eye infections


Summary: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.

Top Publications

  1. Labetoulle M, Lautier Frau M, Frau E. [Ocular infections of the elderly]. Presse Med. 2002;31:1521-9 pubmed
    ..The preventive treatment of recurrences requires open dacryocystorhinostomy or via endonasal endoscopy. ..
  2. Daniell M, Mills R, Morlet N. Microbial keratitis: what's the preferred initial therapy?. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1167 pubmed
  3. Van Gelder R. Applications of the polymerase chain reaction to diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;46:248-58 pubmed
    ..The strengths and weaknesses of this diagnostic technique are discussed. Additionally, uses of PCR in linking known pathogens to disease, and to discovering novel pathogens, are addressed...
  4. Marangon F, Miller D, Alfonso E. Impact of prior therapy on the recovery and frequency of corneal pathogens. Cornea. 2004;23:158-64 pubmed
    ..To document the impact of prior antibiotic therapy on the recovery of corneal pathogens...
  5. Chang J, McCluskey P, Wakefield D. Toll-like receptors in ocular immunity and the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory eye disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:103-8 pubmed
  6. Imanaka H, Taenaka N, Nakamura J, Aoyama K, Hosotani H. Ocular surface disorders in the critically ill. Anesth Analg. 1997;85:343-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the critically ill often develop ocular surface disorders, especially when sedated and immobilized. A close relationship was observed between these conditions and the inability to close one's eyes...
  7. Van Gelder R. Cme review: polymerase chain reaction diagnostics for posterior segment disease. Retina. 2003;23:445-52 pubmed
  8. Akpek E, Gottsch J. Immune defense at the ocular surface. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:949-56 pubmed
    ..This article discusses the innate and acquired corneal elements of the immune defense at the ocular surface. The relative roles of the various factors contributing to prevention of eye infection remain to be fully defined...
  9. Westeneng A, Rothova A, De Boer J, de Groot Mijnes J. Infectious uveitis in immunocompromised patients and the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction and Goldmann-Witmer coefficient in aqueous analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:781-5 pubmed
    ..To establish the causes of uveitis in immunocompromised patients and to determine the contribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC) analysis of aqueous humor in patients with an infectious etiology...

More Information

Publications148 found, 100 shown here

  1. Yeung S, Butler A, Mackenzie P. Applications of the polymerase chain reaction in clinical ophthalmology. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to explore the current role of PCR in the diagnosis and management of eye disease...
  2. Oduyebo O, Odugbemi T, Idewu A, Adefule Ositelu A, Aibinu I, Ogunro A. Incidence of postoperative eye infections in a private eye hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2010;20:138-43 pubmed
    There is a dearth of information on postoperative eye infections in Nigeria and most hospitals do not have an infection control program in place.
  3. Wittenberg L, Maberley D, Ma P, Wade N, Gill H, White V. Contribution of vitreous cytology to final clinical diagnosis fifteen-year review of vitreous cytology specimens from one institution. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the contribution of vitreous cytologic evaluation to the diagnosis of clinically undiagnosed vitritis...
  4. Harper T, Miller D, Schiffman J, Davis J. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous and vitreous specimens in the diagnosis of posterior segment infectious uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:140-147.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of intraocular fluid as a test for infectious uveitis of the posterior segment in a representative patient population...
  5. Kasparova E, Fadeeva L, Pavliuk A, Pereverzina O, Kasparov A. [Theoretical validation of local express auto-cytokine therapy]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2002;118:25-7 pubmed
  6. Donnenfeld E, Kim T, Holland E, Azar D, Palmon F, Rubenstein J, et al. ASCRS White Paper: Management of infectious keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:2008-11 pubmed
  7. Wirbelauer C. Management of the red eye for the primary care physician. Am J Med. 2006;119:302-6 pubmed
    ..Although several conditions can be treated by the primary care physician the clinical signs that require an urgent ophthalmic consultation are chemical burns, intraocular infections, globe ruptures or perforations, and acute glaucoma...
  8. Caspari G, Wassill H. Nosocomial virus infections of the eye. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;33:207-9 pubmed
  9. Kasparov A, Kasparova E, Pavliuk A. [Local express auto-cytokine therapy (a complex of cytokines) in the treatment of viral and nonviral eye lesions]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2004;120:29-32 pubmed
  10. Wu P, Li M, Chang S, Teng M, Yow S, Shin S, et al. Risk of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery using different protocols for povidone- iodine preoperative disinfection. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:54-61 pubmed
    ..Preoperative skin disinfection with 10% povidone-iodine and conjunctival disinfection with 5% povidone-iodine significantly reduced the relative risk of postoperative endophthalmitis. ..
  11. Yoshida Y, Yamagishi S, Ueda S, Yoshimura K, Okuda S, Yamakawa R. Aqueous humor levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are positively associated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in patients with uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:93-4 pubmed
    ..05). The results demonstrated that aqueous humor levels of ADMA were positively associated with MCP-1 in humans. Our present observations suggest that aqueous humor levels of ADMA may be a novel biomarker of inflammation in uveitis. ..
  12. St Leger A, Desai J, Drummond R, Kugadas A, Almaghrabi F, Silver P, et al. An Ocular Commensal Protects against Corneal Infection by Driving an Interleukin-17 Response from Mucosal ?? T Cells. Immunity. 2017;47:148-158.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide direct evidence that a resident commensal microbiome exists on the ocular surface and identify the cellular mechanisms underlying its effects on ocular immune homeostasis and host defense. ..
  13. Dana M, Qian Y, Hamrah P. Twenty-five-year panorama of corneal immunology: emerging concepts in the immunopathogenesis of microbial keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, and corneal transplant rejection. Cornea. 2000;19:625-43 pubmed
  14. Pushker N, Dada T, Sony P, Ray M, Agarwal T, Vajpayee R. Microbial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg. 2002;18:280-6 pubmed
    ..The keratitis heals with scarring and a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better can be obtained in the majority of the patients. Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening complication of LASIK. ..
  15. Nivenius E, Montan P, Chryssanthou E, Jung K, van Hage Hamsten M, van der Ploeg I. No apparent association between periocular and ocular microcolonization and the degree of inflammation in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:725-30 pubmed
    ..aureus to on-going inflammation in AKC can be dismissed. ..
  16. Bruinsma G, Rustema Abbing M, van der Mei H, Lakkis C, Busscher H. Resistance to a polyquaternium-1 lens care solution and isoelectric points of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:764-6 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that electrostatic repulsion between cationic molecules on the cell surface and quaternary ammonium compounds impedes the antimicrobial entering the cell. ..
  17. Vargas M, Rodrigues M, Figueiredo J, Souza N. [Ophthalmologic conditions of AIDS patients with long-term follow-up]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:85-9 pubmed
    ..Except for the patients presenting previous retinitis and retinochoroiditis, all the other patients were in good ophthalmic conditions and most of them were in immunologic recovery due to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. ..
  18. Butcko V, McMahon T, Joslin C, Jones L. Microbial keratitis and the role of rub and rinsing. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33:421-3; discussion 424-5 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the literature on whether such a process should be recommended to contact lens wearers...
  19. Abedin A, Mohammed I, Hopkinson A, Dua H. A novel antimicrobial peptide on the ocular surface shows decreased expression in inflammation and infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery will enable the mechanisms behind the intriguing phenomenon of reduced gene expression of an AMP in disease states to be uncovered. ..
  20. Robertson D, Alexander L, Bonanno J, Fleiszig S, McNamara N. Cornea and ocular surface disease: application of cutting-edge optometric research. Optom Vis Sci. 2014;91:S3-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this work provides new insights to clinicians and researchers alike, as well as brings forth a greater appreciation of the impact of ongoing optometric bench research in advancing clinical care. ..
  21. Armstrong R. The microbiology of the eye. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2000;20:429-41 pubmed
  22. DeBacker C. Recurrent anophthalmic socket infections due to leakage of reposited infectious fluid from a microfractured glass orbital implant. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:304-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection within an anophthalmic socket should alert the practitioner to the possibility of sequestered infectious fluid within these types of implant through a fractured breach. ..
  23. Otranto D, Brianti E, Gaglio G, Dantas Torres F, Azzaro S, Giannetto S. Human ocular infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an area endemic for canine dirofilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. ..
  24. Mondal K, Chattopadhyay C, Ray B, Das D, Biswas S, Banerjee P. Corneal ulcer with Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Staphylococcus aureus--a rare case report. J Indian Med Assoc. 2012;110:253-4 pubmed
    ..5% drops. This is a unique case of corneal ulcer with mixed infection of Staphylococcus aureus and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis without any history of trauma, which was treated successfully, resulting in a minimal corneal opacity. ..
  25. Mwanza J, Kayembe D. Uveitis in HIV-infected patients. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2001;11:53-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of HIV infection and to find out the possible causes (associated conditions) of uveitis in HIV-infected patients...
  26. Dohlman C, Dudenhoefer E, Khan B, Morneault S. Protection of the ocular surface after keratoprosthesis surgery: the role of soft contact lenses. CLAO J. 2002;28:72-4 pubmed
    ..They were well tolerated and could remain clean and in place for months. One infection occurred. A soft contact lens can be of considerable protective value to the cornea surrounding a keratoprosthesis. ..
  27. Kannan R, Gukasyan H, Zhang W, Trousdale M, Kim K, Lee V. Impairment of conjunctival glutathione secretion and ion transport by oxidative stress in an adenovirus type 5 ocular infection model of pigmented rabbits. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37:229-38 pubmed
  28. Levinson B, Rutzen A. New antimicrobials in ophthalmology. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2005;18:493-509, v pubmed
    ..Data comparing in vitro susceptibilities and minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics and antifungals are presented in tabular form. ..
  29. Tovilla Canales J, Nava A, Tovilla y Pomar J. Orbital and periorbital infections. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001;12:335-41 pubmed
    ..Orbital infections may spread into the globe, causing endophthalmitis. Some patients may even need an enucleation or evisceration. New materials and techniques may improve the final result of an anophthalmic socket. ..
  30. Rajak S, Paul J, Sharma V, Vickers S. Contamination of disposable tonometer prisms during tonometry. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:358-61 pubmed
    ..The use of disposable prisms for applanation tonometry may reduce the risk of prion transmission but is not bacteriologically or virologically aseptic. This is a potential infection risk to patients. ..
  31. Gupta N, Tandon R. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:209-13 pubmed
    ..Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. ..
  32. Hau S, Dart J, Vesaluoma M, Parmar D, Claerhout I, Bibi K, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of microbial keratitis with in vivo scanning laser confocal microscopy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:982-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Difficulty in distinguishing host cells from pathogenic organisms limits the value of confocal microscopy as a stand-alone tool in diagnosing microbial keratitis. ..
  33. Haq Z, Farooq A, Huang A. Infections after refractive surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As technology and treatment options continue to evolve with further research, we anticipate continued success in the management of postoperative infections after refractive surgery. ..
  34. Jørgensen V, Rosted P. [Foreign bodies in the eye! Too big a challenge for the general practice?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002;164:3222-3; author reply 3223 pubmed
  35. Kobayashi K, Koga T, Oki T, Iwao K, Okumura A, Okinami S. [Cat scratch disease with posterior segment involvement]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2003;107:99-104 pubmed
    ..Anterior uveitis was observed in three eyes. Four patients received systemic corticosteroids. The ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease include neuroretinitis, papillitis, retinochoroidal exudates, and anterior uveitis. ..
  36. Ball J, Barrett G. Prospective randomized controlled trial of the effect of intracameral vancomycin and gentamicin on macular retinal thickness and visual function following cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:789-94 pubmed
    ..Overall, 31% of eyes showed an increase of 15 microm or greater in central retinal thickness. These patients had significantly reduced contrast sensitivity. ..
  37. Rosen E. Safety first. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1669-71 pubmed
  38. Tuli S, Gray M. Surgical management of corneal infections. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27:340-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Several options are available for surgically managing corneal infections. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient's situation. http://links.lww.com/COOP/A20. ..
  39. Liesegang T. Use of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection in patients with cataracts. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001;12:68-74 pubmed
    ..The worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance should temper our approach. Some organizational statements are reviewed, and personal recommendations are offered. Controversy still abounds. ..
  40. Jonas J, Spandau U, Schlichtenbrede F. Short-term complications of intravitreal injections of triamcinolone and bevacizumab. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:590-1 pubmed publisher
    ..15+/-0.05% after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab or triamcinolone, independently of the drug injected. ..
  41. Cronau H, Kankanala R, Mauger T. Diagnosis and management of red eye in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:137-44 pubmed
  42. Tehrani M, Dick H, Daeschlein G, Kramer A. [Microbial keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. Prevention, differential diagnosis, and therapy]. Ophthalmologe. 2005;102:514-9 pubmed
    ..We present a review of the literature on microbial keratitis and present our own cases and recommendations for possible prophylaxis and therapy. ..
  43. Hsu W, Chiou S, Chen S, Shyong M, Ho C, Chen S, et al. The HIV RNA Levels of Plasma and Ocular Fluids in AIDS Patients with Ophthalmic Infections. Ophthalmologica. 2004;218:328-32 pubmed
    ..HIV virus levels in the plasma of AIDS patients were significantly decreased, and the CD4 counts of these patients were significantly increased (Wilcoxon test) after initiation of HAART. ..
  44. Johnston N, Sanderson G. Orbital infection in New Zealand: increased incidence due to socioeconomic deprivation and ethnicity. N Z Med J. 2010;123:50-7 pubmed
    ..6 times the rate of European group. Greater socioeconomic deprivation, and ethnicity was associated with an increased incidence of orbital infection in New Zealand. The reasons why these associations exist are currently not clear. ..
  45. Deibel J, Cowling K. Ocular inflammation and infection. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013;31:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Pain relief may be achieved with oral analgesics and cycloplegics. In most cases, prompt follow-up is required...
  46. Fleiszig S, McNamara N, Evans D. The tear film and defense against infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506:523-30 pubmed
  47. Garweg J, Wanner D, Sarra G, Altwegg M, Loosli H, Kodjikian L, et al. The diagnostic yield of vitrectomy specimen analysis in chronic idiopathic endogenous uveitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:588-94 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to evaluate the impact of recently acquired analytic methods, the authors assessed the current diagnostic yield in CIU...
  48. Hooper C, McCluskey P. Intraocular inflammation: its causes and investigations. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8:331-8 pubmed
    ..In this way, a select few investigations can be performed, rather than a nondirected battery of tests. ..
  49. Kashiwagi K, Saito K, Wang Y, Takahashi H, Ishijima K, Tsukahara S. Safety of ozonated solution as an antiseptic of the ocular surface prior to ophthalmic surgery. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:351-6 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of SPK between two groups was significantly different (p = 0.03). Ozonated solution may be safe and a useful antiseptic of the ocular surface prior to ophthalmic surgery. ..
  50. Das A, Dey A, Agarwal P, Majumdar A, Majumdar S, Chatterjee S. Nosocomial ocular infection--a prospective study. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101:490-2 pubmed
    ..Proper surveillance with the help of laboratory investigations has effective role in the management of nosocomial ocular infection. ..
  51. Lynn W, Lightman S. The eye in systemic infection. Lancet. 2004;364:1439-50 pubmed
    ..Successful outcome for patients with ocular infection depends on close collaboration between clinicians identifying and treating underlying disease, specialist ophthalmic review, and ophthalmic interventional skills (when needed). ..
  52. Flynn H, Scott I, Brod R, Han D. Current management of endophthalmitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2004;44:115-37 pubmed
  53. Sturmer J, Mermoud A, Sunaric Megevand G. [Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C supplemented with cross-linking hyaluronic acid: a pilot study]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010;227:273-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective randomised study is required to confirm these preliminary results. ..
  54. Khairallah M, Kahloun R, Ben Yahia S, Jelliti B, Messaoud R. New infectious etiologies for posterior uveitis. Ophthalmic Res. 2013;49:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza A (H1N1) virus was responsible for a pandemic human influenza in 2009, and was recently associated with various posterior segment changes. ..
  55. Asencio M, Huertas M, Carranza R, Tenias J, Celis J, González del Valle F. A case-control study of post-traumatic endophthalmitis at a Spanish hospital. Int Ophthalmol. 2016;36:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus recommend aggressive prophylactic measures in patients with these risk factors, adding antifungal prophylaxis when the injury is contaminated with vegetable matter. ..
  56. Samira N, Bani A, Susiyanti M. Rare case of bilateral perforated corneal ulcer due to gonococcal infection, managed with temporary periosteal graft. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016: pubmed publisher
    ..The perforations were treated with temporary periosteal grafts. The grafts remained in place after the surgery. Final uncorrected visual acuity was 6/20 in the right eye and 6/24 in the left eye, a few months after surgery. ..
  57. Deschenes J, Seamone C, Baines M. The ocular manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases. Can J Ophthalmol. 1990;25:177-85 pubmed
    ..Current methods of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Neonatal infections associated with sexually transmitted diseases are also reviewed...
  58. Milibak T. [Role of the vitreous body in vitreoretinal diseases]. Orv Hetil. 2003;144:51-7 pubmed
    ..During the last few years better understanding of vitreoretinal disorders and improved diagnostic and therapeutic methods opened a new era of vitreoretinal surgery. ..
  59. Khairallah M, Yahia S, Ladjimi A, Messaoud R, Zaouali S, Attia S, et al. Pattern of uveitis in a referral centre in Tunisia, North Africa. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:33-9 pubmed
    ..4%) suffered from blindness, and 59 (12.5%) from uniocular blindness. In a hospital population in Tunisia, the most common causes of uveitis were Behçet's disease, herpes simplex infection, toxoplasmosis, and VKH disease. ..
  60. Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich M. [Tropical ophthalmology : Intraocular inflammation caused by "new" infectious pathogens and travel-related infections]. Ophthalmologe. 2016;113:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we focus on Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Ebola fever, the West Nile virus and Rickettsioses, which frequently demonstrate ocular involvement. ..
  61. Ng E, Golledge C. The management of common ocular infections. Aust Fam Physician. 1996;25:1831-9 pubmed
    ..This article focuses on the clinical presentation of common infections of the lids, conjunctiva and cornea, with a discussion of relevant therapeutic regimens for each condition...
  62. Molloy M, Bolis S, Herbert B, Ou K, Tyler M, Van Dyk D, et al. Establishment of the human reflex tear two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference map: new proteins of potential diagnostic value. Electrophoresis. 1997;18:2811-5 pubmed
    ..This protein displays strong homology with mammaglobin, a protein overexpressed in breast cancer. The discovery of this homologue in tears offers the potential for disease diagnosis by screening tear fluid proteins. ..
  63. Sony P, Sharma N, Vajpayee R, Ray M. Therapeutic keratoplasty for infectious keratitis: a review of the literature. CLAO J. 2002;28:111-8 pubmed
    ..This review helps to elucidate the various aspects of therapeutic keratoplasty, including indications, preoperative assessment, surgical techniques, postoperative management, complications, and anatomic and functional outcome. ..
  64. Gaur A, Desai S. Postoperative endophthalmitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:2463-4 pubmed
  65. Chibbaro S, Tacconi L. Orbito-cranial injuries caused by penetrating non-missile foreign bodies. Experience with eighteen patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:937-41; discussion 941-2 pubmed
    ..Penetrating non-missile orbito-cranial injuries are uncommon civilian injuries which have some special features. Only limited case-reports are available in the international literature...
  66. Pogorzalek N, de Monchy I, Gendron G, Labetoulle M. [Hypertony and uveitis: 103 cases of uveitis]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2011;34:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases responded rapidly to combined topical steroids/antiglaucomatous therapy. ..
  67. Cope J, Collier S, Nethercut H, Jones J, Yates K, Yoder J. Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Among Adults and Adolescents - United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:841-845 pubmed publisher
    Contact lens-related eye infections, which can lead to serious outcomes, including blindness, are associated with several risk factors, including sleeping in lenses, exposing lenses to water, not adhering to replacement schedules, and ..
  68. Streilein J, Ohta K, Mo J, Taylor A. Ocular immune privilege and the impact of intraocular inflammation. DNA Cell Biol. 2002;21:453-9 pubmed
  69. Kotake S. [Zoonosis and ocular diseases]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2003;107:69-70 pubmed
  70. Vrabec T. Posterior segment manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004;49:131-57 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis and treatment are guided by the particular conditions and immune status of the patient. ..
  71. Tuft S. Polymicrobial infection and the eye. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:257-8 pubmed
  72. Lim G, Chen Y, Liu L, Huang S, Lin K, Hsiao C. Camphor-related self-inflicted keratoconjunctivitis complicating delusions of parasitosis. Cornea. 2006;25:1254-6 pubmed
    ..To report a case of camphor-related self-inflicted keratoconjunctivitis secondary to delusions of parasitosis...
  73. Venkataratnam S, Ganekal S, Dorairaj S, Kolhatkar T, Jhanji V. Big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for post-keratitis and post-traumatic corneal stromal scars. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;40:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). ? Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique is a viable option in cases with post-infectious keratitis and post-traumatic corneal stromal scarring with normal Descemet's membrane and endothelium. ..
  74. Feys J. [Rules and regulations concerning contact lens-related infection]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:420-3 pubmed
    ..Contact lens-related keratitis must be reported to health care Authorities. ..
  75. Lindquist T, Maxwell A, Miller T, Win E T, Novicki T, Fritsche T, et al. Preparation of corneal donor eyes comparing 1% versus 5% povidone-iodine. Cornea. 2011;30:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because PVP-I is known to be toxic to the corneal endothelium and corneal fibroblasts, this study suggests that 1% PVP-I should be the preferred disinfectant for the recovery of corneal donors. ..
  76. Wong V, Lai T, Chi S, Lam D. Pediatric ocular surface infections: a 5-year review of demographics, clinical features, risk factors, microbiological results, and treatment. Cornea. 2011;30:995-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the clinical and microbiological profiles of pediatric patients with ocular surface infections requiring corneal or conjunctival scraping for diagnosis...
  77. Grixti A, Sadri M, Datta A. Uncommon ophthalmologic disorders in intensive care unit patients. J Crit Care. 2012;27:746.e9-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and effective treatment will help to prevent visual loss. ..
  78. Kanda Y, Kayama T, Okamoto S, Hashimoto M, Ishida C, Yanai T, et al. Post-marketing surveillance of levofloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution for external ocular infections. Drugs R D. 2012;12:177-85 pubmed publisher
  79. Reinprayoon U, Permpalung N, Kasetsuwan N, Plongla R, Mendoza L, Chindamporn A. Lagenidium sp. ocular infection mimicking ocular pythiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2778-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. ..
  80. Hankenson F, Ruskoski N, van Saun M, Ying G, Oh J, Fraser N. Weight loss and reduced body temperature determine humane endpoints in a mouse model of ocular herpesvirus infection. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2013;52:277-85 pubmed
    ..Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. ..
  81. Oskala P, Carlson P. [Cataract surgery and eye drops--is a drop only a habit?]. Duodecim. 2002;118:1565-9 pubmed
  82. Göbels K, Best J, Oette M, MacKenzie C, Hemker J, Wenning M, et al. Ocular infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii in an AIDS patient. AIDS. 2002;16:2501-2 pubmed
  83. Piccoli B, Zambelli P, Grosso D, Assini R. [Occupational ophthalmology and ergoophthalmology: a developing field]. Med Lav. 2003;94:101-7 pubmed
    ..of the Milan ICP Hospital, showed that long-term exposure to low levels of irradiation could constitute an eye risk for these working populations. ..
  84. Arruda R, Muccioli C, Belfort R. [Ophthalmological findings in HIV infected patients in the post-HAART (Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy) era, compared to the pre-HAART era]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2004;50:148-52 pubmed
    ..The authors identified in the post-HAART era, rise on number of patients with normal ophthalmologic exam and decreased number of cases of CMV retinitis and ocular toxoplasmosis when compared to the pre-HAART era. ..
  85. Farrier S, Farrier J, Gilmour A. Eye safety in operative dentistry - a study in general dental practice. Br Dent J. 2006;200:218-23; discussion 208 pubmed
    ..Each individual dentist is responsible for the uptake of eye protection for all persons in their surgery environment. ..
  86. El Chehab H, Giraud J, Le Corre A, Chave N, Durand F, Kuter S, et al. [Comparison between Lenstar LS 900 non-contact biometry and OcuScan RXP contact biometry for task delegation]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2011;34:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique has been used to optimize the refractive outcome of 25.9 % of our patients undergoing refractive cataract surgery. ..
  87. Chronopoulos A, Pleyer U, Mockenhaupt M. [Ocular involvement in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2012;229:534-9 pubmed publisher
  88. Silva N, Sarmento B, Pintado M. The importance of antimicrobial peptides and their potential for therapeutic use in ophthalmology. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;41:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Some AMPs with activity against ocular pathogens and their potential as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent ocular infections are emphasised. ..
  89. Khoury J, Nassrala S, Loberant N, Jerushalmi J. Gamut: unilateral orbital uptake on Ga-67 scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med. 2003;33:331-3 pubmed
  90. May W, Castro Combs J, Kashiwabuchi R, Tattiyakul W, Qureshi Said S, Hirai F, et al. Sutured clear corneal incision: wound apposition and permeability to bacterial-sized particles. Cornea. 2013;32:319-25 pubmed publisher
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