bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Summary

Summary: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)

Top Publications

  1. Pottgiesser C, Ovelhey A, Ziller M, Kramer M, Selhorst T, Conraths F. Potential risk factors associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle from Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:306-11 pubmed
    Since the first detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in homebred cattle in Germany on 26 November 2000, 382 cases have been confirmed until 30 September 2005...
  2. Cordier C, Bencsik A, Philippe S, Betemps D, Ronzon F, Calavas D, et al. Transmission and characterization of bovine spongiform encephalopathy sources in two ovine transgenic mouse lines (TgOvPrP4 and TgOvPrP59). J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3763-71 pubmed
    ..for the discrimination of different TSE strains, including differentiation of agents involved in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie, this has been only poorly described in transgenic mice...
  3. Castilla J, Gutierrez Adan A, Brun A, Pintado B, Salguero F, Parra B, et al. Transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP with a four extra repeat octapeptide insert mutation show a spontaneous, non-transmissible, neurodegenerative disease and an expedited course of BSE infection. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:6237-46 pubmed
    ..This Tg mouse model constitutes a new way of understanding the pathobiology of bovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Its potential applications include the assessment of new therapies against prion diseases. ..
  4. Bellworthy S, Dexter G, Stack M, Chaplin M, Hawkins S, Simmons M, et al. Natural transmission of BSE between sheep within an experimental flock. Vet Rec. 2005;157:206 pubmed
  5. Ersdal C, Goodsir C, Simmons M, McGovern G, Jeffrey M. Abnormal prion protein is associated with changes of plasma membranes and endocytosis in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-affected cattle brains. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2009;35:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..nature of subcellular changes and their association with PrP(d) we perfusion-fixed brains of eight bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-affected cows and three control cattle for immunogold electron microscopy at two different ..
  6. Novakofski J, Brewer M, Mateus Pinilla N, Killefer J, McCusker R. Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:1455-76 pubmed
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk are a threat to agriculture and natural resources, as well as a human health concern...
  7. Abrial D, Calavas D, Jarrige N, Ducrot C. Poultry, pig and the risk of BSE following the feed ban in France--a spatial analysis. Vet Res. 2005;36:615-28 pubmed
    A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle...
  8. Nicholson E, Brunelle B, Richt J, Kehrli M, Greenlee J. Identification of a heritable polymorphism in bovine PRNP associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2912 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle. Classical BSE is associated with ingestion of BSE-contaminated feedstuffs...
  9. Ru G, Maurella C, Ponti A, Ingravalle F, Caramelli M. Epidemiological study of the decline of BSE in Italy. Vet Rec. 2007;161:511-4 pubmed
    In this paper, data derived from the national database of the Italian surveillance system for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are used to describe the Italian epidemic of bse...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Haase B, Doherr M, Seuberlich T, Drogemuller C, Dolf G, Nicken P, et al. PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle. BMC Genet. 2007;8:15 pubmed
    ..of the known polymorphisms within the PRNP coding region has a major influence on susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)...
  2. Vaccari G, D Agostino C, Nonno R, Rosone F, Conte M, Di Bari M, et al. Prion protein alleles showing a protective effect on the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Virol. 2007;81:7306-9 pubmed
    The susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is mainly influenced by prion protein (PrP) polymorphisms A136V, R154H, and Q171R, with the ARR allele associated with significantly decreased ..
  3. Capobianco R, Casalone C, Suardi S, Mangieri M, Miccolo C, Limido L, et al. Conversion of the BASE prion strain into the BSE strain: the origin of BSE?. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e31 pubmed
    Atypical neuropathological and molecular phenotypes of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been identified in different countries...
  4. Gonzalez L, Chianini F, Martin S, Sisó S, Gibbard L, Reid H, et al. Comparative titration of experimental ovine BSE infectivity in sheep and mice. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:714-7 pubmed
    Titration studies of the infectivity of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep are necessary to assess the risk for human health posed by the ovine infection relative to the original cattle disease...
  5. Paul M, Abrial D, Jarrige N, Rican S, Garrido M, Calavas D, et al. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and spatial analysis of the feed industry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:867-71 pubmed
    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban...
  6. Iwata N, Sato Y, Higuchi Y, Nohtomi K, Nagata N, Hasegawa H, et al. Distribution of PrP(Sc) in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy slaughtered at abattoirs in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2006;59:100-7 pubmed
    Three 80- to 95-month-old Holstein dairy cattle infected naturally with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and slaughtered at abattoirs in Japan were examined for the distribution of disease-specific and protease-..
  7. Konold T, Lee Y, Stack M, Horrocks C, Green R, Chaplin M, et al. Different prion disease phenotypes result from inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain. BMC Vet Res. 2006;2:31 pubmed
    Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c...
  8. Langeveld J, Jacobs J, Erkens J, Bossers A, van Zijderveld F, van Keulen L. Rapid and discriminatory diagnosis of scrapie and BSE in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes of sheep. BMC Vet Res. 2006;2:19 pubmed
    ..nodes of sheep and goats can improve active surveillance for scrapie and, if it were circulating, for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)...
  9. Martin S, Gonzalez L, Chong A, Houston F, Hunter N, Jeffrey M. Immunohistochemical characteristics of disease-associated PrP are not altered by host genotype or route of inoculation following infection of sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:839-48 pubmed
    ..prion protein (PrP(d)) derived from natural scrapie and from sheep infected experimentally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) differed in respect of their immunohistochemical and immunoblotting properties...
  10. Brun A, Gutierrez Adan A, Castilla J, Pintado B, Diaz San Segundo F, Cano M, et al. Reduced susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions in transgenic mice expressing a bovine PrP with five octapeptide repeats. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1842-9 pubmed
    ..After intracerebral inoculation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) inoculum, these mice suffered a BSE-like neuropathology but survived longer compared with ..
  11. Harman J, Silva C. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;234:59-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is an infectious disease of cattle that is transmitted through the consumption of meat-and-bone meal from infected cattle...
  12. Konold T, Spiropoulos J, Chaplin M, Thorne L, Spencer Y, Wells G, et al. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:35 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)...
  13. Jacobs J, Langeveld J, Biacabe A, Acutis P, Polak M, Gavier Widen D, et al. Molecular discrimination of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strains from a geographical region spanning a wide area in Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1821-9 pubmed
    ..Until recently, isolates from cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) appeared to be very homogeneous...
  14. Yutzy B, Holznagel E, Coulibaly C, Stuke A, Hahmann U, Deslys J, et al. Time-course studies of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in cerebrospinal fluid and brain of primates after oral or intracerebral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3469-78 pubmed
    Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) is an animal model for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)...
  15. Sala C, Morignat E, Ducrot C, Calavas D. Modelling the trend of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prevalence in France: Use of restricted cubic spline regression in age-period-cohort models to estimate the efficiency of control measures. Prev Vet Med. 2009;90:90-101 pubmed publisher
    An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was used to assess the trend in prevalence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in France over time in relation to the control measures adopted since onset of the epidemic...
  16. Lasmezas C, Comoy E, Hawkins S, Herzog C, Mouthon F, Konold T, et al. Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates. Lancet. 2005;365:781-3 pubmed
    The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude ..
  17. Buschmann A, Gretzschel A, Biacabe A, Schiebel K, Corona C, Hoffmann C, et al. Atypical BSE in Germany--proof of transmissibility and biochemical characterization. Vet Microbiol. 2006;117:103-16 pubmed
    ..These atypical cases suggest the possible existence of sporadic BSE cases in bovines. It is thus feasible that the BSE epidemic in the UK could have also been initiated by an intraspecies transmission from a sporadic BSE case. ..
  18. Stack M, Jeffrey M, Gubbins S, Grimmer S, Gonzalez L, Martin S, et al. Monitoring for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep in Great Britain, 1998-2004. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2099-107 pubmed
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may have been transmitted to British sheep via contaminated feed in the 1980s...
  19. Collee J, Bradley R, Liberski P. Variant CJD (vCJD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): 10 and 20 years on: part 2. Folia Neuropathol. 2006;44:102-10 pubmed
    ..Continued TSE surveillance, the maintenance of adequate preventive controls, attention to possible parenteral challenges, and further research studies are of paramount importance. ..
  20. Kofler M, Seuberlich T, Maurer E, Heim D, Doherr M, Zurbriggen A, et al. [TSE surveillance in small ruminants and pigs: a pilot study]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:341-2, 344-8 pubmed
    ..From these results, it is concluded that perished small ruminants are probably a risk population for TSE and should be considered as target populations for an active surveillance programme. ..
  21. Wells G, Spiropoulos J, Hawkins S, Ryder S. Pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy: preclinical infectivity in tonsil and observations on the distribution of lingual tonsil in slaughtered cattle. Vet Rec. 2005;156:401-7 pubmed
    ..Variations in the distribution of the lingual tonsil suggested that even after the most rigorous trimming of the root of the tongue, traces of tonsillar tissue may remain. ..
  22. Richt J, Hall S. BSE case associated with prion protein gene mutation. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000156 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle and was first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans...
  23. Ducrot C, Abrial D, Calavas D, Carpenter T. A spatio-temporal analysis of BSE cases born before and after the reinforced feed ban in France. Vet Res. 2005;36:839-53 pubmed
    A spatio-temporal analysis was carried out to see how the risk distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in France changed depending on the period of birth...
  24. Schwermer H, Forster K, Brulisauer F, Chaubert C, Heim D. BSE, feed and cattle in Switzerland: is there a spatial relation?. Vet Res. 2007;38:409-18 pubmed
    ..allowed in feed for other species is regarded as the current hypothesis for the infection pathway of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) cases occurring after the implementation of a ban on feeding MBM to cattle...
  25. Jeong B, Lee Y, Kim N, Carp R, Kim Y. Genotype distribution of the prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter polymorphisms in Korean cattle. Genome. 2006;49:1539-44 pubmed
    Recently, an association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter region has been reported in German cattle...
  26. Miyazawa K, Kanaya T, Takakura I, Tanaka S, Hondo T, Watanabe H, et al. Transcytosis of murine-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents in an in vitro bovine M cell model. J Virol. 2010;84:12285-91 pubmed publisher
    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals...
  27. Bencsik A, Debeer S, Baron T. An alternative pretreatment procedure in animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies diagnosis using PrPsc immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:1199-202 pubmed
    ..more often in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). PrPsc IHC requires a combination of pretreatments (chemical, heating, and enzymatic)...
  28. Prattley D, Cannon R, Wilesmith J, Morris R, Stevenson M. A model (BSurvE) for estimating the prevalence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a national herd. Prev Vet Med. 2007;80:330-43 pubmed
    We developed the BSurvE spreadsheet model to estimate the true prevalence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a national cattle population, and evaluate national BSE surveillance programs...
  29. Jeffrey M, Gonzalez L, Chong A, Foster J, Goldmann W, Hunter N, et al. Ovine infection with the agents of scrapie (CH1641 isolate) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy: immunochemical similarities can be resolved by immunohistochemistry. J Comp Pathol. 2006;134:17-29 pubmed
    ..Some of these tests can be used to distinguish natural scrapie from experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep, on the basis of migration pattern differences of PrP(res) in Western immunoblots...
  30. Kashkevich K, Humeny A, Ziegler U, Groschup M, Nicken P, Leeb T, et al. Functional relevance of DNA polymorphisms within the promoter region of the prion protein gene and their association to BSE infection. FASEB J. 2007;21:1547-55 pubmed
    ..Comparative genotyping of both controls and animals that tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) revealed a significantly different distribution of two indel polymorphisms and two SNPs within ..
  31. Supervie V, Costagliola D. Estimating incidence of the French BSE infection using a joint analysis of both asymptomatic and clinical BSE surveillance data. Math Biosci. 2007;209:90-107 pubmed
    b>Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) clinical surveillance data were the main source of information to perform back-calculation of BSE infection incidence...
  32. Jarrige N, Ducrot C, Cazeau G, Morignat E, La Bonnardière C, Calavas D. Case-control study on feed risk factors for BSE cases born after the feed ban in France. Vet Res. 2007;38:505-16 pubmed
    In France, after the ban on meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feeding in June 1990, cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) have continued to be detected in bovines born after that ban (called BAB cases)...
  33. Monleón E, Monzon M, Hortells P, Bolea R, Acin C, Vargas F, et al. Approaches to Scrapie diagnosis by applying immunohistochemistry and rapid tests on central nervous and lymphoreticular systems. J Virol Methods. 2005;125:165-71 pubmed
    ..the performance of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) rapid tests (validated for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy samples) on Scrapie samples have not been reported widely, particularly those dealing with ..
  34. Jeffrey M, Martin S, Gonzalez L, Foster J, Langeveld J, van Zijderveld F, et al. Immunohistochemical features of PrP(d) accumulation in natural and experimental goat transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. J Comp Pathol. 2006;134:171-81 pubmed
    ..in brain can help in characterizing sheep TSE sources or strains and in identifying potential bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections of sheep...
  35. Heaton M, Keele J, Harhay G, Richt J, Koohmaraie M, Wheeler T, et al. Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:25 pubmed publisher
    In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E) and lysine (K) codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp) coding ..
  36. Lombardi G, Casalone C, D Angelo A, Gelmetti D, Torcoli G, Barbieri I, et al. Intraspecies transmission of BASE induces clinical dullness and amyotrophic changes. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000075 pubmed publisher
    The disease phenotype of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the molecular/ biological properties of its prion strain, including the host range and the characteristics of BSE-related disorders, have been extensively studied since ..
  37. Yull H, Ritchie D, Langeveld J, van Zijderveld F, Bruce M, Ironside J, et al. Detection of type 1 prion protein in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:151-7 pubmed
    ..disease (termed type 2B), presumably resulting from infection with a single strain of the agent (bovine spongiform encephalopathy)...
  38. Goldmann W, Houston F, Stewart P, Perucchini M, Foster J, Hunter N. Ovine prion protein variant A(136)R(154)L(168)Q(171) increases resistance to experimental challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3741-5 pubmed
    ..in codon 168 of the ovine PrP protein gene is associated with increased resistance to experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) inoculation...
  39. Sheridan H, McGrath G, White P, Fallon R, Shoukri M, Martin S. A temporal-spatial analysis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Irish cattle herds, from 1996 to 2000. Can J Vet Res. 2005;69:19-25 pubmed
    This study investigated the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in herds of cattle in Ireland over the years 1996 through 2000, prior to the introduction of widespread active surveillance...
  40. Stevenson M, Morris R, Lawson A, Wilesmith J, Ryan J, Jackson R. Area-level risks for BSE in British cattle before and after the July 1988 meat and bone meal feed ban. Prev Vet Med. 2005;69:129-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that spatially localised influences were operating in divergent ways during the two phases of the epidemic. ..
  41. Casalone C, Caramelli M, Crescio M, Spencer Y, Simmons M. BSE immunohistochemical patterns in the brainstem: a comparison between UK and Italian cases. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;111:444-9 pubmed
    The continuous monitoring of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases is an integral component of European research and surveillance programmes, to ensure that any changes in the presentation of transmissible spongiform ..
  42. Trieschmann L, Navarrete Santos A, Kaschig K, Torkler S, Maas E, Schatzl H, et al. Ultra-sensitive detection of prion protein fibrils by flow cytometry in blood from cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. BMC Biotechnol. 2005;5:26 pubmed
    The definite diagnosis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle currently relies on the post mortem detection of the pathological form of the prion protein (..
  43. Kong Q, Zheng M, Casalone C, Qing L, Huang S, Chakraborty B, et al. Evaluation of the human transmission risk of an atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion strain. J Virol. 2008;82:3697-701 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the prion disease in cattle, was widely believed to be caused by only one strain, BSE-C. BSE-C causes the fatal prion disease named new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans...
  44. Ducrot C, Arnold M, de Koeijer A, Heim D, Calavas D. Review on the epidemiology and dynamics of BSE epidemics. Vet Res. 2008;39:15 pubmed publisher
    The paper describes how the comprehensive surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and studies carried out on these data has enhanced our knowledge of the epidemiology of BSE...
  45. Ebringer A, Rashid T, Wilson C. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, and creutzfeldt-jakob disease are probably autoimmune diseases evoked by Acinetobacter bacteria. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1050:417-28 pubmed
    b>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of conditions named together as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE)...
  46. Terry L, Jenkins R, Thorne L, Everest S, Chaplin M, Davis L, et al. First case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy identified in Great Britain. Vet Rec. 2007;160:873-4 pubmed
  47. Sauter Louis C, Clauss M, Chaher E, Klee W, Wichmann H, Kienzle E. Breed predisposition for BSE: epidemiological evidence in Bavarian cattle. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:245-50 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that BS animals and their tissues should be used in further studies into genetic determinants of BSE susceptibility in cattle. ..
  48. Baron T, Biacabe A. Origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Lancet. 2006;367:297-8; author reply 298-9 pubmed
  49. Howells L, Anderson S, Coldham N, Sauer M. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strain-associated diversity of N-terminal proteinase K cleavage sites of PrP(Sc) from scrapie-infected and bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected mice. Biomarkers. 2008;13:393-412 pubmed
    ..approach was evaluated using individual mice affected by model scrapie (22A, ME7, 87V and 79A) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (301V) strains...
  50. Sisó S, Doherr M, Botteron C, Fatzer R, Zurbriggen A, Vandevelde M, et al. Neuropathological and molecular comparison between clinical and asymptomatic bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. Acta Neuropathol. 2007;114:501-8 pubmed
    Interest in the proper neuropathological and molecular characterization of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has increased since asymptomatic and atypical cases were detected in the cattle population by active disease surveillance...
  51. Sander P, Hamann H, Drogemuller C, Kashkevich K, Schiebel K, Leeb T. Bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter polymorphisms modulate PRNP expression and may be responsible for differences in bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37408-14 pubmed
    ..However, the known coding polymorphisms within the bovine PRNP gene have little or no effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle...
  52. Espinosa J, Morales M, Castilla J, Rogers M, Torres J. Progression of prion infectivity in asymptomatic cattle after oral bovine spongiform encephalopathy challenge. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1379-83 pubmed
    ..Infectivity in brainstem increased markedly at 33 months after inoculation. All other investigated tissues or fluids (spleen, skeletal muscle, blood and urine) revealed no detectable infectivity throughout the time course studied. ..
  53. Fukuda S, Iwamaru Y, Imamura M, Masujin K, Shimizu Y, Matsuura Y, et al. Intraspecies transmission of L-type-like Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy detected in Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:704-7 pubmed publisher