corneal ulcer

Summary

Summary: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.

Top Publications

  1. Adrean S, Puklin J. Perforated corneal ulcer with subsequent endophthalmitis in a patient with graft-versus-host disease. Cornea. 2007;26:107-8 pubmed
    To describe a case of a perforated corneal ulcer leading to a bacterial endophthalmitis in a patient with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
  2. Agarwal T, Jhanji V, Satpathy G, Nayak N, Chawla B, Tandon R, et al. Moxifloxacin resistance: intrinsic to antibiotic or related to mutation?. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1721-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate and compare the pattern of resistance to topical moxifloxacin of ocular isolates recovered during comparable periods within 2 years...
  3. Kozobolis V, Labiris G, Gkika M, Sideroudi H, Kaloghianni E, Papadopoulou D, et al. UV-A Collagen Cross-Linking Treatment of Bullous Keratopathy Combined With Corneal Ulcer. Cornea. 2010;29:235-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of corneal cross-linking (CXL) in 2 cases of bullous keratopathy combined with corneal ulcer.
  4. Yildiz E, Ailani H, Hammersmith K, Eagle R, Rapuano C, Cohen E. Alternaria and paecilomyces keratitis associated with soft contact lens wear. Cornea. 2010;29:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a series of 5 patients with soft contact lens (SCL) related fungal keratitis caused by unusual organisms diagnosed at the Wills Eye Institute, Cornea Service in 2008...
  5. Itahashi M, Higaki S, Fukuda M, Shimomura Y. Detection and quantification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi using real-time polymerase chain reaction by cycling probe in patients with corneal ulcer. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:535-40 pubmed publisher
    To detect and quantitate the causative pathogens in patients with corneal ulcer using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by cycling probe.
  6. Lee K, Lee H, Kim M. Two cases of corneal ulcer due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in high risk groups. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010;24:240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This report includes descriptions of the characteristic features, antibiotic sensitivities, prevention, and successful treatment with vancomycin-containing eyedrops for MRSA corneal ulcers...
  7. Jhanji V, Naithani P, Lamoureux E, Agarwal T, Sharma N, Vajpayee R. Immunization and nutritional profile of cases with atraumatic microbial keratitis in preschool age group. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:1035-1040.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of protein energy malnutrition and immunization profile in cases of atraumatic microbial keratitis in preschool children...
  8. Ngan N, Chau H. Amniotic membrane transplantation for Mooren's ulcer. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;39:386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the outcome of surgery using amniotic membrane transplantation for Mooren's ulcer...
  9. Zhou Q, Long X, Zhu X. Improved conjunctival transplantation for corneal ulcer. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;35:814-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of pedical conjunctival flap transposition on refractory corneal ulcer.

More Information

Publications79

  1. Blair J, Hodge W, Al Ghamdi S, Balabanian R, Lowcock B, Pan Y, et al. Comparison of antibiotic-only and antibiotic-steroid combination treatment in corneal ulcer patients: double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Can J Ophthalmol. 2011;46:40-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the benefit of early addition of corticosteroids to antibiotics in the treatment of corneal ulcers...
  2. Goh P, Shamala R, Chandamalar S, Tai X. Contact lens--related corneal ulcer: a two-year review. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65 Suppl A:120-3 pubmed
    ..This provides the ability to monitor outbreaks of disease and identify important causative and associated factors of the disease which may be used to reduce future incidence...
  3. Song X, Xu L, Sun S, Zhao J, Xie L. Pediatric microbial keratitis: a tertiary hospital study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the predisposing factors, clinical and microbiologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric microbial keratitis...
  4. Makdoumi K, Mortensen J, Sorkhabi O, Malmvall B, Crafoord S. UVA-riboflavin photochemical therapy of bacterial keratitis: a pilot study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work as to investigate the photochemical interaction used in corneal crosslinking (CXL) as the primary therapy for bacterial keratitis...
  5. Amescua G, Miller D, Alfonso E. What is causing the corneal ulcer? Management strategies for unresponsive corneal ulceration. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These algorithms are based on scientific work and on our empirical clinical experience. The review will also present three different clinical cases of PIK that were managed according to the algorithms presented in this review...
  6. Wong V, Lai T, Chi S, Lam D. Pediatric ocular surface infections: a 5-year review of demographics, clinical features, risk factors, microbiological results, and treatment. Cornea. 2011;30:995-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the clinical and microbiological profiles of pediatric patients with ocular surface infections requiring corneal or conjunctival scraping for diagnosis...
  7. Sorkhabi R, Sedgipoor M, Mahdavifard A. Collagen cross-linking for resistant corneal ulcer. Int Ophthalmol. 2013;33:61-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Corneal ulcer is a devastating corneal disease which is potentially sight-threatening and conventionally is treated by topical antibiotics and in some cases with more invasive procedures such as keratoplasty...
  8. Lalitha P, Prajna N, Oldenburg C, Srinivasan M, Krishnan T, Mascarenhas J, et al. Organism, minimum inhibitory concentration, and outcome in a fungal corneal ulcer clinical trial. Cornea. 2012;31:662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates from fungal keratitis to natamycin and voriconazole and to assess the relationship between organism, MIC, and clinical outcome...
  9. Wada S, Hobo S, Niwa H. Ulcerative keratitis in thoroughbred racehorses in Japan from 1997 to 2008. Vet Ophthalmol. 2010;13:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the number of cases, etiologies, healing times, and results of microbial culture and susceptibility testing of corneal ulcers in thoroughbred racehorses in Japan...
  10. Heinz C, Eckstein A, Steuhl K, Meller D. Amniotic membrane transplantation for reconstruction of corneal ulcer in graves ophthalmopathy. Cornea. 2004;23:524-6 pubmed
    ..Case report. A 40-year-old woman with Graves ophthalmopathy had a corneal ulcer on the left eye refractory to topical treatment and orbital decompression surgery...
  11. Baumeister M, Kuhli Hattenbach C, Luchtenberg M. Corneal ulcer caused by a wooden foreign body in the upper eyelid 6 months after minor injury. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220:397-9 pubmed
    ..Three weeks later, the inflammation recurred and a corneal ulcer developed...
  12. Prajna N, Nirmalan P, Mahalakshmi R, Lalitha P, Srinivasan M. Concurrent use of 5% natamycin and 2% econazole for the management of fungal keratitis. Cornea. 2004;23:793-6 pubmed
    ..Concurrent use of 5% natamycin and 2% econazole does not appear to offer additional benefits over monotherapy with 5% natamycin for the management of fungal keratitis. ..
  13. Parmar P, Salman A, Kalavathy C, Kaliamurthy J, Thomas P, Jesudasan C. Microbial keratitis at extremes of age. Cornea. 2006;25:153-8 pubmed
    ..keratitis and undergoing microbiological workup over a 1-year period were evaluated using a dedicated corneal ulcer protocol...
  14. Kim E, Chidambaram J, Srinivasan M, Lalitha P, Wee D, Lietman T, et al. Prospective comparison of microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:714-23, 723.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical use of the technique is limited by artefactual amplification of nonpathogenic organisms. PCR may be used as an adjunct to culture to identify potential pathogens in microbial keratitis. ..
  15. Kaliamurthy J, Kalavathy C, Ramalingam M, Prasanth D, Jesudasan C, Thomas P. Keratitis due to a coelomycetous fungus: case reports and review of the literature. Cornea. 2004;23:3-12 pubmed
    ..Colletotrichum spp may be more frequent causes of keratitis than previously thought. Keratitis due to Colletotrichum spp frequently responds to medical therapy alone, although surgery may be indicated in a small proportion of patients. ..
  16. Sauer P, Andrew S, Lassaline M, Gelatt K, Denis H. Changes in antibiotic resistance in equine bacterial ulcerative keratitis (1991-2000): 65 horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2003;6:309-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, there is a significant increase in resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to both gentamicin and tobramycin over the same time period. ..
  17. Pham Vang S, Hardten D. Recurrent corneal erosions causing bacterial keratitis. Optometry. 2008;79:505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Infectious presentation should be considered visually threatening and treated immediately and aggressively. Early intervention is important to help avoid severe complications. ..
  18. Dahlgren M, Lingappan A, Wilhelmus K. The clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:940-944 pubmed
  19. Lambiase A, Sacchetti M, Sgrulletta R, Coassin M, Bonini S. Amniotic membrane transplantation associated with conjunctival peritomy in the management of Mooren's ulcer: a case report. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:274-6 pubmed
    ..To report the association of conjunctival peritomy with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) at the limbus with the exclusion of the central cornea in order to preserve visual function in one case of bilateral Mooren's ulcer...
  20. Iseli H, Thiel M, Hafezi F, Kampmeier J, Seiler T. Ultraviolet A/riboflavin corneal cross-linking for infectious keratitis associated with corneal melts. Cornea. 2008;27:590-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Emergency keratoplasty was not necessary in any of the 5 cases presented. CXL is a promising option for treating patients with therapy-refractory infectious keratitis to avoid emergency keratoplasty. ..
  21. Martins S, Combs J, Noguera G, Camacho W, Wittmann P, Walther R, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy of riboflavin/UVA combination (365 nm) in vitro for bacterial and fungal isolates: a potential new treatment for infectious keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3402-8 pubmed publisher
    ..17). CA did not show any GIZ after treatment. Riboflavin/UVA was effective against SA, SE, PA, MRSA, MDRPA, and DRSP, but was ineffective on CA and has the potential for use in treatment of microbial keratitis in the future. ..
  22. Zelefsky J, Srinivasan M, Kundu A, Lietman T, Whitcher J, Wang K, et al. Hookworm infestation as a risk factor for Mooren's ulcer in South India. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:450-3 pubmed
  23. Jhanji V, Sharma N, Mannan R, Titiyal J, Vajpayee R. Management of tunnel fungal infection with voriconazole. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:915-7 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates that topical and oral voriconazole may be used in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of fungal tunnel infections not responding to conventional antifungal therapy...
  24. Bharathi M, Ramakrishnan R, Meenakshi R, Kumar C, Padmavathy S, Mittal S. Ulcerative keratitis associated with contact lens wear. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:64-7 pubmed
    ..43%) isolated from eyes with CL-related keratitis than other bacterial isolates (28.57%) (P<0.001). Microbial contamination of CL storage cases was a great risk for gram-negative bacterial infection among soft CL-wearers. ..
  25. Spelsberg H, Sundmacher R. [Amniotic membrane transplantation and high-dose systemic cyclosporin A (Sandimmun optoral) for Mooren's ulcer]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2007;224:135-9 pubmed
    ..In order to maintain or restore as much visual function as possible, additional amniotic membrane surgery should be performed early enough in the course of the disease. ..
  26. Marangon F, Miller D, Alfonso E. Impact of prior therapy on the recovery and frequency of corneal pathogens. Cornea. 2004;23:158-64 pubmed
    ..To document the impact of prior antibiotic therapy on the recovery of corneal pathogens...
  27. Suzuki M, Usui T, Kinoshita N, Yamagami S, Amano S. A case of sterile corneal perforation after bone marrow transplantation. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:114-6 pubmed
  28. Basak S, Basak S, Mohanta A, Bhowmick A. Epidemiological and microbiological diagnosis of suppurative keratitis in Gangetic West Bengal, eastern India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53:17-22 pubmed
    ..To determine the epidemiological pattern and risk factors involved in suppurative corneal ulceration in Gangetic West Bengal, eastern India, and to identify the specific microbial agents responsible for corneal infections...
  29. Chander J, Singla N, Agnihotri N, Arya S, Deep A. Keratomycosis in and around Chandigarh: a five-year study from a north Indian tertiary care hospital. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:304-6 pubmed
    ..88%). Thus, hyaline filamentous fungi were the most common etiological agents and mechanical trauma with vegetative matter was the most common predisposing factor. Males in age group of 21-50 years were more commonly affected...
  30. Hick S, Demers P, Brunette I, La C, Mabon M, Duchesne B. Amniotic membrane transplantation and fibrin glue in the management of corneal ulcers and perforations: a review of 33 cases. Cornea. 2005;24:369-77 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane in corneal ulcers refractive to conventional treatment and amniotic membrane with fibrin glue in corneal perforations...
  31. McLeod S, Kumar A, Cevallos V, Srinivasan M, Whitcher J. Reliability of transport medium in the laboratory evaluation of corneal ulcers. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:1027-1031 pubmed
    To compare the microbiological yield of corneal ulcer cultures established by direct inoculation of culture media vs indirect inoculation by means of transport medium (Amies without charcoal).
  32. Sandinha T, Zaher S, Roberts F, Devlin H, Dhillon B, Ramaesh K. Superior forniceal conjunctival advancement pedicles (SFCAP) in the management of acute and impending corneal perforations. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:84-9 pubmed
    ..We report a modified conjunctival flap procedure referred to as superior forniceal conjunctival advancement pedicle (SFCAP) in the successful management of corneal perforation and impending corneal perforation...
  33. Grieser E, Tuli S, Chabi A, Schultz S, Downer D. Blueberry eye: acquired total anterior staphyloma after a fungal corneal ulcer. Cornea. 2009;28:231-2 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to report the presentation and management of an acquired total anterior staphyloma that resulted from a fungal corneal ulcer and to discuss its pathogenesis.
  34. Mah Sadorra J, Yavuz S, Najjar D, Laibson P, Rapuano C, Cohen E. Trends in contact lens-related corneal ulcers. Cornea. 2005;24:51-8 pubmed
    ..To analyze the frequency of contact lens-related corneal ulcers and its relationship to the type of contact lens and care...
  35. Parmar P, Salman A, Kalavathy C, Kaliamurthy J, Prasanth D, Thomas P, et al. Comparison of topical gatifloxacin 0.3% and ciprofloxacin 0.3% for the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:282-286 pubmed
    ..To compare the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of bacterial keratitis...
  36. Chowdhary A, Singh K. Spectrum of fungal keratitis in North India. Cornea. 2005;24:8-15 pubmed
    ..To report the epidemiologic features and laboratory results of 191 consecutive cases of fungal keratitis presenting to a tertiary level superspecialty teaching hospital of North India...
  37. Xie L, Zhai H, Zhao J, Sun S, Shi W, Dong X. Antifungal susceptibility for common pathogens of fungal keratitis in Shandong Province, China. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:260-265 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze common pathogens of fungal keratitis and results of antifungal drug sensitivity test in Shandong Province, China and provide guidance for appropriate choice of antifungal drugs in clinic...
  38. Lalitha P, Prajna N, Kabra A, Mahadevan K, Srinivasan M. Risk factors for treatment outcome in fungal keratitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:526-30 pubmed
    ..To identify risk factors at diagnosis that can serve as prognostic indicators of primary treatment failure in cases of fungal keratitis...
  39. Lalitha P, Shapiro B, Srinivasan M, Prajna N, Acharya N, Fothergill A, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusarium, Aspergillus, and other filamentous fungi isolated from keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:789-93 pubmed
    ..To characterize the susceptibility of filamentous fungi isolated from keratitis to amphotericin B, natamycin, caspofungin acetate, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole...
  40. Khodadoust A, Quinter A. Microsurgical approach to the conjunctival flap. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1189-93 pubmed
    ..To describe a microsurgical approach to a selective pedunculated conjunctival flap for the treatment of chronic corneal ulceration with or without corneal perforation, and to present the results of 50 consecutive cases...
  41. Jhanji V, Sharma N, Satpathy G, Titiyal J. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial keratitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1488-9 pubmed
    ..The case highlights the occurrence of keratitis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus that is resistant to treatment with moxifloxacin...
  42. Agarwal P, Roy P, Das A, Banerjee A, Maity P, Banerjee A. Efficacy of topical and systemic itraconazole as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent in mycotic corneal ulcer. A preliminary study. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2001;49:173-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of topical (1%) and systemic itraconazole against common fungi such as Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi that cause mycotic corneal ulcer.
  43. Mitchell B, Wu T, Chong E, Pate J, Wilhelmus K. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in experimental corneal injury and fungal keratitis. Cornea. 2007;26:589-93 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of corneal trauma and immunosuppressive treatment on the expression kinetics of MMP-2 and MMP-9 during experimental keratomycosis...
  44. Vemuganti G, Garg P, Sharma S, Joseph J, Gopinathan U, Singh S. Is microsporidial keratitis an emerging cause of stromal keratitis? A case series study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2005;5:19 pubmed
    ..Microsporidial keratitis is a rare cause of stromal keratitis. We present a series of five cases of microsporidial keratitis from a single centre in southern India with microbiologic and histopathologic features...
  45. Nanbu P, Wakabayashi T, Yamashita R, Hayashi H, Hisano S, Oshika T. Heat treatment enhances healing process of experimental pseudomonas corneal ulcer. Ophthalmic Res. 2004;36:218-25 pubmed
    ..Hyperthermia accelerated the healing process of PCU with increased corneal neovascularization. Angiogenesis may play an important role in the PCU healing process, which is enhanced by the heat treatment...
  46. Singh R, Umapathy T, Abedin A, Eatamadi H, Maharajan S, Dua H. Choroidal detachment in perforated corneal ulcers: frequency and management. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1111-4 pubmed
    To determine the frequency of choroidal detachment (CD) in eyes with non-traumatic corneal ulcer perforation and, also, to assess the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate glue in sealing corneal perforations.
  47. Zhang C, Nie X, Hu D, Liu Y, Deng Z, Dong R, et al. Survival and integration of tissue-engineered corneal stroma in a model of corneal ulcer. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:249-57 pubmed
    ..Allograft, tissue-engineered corneal stroma, or scaffolds were implanted into a model of corneal ulcer. The survival and reconstruction of corneal transplantation were morphologically evaluated by light and ..
  48. Sun S, Wang L, Xu J, Wei Q, Li J. [The clinical and pathogenic characteristics of keratitis caused by Alternaria alternata]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;43:32-5 pubmed
    ..To study the clinical and pathogenic characteristics of keratitis caused by Alternaria alternata and to provide evidence for the diagnose and treatment of mycotic keratitis...
  49. Bharathi M, Ramakrishnan R, Meenakshi R, Mittal S, Shivakumar C, Srinivasan M. Microbiological diagnosis of infective keratitis: comparative evaluation of direct microscopy and culture results. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1271-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram stain, Giemsa stain and Kinyoun's acid-fast stain in the diagnosis of infective keratitis...
  50. McElvanney A. Doxycycline in the management of pseudomonas corneal melting: two case reports and a review of the literature. Eye Contact Lens. 2003;29:258-61 pubmed
    ..Tetracyclines, however, have been shown to have anticollagenolytic activity and inhibit metalloproteinases, and they may suppress connective tissue breakdown...
  51. Stangogiannis Druya E, Stangogiannis Druya C, Naranjo Tackman R, Vanzzini V, Villar Kuri J. [Bacterial corneal ulcer treated with intrastromal antibiotic. Experimental model in vivo]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2009;84:123-32 pubmed
    ..To compare the therapeutic effectiveness of a single intrastromal dose of gentamycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin for the treatment of corneal ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  52. Bernal M, Acharya N, Lietman T, Strauss E, McLeod S, Hwang D. Outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in soft contact lens wearers in San Francisco. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1051-3 pubmed
  53. Hofling Lima A, de Freitas D, Sampaio J, Leao S, Contarini P. In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae causing infectious keratitis after LASIK in Brazil. Cornea. 2005;24:730-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae isolated from outbreaks of infectious keratitis in Brazil...
  54. Alfonso E, Cantu Dibildox J, Munir W, Miller D, O Brien T, Karp C, et al. Insurgence of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:941-7 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients who developed keratitis due to Fusarium while wearing nontherapeutic soft contact lenses...
  55. Ibrahim Y, Boase D, Cree I. Epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors and microbiological profiles of infectious corneal ulcers: the Portsmouth corneal ulcer study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors, and the clinical and microbiological diagnosis of infectious corneal ulcers in a population based in southern England...
  56. Saha R, Das S. Mycological profile of infectious Keratitis from Delhi. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123:159-64 pubmed
  57. Yoon K, Jeong I, Im S, Chae H, Yang S. Therapeutic effect of intracameral amphotericin B injection in the treatment of fungal keratitis. Cornea. 2007;26:814-8 pubmed
    ..To study the therapeutic efficacy of intracameral amphotericin B (ICAMB) injection in the treatment of fungal keratitis...
  58. Solomon R, Donnenfeld E, Azar D, Holland E, Palmon F, Pflugfelder S, et al. Infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: results of an ASCRS survey. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:2001-6 pubmed
    ..Empiric therapy is not recommended as most of the organisms are opportunistic and not responsive to conventional therapy. Flap elevation and culturing should be performed when post-LASIK infectious keratitis is suspected...
  59. Young A, Leung A, Cheng L, Law R, Wong A, Lam D. Orthokeratology lens-related corneal ulcers in children: a case series. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:590-5 pubmed
    ..Although promising results have been described in reducing the myopic refractive error, the use of these lenses can be associated with corneal problems, as reported in this case series...
  60. Srinivasan M, Upadhyay M, Priyadarsini B, Mahalakshmi R, Whitcher J. Corneal ulceration in south-east Asia III: prevention of fungal keratitis at the village level in south India using topical antibiotics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1472-5 pubmed
    ..To determine whether topical antifungal prophylaxis distributed by paid village health workers (VHWs) in south India is necessary after corneal abrasion to prevent fungal keratitis in a population where half of the ulcers are fungal...
  61. McClellan S, Huang X, Barrett R, Lighvani S, Zhang Y, Richiert D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 amplifies the immune response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:256-64 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis...
  62. Fontana L, Parente G, Neri P, Reta M, Tassinari G. Favourable response to infliximab in a case of bilateral refractory Mooren's ulcer. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:871-3 pubmed publisher
  63. Watt K, Swarbrick H. Microbial keratitis in overnight orthokeratology: review of the first 50 cases. Eye Contact Lens. 2005;31:201-8 pubmed
    ..This article analyzes the first 50 cases of MK reported in overnight OK, in order to define the spectrum of the disease and to identify possible risk factors...
  64. Ly C, Pham J, Badenoch P, Bell S, Hawkins G, Rafferty D, et al. Bacteria commonly isolated from keratitis specimens retain antibiotic susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin plus cephalothin. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:44-50 pubmed
  65. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart J, Brian G, et al. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish the absolute risk of contact lens (CL)-related microbial keratitis, the incidence of vision loss and risk factors for disease...
  66. Zhivov A, Stachs O, Kraak R, Guthoff R. [Cellular laser microscopy of corneal ulcer and infiltrate]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Confocal microscopy represents a new tool for the differential diagnostic work-up of pathological processes and provides the possibility for dynamic healing control...
  67. Green M, Apel A, Naduvilath T, Stapleton F. Clinical outcomes of keratitis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:421-6 pubmed
    ..To analyse the patient, clinical and microbiological variables associated with poor outcomes from keratitis in patients presenting to a major public hospital in Australia...
  68. Bharathi J, Srinivasan M, Ramakrishnan R, Meenakshi R, Padmavathy S, Lalitha P. A study of the spectrum of Acanthamoeba keratitis: a three-year study at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:37-42 pubmed
    ..To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Acanthamoeba keratitis and also to determine the sensitivity and specificity of smears in the detection of Acanthamoeba...
  69. Sakimoto T, Shoji J, Sawa M. Active form of gelatinases in tear fluidin patients with corneal ulcer or ocular burn. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:423-6 pubmed
    ..MMP-2] and gelatinase B: matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9]) in ocular surface disorders, we determined the presence of the active form of these gelatinases in the tear fluid of patients with corneal ulcer or ocular burn.
  70. Dart J, Radford C, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1647-54, 1654.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relative risks (RR) of microbial keratitis (MK) for contemporary contact lens (CL) types and wearing schedules...