fungal eye infections

Summary

Summary: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang S, Ahearn D, Noble Wang J, Stulting R, Schwam B, Simmons R, et al. Growth and survival of Fusarium solani-F. oxysporum complex on stressed multipurpose contact lens care solution films on plastic surfaces in situ and in vitro. Cornea. 2006;25:1210-6 pubmed
    ..To analyze factors implicating the association of ReNu with MoistureLoc (ReNu ML) multipurpose contact lens solution (MPS) with the increased incidence of Fusarium keratitis...
  2. Dyavaiah M, Ramani R, Chu D, Ritterband D, Shah M, Samsonoff W, et al. Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State. BMC Ophthalmol. 2007;7:1 pubmed
    ..To characterize Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in contact lens wearers, and to investigate fungal association with MoistureLoc solution...
  3. Sun R, Jones D, Wilhelmus K. Clinical characteristics and outcome of Candida keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:1043-1045 pubmed
    ..To characterize the clinical features and therapeutic outcome of Candida keratitis...
  4. Srinivasan M, Upadhyay M, Priyadarsini B, Mahalakshmi R, Whitcher J. Corneal ulceration in south-east Asia III: prevention of fungal keratitis at the village level in south India using topical antibiotics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1472-5 pubmed
    ..To determine whether topical antifungal prophylaxis distributed by paid village health workers (VHWs) in south India is necessary after corneal abrasion to prevent fungal keratitis in a population where half of the ulcers are fungal...
  5. Zhang H, Chen H, Niu J, Wang Y, Xie L. Role of adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of Candida albicans keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Innate immunity had been thought to be critical in the pathogenesis and prognosis of fungal keratitis. This study was conducted to determine whether experimental Candida albicans keratitis (CaK) induces an adaptive immune response...
  6. Kramer M, Kramer M, Blau H, Bishara J, Axer Siegel R, Weinberger D. Intravitreal voriconazole for the treatment of endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1184-6 pubmed
    ..To describe the first use of intravitreal voriconazole in a human eye for the treatment of Aspergillus endophthalmitis...
  7. Khor W, Aung T, Saw S, Wong T, Tambyah P, Tan A, et al. An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear in Singapore. JAMA. 2006;295:2867-73 pubmed
    ..Fungal keratitis is a potentially blinding condition that is rarely seen with contact lens wear...
  8. Alfonso E, Cantu Dibildox J, Munir W, Miller D, O Brien T, Karp C, et al. Insurgence of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:941-7 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients who developed keratitis due to Fusarium while wearing nontherapeutic soft contact lenses...
  9. Bernal M, Acharya N, Lietman T, Strauss E, McLeod S, Hwang D. Outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in soft contact lens wearers in San Francisco. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1051-3 pubmed

More Information

Publications74

  1. Ritterband D, Seedor J, Shah M, Koplin R, McCormick S. Fungal keratitis at the new york eye and ear infirmary. Cornea. 2006;25:264-7 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to review the clinical experience at our institution with fungal keratitis during a 16-year period...
  2. O Donnell K, Sarver B, Brandt M, Chang D, Noble Wang J, Park B, et al. Phylogenetic diversity and microsphere array-based genotyping of human pathogenic Fusaria, including isolates from the multistate contact lens-associated U.S. keratitis outbreaks of 2005 and 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2235-48 pubmed
    ..The high degree of phylogenetic diversity represented among the corneal isolates is consistent with multiple sources of contamination...
  3. Ferrer C, Alio J, Rodriguez A, Andreu M, Colom F. Endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium proliferatum. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5372-5 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis was established by classical microbiology and molecular biology methods (PCR and DNA typing). The treatment with local amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole, and topical natamycin was successful...
  4. Yuan X, Mitchell B, Wilhelmus K. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during experimental Candida albicans keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:737-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) during the inception and progression of experimental keratomycosis...
  5. Nicola F. [Non-viral infectious keratitis: predisposing factors, etiologic agents and laboratory diagnosis]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2005;37:229-39 pubmed
  6. Zhang N, O Donnell K, Sutton D, Nalim F, Summerbell R, Padhye A, et al. Members of the Fusarium solani species complex that cause infections in both humans and plants are common in the environment. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2186-90 pubmed
    ..The major finding of this study is that FSSC-associated mycoses of humans and other animals have origins in a broad phylogenetic spectrum, indicating widespread ability to cause infection in this diverse species complex...
  7. Ozbek Z, Kang S, Sivalingam J, Rapuano C, Cohen E, Hammersmith K. Voriconazole in the management of Alternaria keratitis. Cornea. 2006;25:242-4 pubmed
    ..To discuss the role of voriconazole in the management of Alternaria keratitis...
  8. Jhanji V, Sharma N, Mannan R, Titiyal J, Vajpayee R. Management of tunnel fungal infection with voriconazole. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:915-7 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates that topical and oral voriconazole may be used in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of fungal tunnel infections not responding to conventional antifungal therapy...
  9. Sen P, Gopal L, Sen P. Intravitreal voriconazole for drug-resistant fungal endophthalmitis: case series. Retina. 2006;26:935-9 pubmed
    ..To report the efficacy of intravitreal voriconazole...
  10. Scott I, Flynn H, Miller D. Delayed-onset endophthalmitis following cataract surgery caused by Acremonium strictum. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2005;36:506-7 pubmed
    ..Endophthalmitis caused by A. strictum may share clinical features typical of endophthalmitis due to Propionibacterium acnes (such as delayed onset of the infection and white plaque-like material in the capsular bag)...
  11. Jang G, Kim K, Shin W, Lee W. Treatment of candida chorioretinitis with voriconazole. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005;19:73-6 pubmed
    ..We report the first Korean case of candida chorioretinitis successfully treated with the systemic administration of voriconazole...
  12. Sponsel W, Chen N, Dang D, Paris G, Graybill J, Najvar L, et al. Topical voriconazole as a novel treatment for fungal keratitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:262-8 pubmed
    ..Voriconazole was detected in all tissues of treated eyes. Topical voriconazole is effective treatment for P. lilacinus experimental keratitis, and it penetrates more deeply than the corneal tissue...
  13. Bunya V, Hammersmith K, Rapuano C, Ayres B, Cohen E. Topical and oral voriconazole in the treatment of fungal keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:151-3 pubmed
    ..To describe nine patients with fungal keratitis refractory to standard antifungal therapy whose condition was managed with voriconazole...
  14. Lalitha P, Shapiro B, Srinivasan M, Prajna N, Acharya N, Fothergill A, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusarium, Aspergillus, and other filamentous fungi isolated from keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:789-93 pubmed
    ..To characterize the susceptibility of filamentous fungi isolated from keratitis to amphotericin B, natamycin, caspofungin acetate, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole...
  15. Hariprasad S, Mieler W, Lin T, Sponsel W, Graybill J. Voriconazole in the treatment of fungal eye infections: a review of current literature. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:871-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fungal eye infections, while not common in temperate climates, have been notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat, and ..
  16. Godoy P, Cano J, Gene J, Guarro J, Hofling Lima A, Lopes Colombo A. Genotyping of 44 isolates of Fusarium solani, the main agent of fungal keratitis in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4494-7 pubmed
    ..By combining of the results of both techniques, we identified 40 genotypes. Molecular typing revealed a high genomic heterogeneity of the strains of F. solani studied...
  17. Doczi I, Gyetvai T, Kredics L, Nagy E. Involvement of Fusarium spp. in fungal keratitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:773-6 pubmed
    ..Early and accurate diagnosis, coupled with appropriate antifungal therapy, is crucial for improving the chances of complete recovery...
  18. Gopinathan U, Garg P, Fernandes M, Sharma S, Athmanathan S, Rao G. The epidemiological features and laboratory results of fungal keratitis: a 10-year review at a referral eye care center in South India. Cornea. 2002;21:555-9 pubmed
    ..To report the epidemiological features and laboratory results of 1,352 cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in south India...
  19. Bharathi M, Ramakrishnan R, Vasu S, Meenakshi R, Palaniappan R. Epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis. A three-year study. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003;51:315-21 pubmed
    ..To study the epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis seen at a tertiary eye care referral centre in South India...
  20. Thomas P. Current perspectives on ophthalmic mycoses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:730-97 pubmed
  21. Kim J, Perkins S, Harris G. Voriconazole treatment of fungal scleritis and epibulbar abscess resulting from scleral buckle infection. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:735-7 pubmed
  22. Wu T, Wilhelmus K, Mitchell B. Experimental keratomycosis in a mouse model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:210-6 pubmed
    ..To establish a murine model of corneal candidiasis that permits molecular evaluation of fungal adherence and invasion...
  23. Ferrer C, Colom F, Frases S, Mulet E, Abad J, Alio J. Detection and identification of fungal pathogens by PCR and by ITS2 and 5.8S ribosomal DNA typing in ocular infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2873-9 pubmed
    ..Amplification of ITS2/5.8S rDNA and molecular typing shows potential as a rapid technique for identifying fungi in ocular samples...
  24. Garg P, Mahesh S, Bansal A, Gopinathan U, Rao G. Fungal infection of sutureless self-sealing incision for cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:2173-7 pubmed
    ..To report the clinical picture and outcome of fungal infection of self-sealing wounds in cataract surgery...
  25. Manzouri B, Vafidis G, Wyse R. Pharmacotherapy of fungal eye infections. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001;2:1849-57 pubmed
    b>Fungal eye infections are rare. Trauma associated with contamination by vegetative material, contact lens wear and long term corticosteroid use are common risk factors...
  26. Alexandrakis G, Sears M, Gloor P. Postmortem diagnosis of Fusarium panophthalmitis by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:221-3 pubmed
    ..We undertook this study to determine if a polymerase chain reaction-based test that we developed for the filamentary fungus, Fusarium, could be used to detect the organism in postmortem ocular tissues...
  27. Garg P, Gopinathan U, Choudhary K, Rao G. Keratomycosis: clinical and microbiologic experience with dematiaceous fungi. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:574-80 pubmed
    ..To assess the significance of dematiaceous fungi in the causation of keratomycosis...
  28. Leck A, Thomas P, Hagan M, Kaliamurthy J, Ackuaku E, John M, et al. Aetiology of suppurative corneal ulcers in Ghana and south India, and epidemiology of fungal keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1211-5 pubmed
    ..A multicentre study was carried out in Ghana and southern India to determine the aetiology of suppurative keratitis in two regions located at similar tropical latitudes. Studies of fungal keratitis from the literature were reviewed...
  29. Shah K, Wu T, Wilhelmus K, Jones D. Activity of voriconazole against corneal isolates of Scedosporium apiospermum. Cornea. 2003;22:33-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, a new triazole, compared with other polyene and imidazole antifungal agents against corneal isolates of Scedosporium apiospermum...
  30. Thomas P. Fungal infections of the cornea. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:852-62 pubmed
    ..To describe key aspects of fungal infections of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical regions...
  31. Vemuganti G, Garg P, Gopinathan U, Naduvilath T, John R, Buddi R, et al. Evaluation of agent and host factors in progression of mycotic keratitis: A histologic and microbiologic study of 167 corneal buttons. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1538-46 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the host and agent factors in the progression of mycotic keratitis through the microbiologic evaluation and histologic study of human corneal buttons obtained at the time of therapeutic keratoplasty...
  32. Sun X, Zhang Y, Li R, Wang Z, Luo S, Jin X, et al. Etiological analysis on ocular fungal infection in the period of 1989 - 2000. Chin Med J (Engl). 2004;117:598-600 pubmed
    ..This study was to review the distribution and shifting trend of fungal of culture specimens isolated from eyes of patients at the Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China...
  33. Kumar M, Shukla P. Use of PCR targeting of internal transcribed spacer regions and single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis of sequence variation in different regions of rrna genes in fungi for rapid diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:662-8 pubmed
  34. Anderson K, Mitra S, Salouti R, Pham T, Taylor H. Fungal keratitis caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus associated with a retained intracorneal hair. Cornea. 2004;23:516-21 pubmed
    ..To report a case of fungal keratitis caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus) associated with a retained intracorneal hair...
  35. Schreiber W, Olbrisch A, Vorwerk C, König W, Behrens Baumann W. Combined topical fluconazole and corticosteroid treatment for experimental Candida albicans keratomycosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2634-43 pubmed
    ..To determine the most efficient time point and concentration of topical corticosteroids in Candida albicans keratitis treated with fluconazole...
  36. Marangon F, Miller D, Giaconi J, Alfonso E. In vitro investigation of voriconazole susceptibility for keratitis and endophthalmitis fungal pathogens. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:820-5 pubmed
    ..To update the spectrum of ocular fungal isolates and investigate the in vitro efficacy of voriconazole and other antifungals...
  37. Chowdhary A, Singh K. Spectrum of fungal keratitis in North India. Cornea. 2005;24:8-15 pubmed
    ..To report the epidemiologic features and laboratory results of 191 consecutive cases of fungal keratitis presenting to a tertiary level superspecialty teaching hospital of North India...
  38. Anand A, Madhavan H, Neelam V, Lily T. Use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:326-30 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with the conventional mycologic methods in the diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis...
  39. Verma S, Tuft S. Fusarium solani keratitis following LASIK for myopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1190-1 pubmed
  40. Songu M, Unlu H, Gunhan K, Ilker S, Nese N. Orbital exenteration: A dilemma in mucormycosis presented with orbital apex syndrome. Am J Rhinol. 2008;22:98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..v. amphotericin B. ..
  41. Gus P, Bayer M, Matos G, Baes C, Martins M, Vargas Neto J, et al. [Ocular aspergillosis--case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:133-5 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis is established by laboratory tests, but culture can be negative in spite of the classical presentation, making the beginning of treatment difficult. In these cases management starts according to the symptoms. ..
  42. Vengayil S, Panda A, Satpathy G, Nayak N, Ghose S, Patanaik D, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-guided diagnosis of mycotic keratitis: a prospective evaluation of its efficacy and limitations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Barring the potential limitations, PCR remains a promising tool for faster diagnoses of fungal keratitis. ..
  43. Barnes S, Dohlman C, Durand M. Fungal colonization and infection in Boston keratoprosthesis. Cornea. 2007;26:9-15 pubmed
    ..Cleaning or replacing the contact lens on a regular basis and prescribing a short course of topical amphotericin at the first visible signs of fungal colonization may prevent these infections. ..
  44. Donnio A, Van Nuoi D, Catanese M, Desbois N, Ayeboua L, Merle H. Outbreak of keratomycosis attributable to Fusarium solani in the French West Indies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:356-8 pubmed
    ..We are unaware of previous report of this phenomenon and could find no reference to it in a computerized search utilizing MEDLINE. ..
  45. Hussain B, Lynn W, Lightman S. Metastatic endophthalmitis. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2007;68:424-8 pubmed
    ..Delay in diagnosis affects visual prognosis and therefore doctors should be aware of the presenting features of endophthalmitis. Urgent ophthalmic referral is advised as soon as a diagnosis is suspected. ..
  46. Jain V, Maiti A, Shome D, Borse N, Natarajan S. Aspergillus-induced malignant glaucoma. Cornea. 2007;26:762-3 pubmed
    ..This report also highlights that therapeutic keratoplasty with cataract extraction alone may not be sufficient for management of such cases, and a limited pars plana vitrectomy may be needed. ..
  47. Gupta A, Srinivasan R, Kaliaperumal S, Saha I. Post-traumatic fungal endophthalmitis--a prospective study. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:13-7 pubmed
    ..lilacinus, which was sensitive to miconazole. Repeated intravitreal injection may be required to control the infection. The virulence of the organism and the site of injury are the main determinants of final visual outcome. ..
  48. Boveland S, Moore P, Mysore J, Krunkosky T, Dietrich U, Jarrett C, et al. Immunohistochemical study of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -2 in normal, purulonecrotic and fungal infected equine corneas. Vet Ophthalmol. 2010;13:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between MMPs -2 and -9, MIP-2, TIMPs -1 and -2 suggests that these proteins play a specific role in the pathogenesis of equine fungal keratitis. ..
  49. Ren S, Zhang F, Li C, Jia C, Li S, Xi H, et al. Selection of housekeeping genes for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays on the murine cornea. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1076-86 pubmed
    ..In the absence of knowledge about situation-specific HKGs, PPIA and UBC, either alone or in combination with HPRT1 or RPL5, can be employed. ..
  50. Garg P, Chaurasia S, Vaddavalli P, Muralidhar R, Mittal V, Gopinathan U. Microbial keratitis after LASIK. J Refract Surg. 2010;26:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed microbiology work-up will help in definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment. ..
  51. Dahlgren M, Lingappan A, Wilhelmus K. The clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:940-944 pubmed
  52. Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Goto E, Fujishima H, Tsubota K. Successful topical application of a new antifungal agent, micafungin, in the treatment of refractory fungal corneal ulcers: report of three cases and literature review. Cornea. 2005;24:748-53 pubmed
    ..No recurrence of fungal keratitis was observed in any of the cases throughout the follow-up periods. Topical 0.1% MCFG eye drops seem to be an effective and a promising option in the treatment of refractory yeast-related corneal ulcers. ..
  53. Jeng B, Hall G, Schoenfield L, Meisler D. The fusarium keratitis outbreak: not done yet?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:981-3 pubmed
  54. Sadeghi Tari A, Mardani M, Rahnavardi M, Asadi Amoli F, Abedinifar Z. Post-traumatic fatal Nattrassia mangiferae orbital infection. Int Ophthalmol. 2005;26:247-50 pubmed
    ..We report the first case of a fatal N. mangiferae orbital infection following a thorn penetration injury in a patient who also had diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and cirrhosis...
  55. Alvarez Suárez M, Sánchez Tabar L, Viescas Fernández M, Fernández Alvarez M. [Posterior retinal hole secondary to a candida retinitis]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2005;80:421-4 pubmed
    ..Two years later, vitreous traction produced a retinal hole that needed argon laser photocoagulation...
  56. Maung N, Thant C, Srinivasan M, Upadhyay M, Priyadarsini B, Mahalakshmi R, et al. Corneal ulceration in South East Asia. II: a strategy for the prevention of fungal keratitis at the village level in Burma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:968-70 pubmed
  57. Ozturk F, Yavas G, Kusbeci T, Cetinkaya Z, Inan U, Ermis S, et al. Efficacy of topical caspofungin in experimental fusarium keratitis. Cornea. 2007;26:726-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of caspofungin in an experimental rabbit model of Fusarium keratitis and to compare it with amphotericin B...
  58. Jones A, Muhtaseb M. Use of voriconazole in fungal keratitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34:183-4 pubmed publisher
  59. Behrens Baumann W, Muller J. [Diagnostics of fungal infections of the eye and of its adnexa]. Mycoses. 2006;49 Suppl 2:1-8 pubmed
    ..The various types of localisation are different in their symptomatologies, in their risk factors and in their aetiology...
  60. Sugar J. The contact lens/fusarium "outbreak". Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:146 pubmed
  61. Pariseau B, Nehls S, Ogawa G, Sutton D, Wickes B, Romanelli A. Beauveria keratitis and biopesticides: case histories and a random amplification of polymorphic DNA comparison. Cornea. 2010;29:152-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Shpitzer T, Keller N, Wolf M, Goldschmied Reouven A, Bahar G, Bahar I, et al. Seasonal variations in rhino-cerebral Mucor infection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:695-8 pubmed
    ..Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is an uncommon, potentially lethal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised hosts. The seasonal occurrence of ROCM was studied in two of Israel's largest medical centers...
  63. Lalitha P, Prajna N, Kabra A, Mahadevan K, Srinivasan M. Risk factors for treatment outcome in fungal keratitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:526-30 pubmed
    ..To identify risk factors at diagnosis that can serve as prognostic indicators of primary treatment failure in cases of fungal keratitis...
  64. Pagani L, Spoladore G, Mian P, Vedovelli C. Managing Candida endophthalmitis (Recurrent Candida albicans endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised host. Vol. 42[1]). Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:876-7 pubmed
  65. Kim J, Shin H, Song J, Kim H. Infectious keratitis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and yeast simultaneously. Cornea. 2006;25:1234-6 pubmed
    ..To report a case of coinfection of the human cornea by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and yeast...