Summary: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Giorgi A, Di Francesco L, Principe S, Mignogna G, Sennels L, Mancone C, et al. Proteomic profiling of PrP27-30-enriched preparations extracted from the brain of hamsters with experimental scrapie. Proteomics. 2009;9:3802-14 pubmed publisher
    ..with the protease-resistant core of PrP(TSE) (PrP27-30) extracted from brains of hamsters with experimental scrapie. We identified ferritin, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha type II, apolipoprotein E, and tubulin ..
  2. Thackray A, Hopkins L, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R. Emergence of multiple prion strains from single isolates of ovine scrapie. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1482-91 pubmed publisher
    The infectious agent associated with prion diseases such as ovine scrapie shows strain diversity. Ovine prion strains have typically been identified by their transmission properties in wild-type mice...
  3. Spiropoulos J, Lockey R, Sallis R, Terry L, Thorne L, Holder T, et al. Isolation of prion with BSE properties from farmed goat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle...
  4. Melchior M, Windig J, Hagenaars T, Bossers A, Davidse A, van Zijderveld F. Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:24 pubmed publisher
    ..between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of ..
  5. Durand B, Martinez M, Calavas D, Ducrot C. Comparison of strategies for substantiating freedom from scrapie in a sheep flock. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:16 pubmed publisher
    ..feasibility of qualification procedures that would allow sheep breeders demonstrating their flock is free from scrapie. Classical approaches, based on surveys designed to detect disease presence, do not account for scrapie ..
  6. Orru C, Hughson A, Race B, Raymond G, Caughey B. Time course of prion seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of scrapie-infected hamsters after intratongue and intracerebral inoculations. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1464-6 pubmed publisher
    ..prion disease based on prion seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we measured the activity over time in scrapie-infected hamsters by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC)...
  7. Bannach O, Birkmann E, Reinartz E, Jaeger K, Langeveld J, Rohwer R, et al. Detection of prion protein particles in blood plasma of scrapie infected sheep. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36620 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep...
  8. Filali H, Martín Burriel I, Harders F, Varona L, Serrano C, Acin C, et al. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:399 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood...
  9. Mok S, Proia R, Brinkmann V, Mabbott N. B cell-specific S1PR1 deficiency blocks prion dissemination between secondary lymphoid organs. J Immunol. 2012;188:5032-40 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Taema M, Maddison B, Thorne L, Bishop K, Owen J, Hunter N, et al. Differentiating ovine BSE from CH1641 scrapie by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Mol Biotechnol. 2012;51:233-9 pubmed publisher
    Whilst ovine BSE displays distinct pathological characteristics to ovine CH1641-like scrapie upon passage in rodents, they have very similar molecular phenotypes...
  2. Baier M, Apelt J, Riemer C, Gültner S, Schwarz A, Bamme T, et al. Prion infection of mice transgenic for human APPSwe: increased accumulation of cortical formic acid extractable Abeta(1-42) and rapid scrapie disease development. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:821-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the experimental model demonstrates that a prion infection of the CNS promotes selectively formation of FA-extractable Abeta(1-42) in Tg2576 mice. ..
  3. Orru C, Wilham J, Hughson A, Raymond L, McNally K, Bossers A, et al. Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and sheep scrapie PrP(res) detection using seeded conversion of recombinant prion protein. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2009;22:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..we showed that the quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assay can detect sub-femtogram levels of PrP(res) in scrapie-infected hamster brain tissue and distinguish cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples from normal and scrapie-..
  4. Man W, Nicholls N, Woolhouse M, Lewis R, Villanueva B. Evaluating different PrP genotype selection strategies for expected severity of scrapie outbreaks and genetic progress in performance in commercial sheep. Prev Vet Med. 2009;91:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..quantifying the effect of selecting on prion protein (PrP) genotype on the risk of major outbreaks of classical scrapie and the rate of genetic progress in performance in commercial sheep populations already undergoing selection on ..
  5. McIntyre K, Trewby H, Gubbins S, Baylis M. The impact of sheep breed on the risk of classical scrapie. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:384-92 pubmed publisher
    The risk of classical scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene...
  6. Stack M, Gonzalez L, Jeffrey M, Martin S, Macaldowie C, Chaplin M, et al. Three serial passages of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep do not significantly affect discriminatory test results. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:764-8 pubmed publisher
    ..techniques, Western immunoblotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), have been developed to distinguish scrapie from cases of experimental sheep BSE by the characteristics of their respective abnormal, disease-associated ..
  7. Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Valanzano A, Lu M, Graziano S, De Pascalis A, et al. Neuroinvasion of the 263K scrapie strain after intranasal administration occurs through olfactory-unrelated pathways. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;117:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..pattern of TSE agent spread after intranasal administration, we inoculated a high-infectious dose of neurotropic scrapie strain 263K into the nasal cavity of Syrian hamsters...
  8. Thackray A, Hopkins L, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R. Molecular and transmission characteristics of primary-passaged ovine scrapie isolates in conventional and ovine PrP transgenic mice. J Virol. 2008;82:11197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have compared the molecular and transmission characteristics of ovine ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ scrapie isolates following primary passage in tg338 (VRQ) and tg59 (ARQ) ovine PrP transgenic mice and the conventional ..
  9. Chen B, Morales R, Barria M, Soto C. Estimating prion concentration in fluids and tissues by quantitative PMCA. Nat Methods. 2010;7:519-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this procedure, we determined the quantities of misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in brain, spleen, blood and urine of scrapie-affected hamsters.
  10. McGovern G, Jeffrey M. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58620 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d) in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and ..
  11. Simmons M, Konold T, Thurston L, Bellworthy S, Chaplin M, Moore S. The natural atypical scrapie phenotype is preserved on experimental transmission and sub-passage in PRNP homologous sheep. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:14 pubmed publisher
    Atypical scrapie was first identified in Norwegian sheep in 1998 and has subsequently been identified in many countries...
  12. Tixador P, Herzog L, Reine F, Jaumain E, Chapuis J, Le Dur A, et al. The physical relationship between infectivity and prion protein aggregates is strain-dependent. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000859 pubmed publisher a panel of natural, biologically cloned strains obtained by propagation of classical and atypical sheep scrapie and BSE infectious sources in transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP...
  13. Miyazawa K, Emmerling K, Manuelidis L. Replication and spread of CJD, kuru and scrapie agents in vivo and in cell culture. Virulence. 2011;2:188-99 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the human kuru (kCJD) and Japanese FU-CJD agents, as well as the sheep 22L and 263K scrapie agents display doubling times that are 8x to 33x faster in cells than in brain, indicating release from complex ..
  14. Aguilar Calvo P, Espinosa J, Pintado B, Gutierrez Adan A, Alamillo E, Miranda A, et al. Role of the goat K222-PrP(C) polymorphic variant in prion infection resistance. J Virol. 2014;88:2670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, selective breeding programs have been implemented to increase sheep resistance to scrapie. For goats, epidemiological and experimental studies have provided some association between certain polymorphisms ..
  15. Sigurdson C, Heikenwalder M, Manco G, Barthel M, Schwarz P, Stecher B, et al. Bacterial colitis increases susceptibility to oral prion disease. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, moderate intestinal inflammation at the time of prion exposure may constitute one of the elusive risk factors underlying the development of TSE. ..
  16. Martucci F, Acutis P, Mazza M, Nodari S, Colussi S, Corona C, et al. Detection of typical and atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie prion strains by prion protein motif-grafted antibodies. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PrP from bovine and bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathies, and from typical and atypical scrapie brain extracts...
  17. Truscott J, Ferguson N. Control of scrapie in the UK sheep population. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:775-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Scrapie is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep, endemic in the UK for centuries...
  18. McGovern G, Mabbott N, Jeffrey M. Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8186 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d) accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to ..
  19. Gonzalez L, Thorne L, Jeffrey M, Martin S, Spiropoulos J, Beck K, et al. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant ..
  20. Maddison B, Baker C, Rees H, Terry L, Thorne L, Bellworthy S, et al. Prions are secreted in milk from clinically normal scrapie-exposed sheep. J Virol. 2009;83:8293-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclic amplification (sPMCA) allowed the detection of prions in milk from clinically affected animals as well as scrapie-exposed sheep at least 20 months before clinical onset of disease, irrespective of the immunohistochemical ..
  21. Hortells P, Monleón E, Acin C, Vargas A, Ryffel B, Cesbron J, et al. Effect of the dimethoate administration on a Scrapie murine model. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral exposure to dimethoate (DMT) on the development of Scrapie using a genetically modified murine model...
  22. Wang G, Shi S, Gao C, Zhang B, Tian C, Dong C, et al. Changes of tau profiles in brains of the hamsters infected with scrapie strains 263 K or 139 A possibly associated with the alteration of phosphate kinases. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the possible changes of tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau, at Ser396, Ser404, and Ser202/Thr205) in scrapie experimental animals.
  23. Zhou R, Jing Y, Guo Y, Gao C, Zhang B, Chen C, et al. Molecular interaction of TPPP with PrP antagonized the CytoPrP-induced disruption of microtubule structures and cytotoxicity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23079 pubmed publisher
    ..PrP and fibrillization of PrP106-126 in vitro, its antagonization against the disruption of microtubule structures and cytotoxicity of cytosolic PrP in cells, and its alternation in the brains of scrapie-infected experimental hamsters.
  24. Santucciu C, Maestrale C, Madau L, Attene S, Cancedda M, Demontis F, et al. Association of N176K and L141F dimorphisms of the PRNP gene with lack of pathological prion protein deposition in placentas of naturally and experimentally scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2402-7 pubmed publisher
    The placenta is important in the horizontal transmission of the aetiological agent in scrapie-affected sheep...
  25. Gonzalez L, Sisó S, Monleón E, Casalone C, van Keulen L, Balkema Buschmann A, et al. Variability in disease phenotypes within a single PRNP genotype suggests the existence of multiple natural sheep scrapie strains within Europe. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2630-41 pubmed publisher
    Variability of pathological phenotypes within classical sheep scrapie cases has been reported for some time, but in many instances it has been attributed to differences in the PRNP genotype of the host...
  26. Pirisinu L, Migliore S, Di Bari M, Esposito E, Baron T, D Agostino C, et al. Molecular discrimination of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy from scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:695-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This feature, combined with the N-terminal PrPSc cleavage, allowed differentiation of classical scrapie, including CH1641-like, from natural goat BSE and experimental sheep BSE.
  27. Vidal E, Acin C, Foradada L, Monzon M, Marquez M, Monleón E, et al. Immunohistochemical characterisation of classical scrapie neuropathology in sheep. J Comp Pathol. 2009;141:135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..was to characterize the pathogenic events occurring in the CNS of sheep with spontaneously arising classical scrapie. Brains from seven affected animals and two controls were subject to immunohistochemical and histochemical ..
  28. Gonzalez Montalban N, Makarava N, Ostapchenko V, Savtchenk R, Alexeeva I, Rohwer R, et al. Highly efficient protein misfolding cyclic amplification. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001277 pubmed publisher
    ..Using serial PMCAb, a 10¹²-fold dilution of scrapie brain material could be amplified to the level detectible by Western blotting in 3 rounds (72 hours)...
  29. O Rourke K, Schneider D, Spraker T, Dassanayake R, Highland M, Zhuang D, et al. Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:42 pubmed publisher
    The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes...
  30. Vetrugno V, Di Bari M, Nonno R, Puopolo M, D Agostino C, Pirisinu L, et al. Oral pravastatin prolongs survival time of scrapie-infected mice. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies revealed that simvastatin treatment increased survival significantly in scrapie-infected mice...
  31. Priola S, McNally K. The role of the prion protein membrane anchor in prion infection. Prion. 2009;3:134-8 pubmed
    ..In combination with previously published data, our results suggest that GPI anchored PrP is important in the amplification and spread of prion infectivity from cell to cell. ..
  32. Tsunoda K, Namikawa T, Sato K, Hasnath M, Nyunt M, Rajbandary H, et al. Prion protein polymorphisms and estimation of risk of scrapie in East Asian sheep. Biochem Genet. 2010;48:13-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the genotype distribution, the risk score for scrapie was estimated. Among the local breeds, ARQ appeared predominantly (0.7701-1), followed by ARH and ARR...
  33. Baron T, Bencsik A, Morignat E. Prions of ruminants show distinct splenotropisms in an ovine transgenic mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10310 pubmed publisher
    ..Splenic PrP(res) was consistently detected in classical BSE and in most natural scrapie sources, the electrophoretic pattern showing similar features to that of cerebral PrP(res)...
  34. Torres M, Castillo K, Armisen R, Stutzin A, Soto C, Hetz C. Prion protein misfolding affects calcium homeostasis and sensitizes cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15658 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuro2A cells chronically infected with scrapie prions showed decreased ER-calcium content that correlated with a stronger upregulation of UPR-inducible ..
  35. Pflanz H, Vana K, Mitteregger G, Renner Müller I, Pace C, Kuchenhoff H, et al. Scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing a laminin receptor decoy mutant reveal a prolonged incubation time associated with low levels of PrPres. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we generated hemizygous transgenic mice expressing LRP102-295::FLAG in the brain. Scrapie-infected transgenic mice exhibit a significantly prolonged incubation time in comparison to scrapie-infected wild-..
  36. Webb P, Powell L, Denyer M, Marsh S, Weaver C, Simmons M, et al. A retrospective immunohistochemical study reveals atypical scrapie has existed in the United Kingdom since at least 1987. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:826-9 pubmed
    Atypical scrapie is a relatively recent discovery, and it was unknown whether it was a new phenomenon or whether it had existed undetected in the United Kingdom national flock...
  37. Corbière F, Perrin Chauvineau C, Lacroux C, Costes P, Thomas M, Brémaud I, et al. PrP-associated resistance to scrapie in five highly infected goat herds. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..142 (I/M), 154 (R/H), 211 (R/Q), 222 (Q/K) and 240 (S/P) and their association with susceptibility to classical scrapie infection were investigated in five French goat herds displaying a high disease prevalence (>10%)...
  38. Fujihara A, Atarashi R, Fuse T, Ubagai K, Nakagaki T, Yamaguchi N, et al. Hyperefficient PrP Sc amplification of mouse-adapted BSE and scrapie strain by protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique. FEBS J. 2009;276:2841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalopathy models infected with either mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mouse-adapted scrapie, Chandler strain...
  39. Sørby R, Austbø L, Press C, Skretting G, Landsverk T, Espenes A. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6885 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C) expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep...
  40. Endres K, Mitteregger G, Kojro E, Kretzschmar H, Fahrenholz F. Influence of ADAM10 on prion protein processing and scrapie infectiosity in vivo. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;36:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the incubation time of mice after scrapie infection is significantly increased in mice moderately overexpressing ADAM10...
  41. Langevin C, Andreoletti O, Le Dur A, Laude H, Beringue V. Marked influence of the route of infection on prion strain apparent phenotype in a scrapie transgenic mouse model. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;41:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..this possibility, we studied prion pathogenesis in a prototypal short-incubation disease model consisting of 127S scrapie strain propagated in tg338 transgenic mice expressing the VRQ allele of ovine PrP...
  42. Nodelijk G, van Roermund H, van Keulen L, Engel B, Vellema P, Hagenaars T. Breeding with resistant rams leads to rapid control of classical scrapie in affected sheep flocks. Vet Res. 2011;42:5 pubmed publisher
    Susceptibility to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, is modulated by the genetic make-up of the sheep...
  43. Hussain A, Babar M, Imran M, Haq I, Javed M. Detection of four novel polymorphisms in PrP gene of Pakistani sheep (Damani and Hashtnagri) and goats (Kamori and Local Hairy) breeds. Virol J. 2011;8:246 pubmed publisher
    b>Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC)...
  44. Thackray A, Hopkins L, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R. Propagation of ovine prions from "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates in ovine PrP transgenic mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;92:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of scrapie isolates that do not propagate in wild type mice, defined here as "poor" transmitters, are problematic ..
  45. Bouzalas I, Lörtscher F, Dovas C, Oevermann A, Langeveld J, Papanastassopoulou M, et al. Distinct proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment in goats with no signs of disease in a classical scrapie outbreak. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..e., classical and atypical scrapie as well as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)...
  46. Häusermann C, Schwermer H, Oevermann A, Nentwig A, Zurbriggen A, Heim D, et al. Surveillance and simulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie in small ruminants in Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:20 pubmed publisher the most recent TSE cases a BSE infection could be excluded, for historical cases techniques to discriminate scrapie from BSE had not been available at the time of diagnosis and thus their status remained unclear...
  47. Marcos Carcavilla A, Moreno C, Serrano M, Laurent P, Cribiu E, Andreoletti O, et al. Polymorphisms in the HSP90AA1 5' flanking region are associated with scrapie incubation period in sheep. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:343-9 pubmed publisher
    Susceptibility to scrapie is mainly controlled by point mutations at the PRNP locus. However, additional quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified across the genome including a region in OAR18...
  48. Mesquita P, Batista M, Marques M, Santos I, Pimenta J, Silva Pereira M, et al. Prion-like Doppel gene polymorphisms and scrapie susceptibility in Portuguese sheep breeds. Anim Genet. 2010;41:311-4 pubmed publisher
    The establishment of an association between prion protein gene (PRNP) polymorphisms and scrapie susceptibility in sheep has enabled the development of breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in the European Union...
  49. Vaccari G, Scavia G, Sala M, Cosseddu G, Chiappini B, Conte M, et al. Protective effect of the AT137RQ and ARQK176 PrP allele against classical scrapie in Sarda breed sheep. Vet Res. 2009;40:19 pubmed publisher
    The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is under the control of the host's prion protein (PrP gene and is also influenced by the strain of the agent...
  50. Gonzalez L, Jeffrey M, Dagleish M, Goldmann W, Sisó S, Eaton S, et al. Susceptibility to scrapie and disease phenotype in sheep: cross-PRNP genotype experimental transmissions with natural sources. Vet Res. 2012;43:55 pubmed
    It has long been established that the sheep Prnp genotype influences the susceptibility to scrapie, and some studies suggest that it can also determine several aspects of the disease phenotype...
  51. Papasavva Stylianou P, Windl O, Saunders G, Mavrikiou P, Toumazos P, Kakoyiannis C. PrP gene polymorphisms in Cyprus goats and their association with resistance or susceptibility to natural scrapie. Vet J. 2011;187:245-50 pubmed publisher
    In contrast to scrapie in sheep, the genetic basis of susceptibility to scrapie in goats is not well understood...
  52. Beck K, Vickery C, Lockey R, Holder T, Thorne L, Terry L, et al. The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains following murine bioassay: characterisation of classical scrapie. Vet Res. 2012;43:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Classical scrapie strains have been characterised historically based on the established methodology of assessing incubation period ..
  53. Siso S, Gonzalez L, Blanco R, Chianini F, Reid H, Jeffrey M, et al. Neuropathological changes correlate temporally but not spatially with selected neuromodulatory responses in natural scrapie. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2011;37:484-99 pubmed publisher
    Neuropathological changes classically associated with sheep scrapie do not always correlate with clinical disease...