrim R, Carvalho J. Complications of exteriorized compared with in situ uterine repair at cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:570-5 pubmed
    ..Uterine repair should be done in situ where possible. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00452972 I. ..
  81. Kaan J, van Dijk Y, Mascini E, van Kessel R, Schellekens J. [A midwife involved in patients with puerperal fever in three different hospitals]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:2245-8 pubmed
    ..Only then can a common source be looked for and the epidemic contained...
  82. Hirsch H, Niehues U. [Maternal morbidity following cesarean section: effect of infection control and preventive use of antibiotics]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1988;48:1-7 pubmed
    ..3% to 9.0%, and in the case of secondary section from 15.1% to 8.2%; feverish standard morbidity decreased from 9.1% to 3.5% and from 9.4% to 4.9%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  83. Hartmann K, Barrett K, Reid V, McMahon M, Miller W. Clinical usefulness of white blood cell count after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:295-300 pubmed
    ..To examine changes in white blood cell (WBC) count after cesarean and estimate risk of postoperative infection...
  84. Lewis G. Role of ovarian progesterone and potential role of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2 in modulating the uterine response to infectious bacteria in postpartum ewes. J Anim Sci. 2003;81:285-93 pubmed
    ..This model creates opportunities to determine the mechanisms responsible for the shift from resistance to susceptible...
  85. French L. Prevention and treatment of postpartum endometritis. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2003;3:274-9 pubmed
    ..Prolonged fever of undetermined etiology is not uncommon and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy, with or without heparin...
  86. Grant G, Grant A, Lockwood C. Simpson, Semmelweis, and transformational change. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:384-7 pubmed
  87. Ali T, Fikree F, Rahbar M, Mahmud S. Frequency and determinants of vaginal infection in postpartum period: a cross-sectional survey from low socioeconomic settlements, Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006;56:99-103 pubmed
    ..To determine the frequency and factors associated with perceived vaginal infections among married women in their postpartum period...
  88. Bansil P, Jamieson D, Posner S, Kourtis A. Hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007;16:159-62 pubmed
    ..HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States in the era of HAART remain at higher risk for several morbidities and adverse obstetrical outcomes than uninfected women...
  89. Loudon I. An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection. J R Soc Med. 2007;100:195-8 pubmed
  90. Al Rawi S, Woodward L, Knight J. Puerperal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome treated with recombinant human activated protein C and intravenous immunoglobulin. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2009;18:169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant human activated protein C and intravenous immunoglobulin were used; subsequently heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and pulmonary embolus also required treatment...
  91. Lamy C, Zuily S, Perdriolle E, Gauchotte E, Villeroy de Galhau S, Delaporte M, et al. [Management of post-partum infections]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2012;41:886-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibioprophylaxy (mostly cephalosporins) is recommended in cases of cesarean section (at skin incision), while it is debated in case of assisted delivery or of 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears...
  92. Paerregaard A, Gutschik E. Capnocytophaga bacteremia complicating premature delivery by cesarean section. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987;6:580-1 pubmed
    ..The patient, a 30 year old woman without immunological incompetence or other predisposing disease, responded to peroral pivmecillinam. Capnocytophaga spp. should be considered a possible cause of post-partum endometritis...