encephalomyelitis

Summary

Summary: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.

Top Publications

  1. Sean Riminton D, Korner H, Strickland D, Lemckert F, Pollard J, Sedgwick J. Challenging cytokine redundancy: inflammatory cell movement and clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are normal in lymphotoxin-deficient, but not tumor necrosis factor-deficient, mice. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1517-28 pubmed
    ..The contribution of LT to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was examined using TNF/LTalpha-/- mice, TNF-/- mice, and a new LTalpha-/- line described here...
  2. Bergmann C, Parra B, Hinton D, Chandran R, Morrison M, Stohlman S. Perforin-mediated effector function within the central nervous system requires IFN-gamma-mediated MHC up-regulation. J Immunol. 2003;170:3204-13 pubmed
    ..Untreated PKO/GKO mice were unable to control the infection and died of lethal encephalomyelitis within 16 days, despite substantially higher CD8(+) T cell accumulation in the CNS compared with controls...
  3. Dubey J, Benson J, Larson M. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona encephalomyelitis in a domestic cat following routine surgery. Vet Parasitol. 2003;112:261-7 pubmed
    ..The cat was euthanized 12 days later because of paralysis. Encephalomyelitis was the only lesion and was associated with numerous Sarcocystis schizonts and merozoites in the brain and ..
  4. Sekido Y, Bader S, Carbone D, Johnson B, Minna J. Molecular analysis of the HuD gene encoding a paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis antigen in human lung cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 1994;54:4988-92 pubmed
    ..HuD is the target of an immune response including high titered antibodies causing paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis and sensory neuropathy...
  5. Trandem K, Jin Q, Weiss K, James B, Zhao J, Perlman S. Virally expressed interleukin-10 ameliorates acute encephalomyelitis and chronic demyelination in coronavirus-infected mice. J Virol. 2011;85:6822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-10 functions by dampening the innate or very early T cell immune response. Further, they suggest that early treatment with IL-10 may be useful adjunct therapy in some types of viral encephalitis. ..
  6. Stiles L, Hosking M, Edwards R, Strieter R, Lane T. Differential roles for CXCR3 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell trafficking following viral infection of the CNS. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:613-22 pubmed
    ..c.) infection of susceptible mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mice develop an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a chronic demyelinating disease...
  7. Hutchinson M, Waters P, McHugh J, Gorman G, O Riordan S, Connolly S, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis, rigidity, and myoclonus: a novel glycine receptor antibody. Neurology. 2008;71:1291-2 pubmed publisher
  8. Carmen J, Rothstein J, Kerr D. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates glutamate transport in the CNS and is a critical determinant of outcome from viral encephalomyelitis. Brain Res. 2009;1263:143-54 pubmed publisher
    Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) is a neuronotropic virus that causes a fulminant encephalomyelitis in susceptible mice due to death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
  9. Chen Y, Langrish C, McKenzie B, Joyce Shaikh B, Stumhofer J, McClanahan T, et al. Anti-IL-23 therapy inhibits multiple inflammatory pathways and ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1317-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, therapeutic targeting of IL-23 effectively inhibited multiple inflammatory pathways that are critical for driving CNS autoimmune inflammation. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Smith Norowitz T, Sobel R, Mokhtarian F. B cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of myelin injury in Semliki Forest Virus encephalomyelitis. Cell Immunol. 2000;200:27-35 pubmed
    To determine the contribution of B cells to brain myelin injury in Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) encephalomyelitis, normal C57BL/6 (B6) and B-cell-deficient (C57BL/6-tm1Cgn) B6 mice were infected with SFV. The peak of clinical disease, i.e...
  2. Spahn T, Issazadah S, Salvin A, Weiner H. Decreased severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 33 - 35-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with a disrupted TCR delta chain gene. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:4060-71 pubmed
    ..with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide (p) 35 - 55 induces chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The role of gamma delta T cells in the regulation of EAE is unclear...
  3. Green A, Sivtseva T, Danilova A, Osakovsky V, Vladimirtsev V, Zeidler M, et al. Viliuisk encephalomyelitis: intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgG. J Neurol Sci. 2003;212:69-73 pubmed
    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is a neurodegenerative disorder expressed as subacute meningo-encephalitis progressing to a more prolonged pan-encephalitic syndrome with a fatal outcome within 1 to 10 years...
  4. Axthelm M, Bourdette D, Marracci G, Su W, Mullaney E, Manoharan M, et al. Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis: a spontaneous multiple sclerosis-like disease in a nonhuman primate. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:362-73 pubmed publisher
    To describe Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME), a spontaneous inflammatory demyelinating disease occurring in the Oregon National Primate Research Center's (ONPRC) colony of Japanese macaques (JMs, Macaca fuscata)...
  5. AbuBakar S, Chee H, al Kobaisi M, Xiaoshan J, Chua K, Lam S. Identification of enterovirus 71 isolates from an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with fatal cases of encephalomyelitis in Malaysia. Virus Res. 1999;61:1-9 pubmed
    ..an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Malaysia in 1997, with incidences of fatal brainstem encephalomyelitis. The isolates were identified using immunofluorescence staining, neutralization assays, and partial ..
  6. Ulrich R, Baumgartner W, Gerhauser I, Seeliger F, Haist V, Deschl U, et al. MMP-12, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 are markedly upregulated in chronic demyelinating theiler murine encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:783-93 pubmed
    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis (TME) represents a highly relevant viral model for multiple sclerosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix molecules and are involved in demyelination processes...
  7. Phares T, Stohlman S, Hinton D, Atkinson R, Bergmann C. Enhanced antiviral T cell function in the absence of B7-H1 is insufficient to prevent persistence but exacerbates axonal bystander damage during viral encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5607-18 pubmed publisher
    ..knowledge, to demonstrate that B7-H1-mediated protection from viral-induced immune pathology associated with encephalomyelitis resides in limiting T cell-mediated axonal bystander damage rather than direct elimination of infected ..
  8. Goehring L, van Winden S, van Maanen C, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M. Equine herpesvirus type 1-associated myeloencephalopathy in The Netherlands: a four-year retrospective study (1999-2003). J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:601-7 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that breed variation, in addition to the presence of a specific EHV-1 strain, and environmental factors influence an outbreak of EHM on a premise. ..
  9. Glass W, Hickey M, Hardison J, Liu M, Manning J, Lane T. Antibody targeting of the CC chemokine ligand 5 results in diminished leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system and reduced neurologic disease in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:4018-25 pubmed
    ..of mice with mouse hepatitis virus, a member of the Coronaviridae family, reproducibly results in an acute encephalomyelitis that progresses to a chronic demyelinating disease...
  10. Gerhauser I, Ulrich R, Alldinger S, Baumgartner W. Induction of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB as a prerequisite for disease development in susceptible SJL/J mice after theiler murine encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007;66:809-18 pubmed
    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis (TME) represents an important mouse model of multiple sclerosis...
  11. Ulrich R, Seeliger F, Kreutzer M, Germann P, Baumgartner W. Limited remyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis due to insufficient oligodendroglial differentiation of nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2)-positive putative oligodendroglial progenitor cells. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34:603-20 pubmed publisher
    Limited remyelination is a key feature of demyelinating Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME)...
  12. Hansmann F, Herder V, Kalkuhl A, Haist V, Zhang N, Schaudien D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 deficiency ameliorates the clinical course and demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124:127-42 pubmed publisher
    ..blood-brain barrier (BBB), and/or extracellular matrix remodeling in the pathogenesis of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME), a virus-induced model of MS...
  13. Damasio J, Leite M, Coutinho E, Waters P, Woodhall M, Santos M, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: the first pediatric case with glycine receptor antibodies. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:498-501 pubmed publisher
    Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus is characterized by rigidity, painful muscle spasms, hyperekplexia, and brainstem signs...
  14. Tirotta E, Duncker P, Oak J, Klaus S, Tsukamoto M, Gov L, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 negatively regulates neuroinflammation and T cell activation following coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;254:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a regulatory role for EBI3-associated cytokines in controlling host responses following CNS viral infection...
  15. Sanchez A, González Pérez P, Galve Roperh I, Garcia Merino A. R-(+)-[2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)-pyrrolo-[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphtalenylmethanone (WIN-2) ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and induces encephalitogenic T cell apoptosis: partial involvement of the. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:1697-706 pubmed
    ..of the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-2 as a suppressive drug in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS...
  16. Goehring L, van Maanen C, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M. Neurological syndromes among horses in The Netherlands. A 5 year retrospective survey (1999-2004). Vet Q. 2005;27:11-20 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis of each disease is presented, followed by a description of a general presentation of the diseases as encountered under Dutch circumstances. ..
  17. Schliephake A, Korner H, Flory E, Wege H. An immunodominant CD4+ T cell site on the nucleocapsid protein of murine coronavirus contributes to protection against encephalomyelitis. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 7):1287-94 pubmed
    ..By contrast, all truncated N protein fragments elicited a humoral immune response and contained antigenic sites recognized by antibodies from diseased rats. ..
  18. Morgan B, Griffiths M, Khanom H, Taylor S, Neal J. Blockade of the C5a receptor fails to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;138:430-8 pubmed
    ..of complement activation ameliorate disease in the rat model antibody-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and rats unable to generate the membrane attack complex of complement develop inflammation without ..
  19. van Toorn R, Kritzinger F, Rabie H. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), cryptococcal reactivation and disseminated Herpes simplex in an HIV infected child following HAART. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2005;9:355-9 pubmed
  20. Pronost S, Legrand L, Pitel P, Wegge B, Lissens J, Freymuth F, et al. Outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in France: a clinical and molecular investigation. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular data strongly suggested taking into account any low viral load as being a potential risk factor for neurological manifestations...
  21. Legay V, Chomel J, Fernandez E, Lina B, Aymard M, Khalfan S. Encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1. J Clin Virol. 2002;25:193-5 pubmed
    The implication of a viral agent in encephalomyelitis has been reported for several years. In the present study we wanted to demonstrate the presence of human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV1) in a patient diagnosed with encephalomyelitis.
  22. Oem J, Yoon H, Kim H, Roh I, Lee K, Lee O, et al. Genetic and pathogenic characterization of Akabane viruses isolated from cattle with encephalomyelitis in Korea. Vet Microbiol. 2012;158:259-66 pubmed publisher
    A large-scale outbreak of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle was reported in the southern part of Korea in 2010...
  23. Lafaille J, Nagashima K, Katsuki M, Tonegawa S. High incidence of spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in immunodeficient anti-myelin basic protein T cell receptor transgenic mice. Cell. 1994;78:399-408 pubmed
    ..approximately 14% of H-2u T/R+ and 100% of H-2u T/R- mice developed spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) within 12 months...
  24. Metcalf T, Griffin D. Alphavirus-induced encephalomyelitis: antibody-secreting cells and viral clearance from the nervous system. J Virol. 2011;85:11490-501 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was no evidence of germinal center activity or IgG avidity maturation within the CNS...
  25. Denes E, Magy L, Pradeau K, Alain S, Weinbreck P, Ranger Rogez S. Successful treatment of human herpesvirus 6 encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:729-31 pubmed
    We report a case of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient, which was confirmed by viral amplification from cerebrospinal fluid...
  26. Marques C, Kapil P, Hinton D, Hindinger C, Nutt S, Ransohoff R, et al. CXCR3-dependent plasma blast migration to the central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2011;85:6136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that CXCR3 mediates CNS accumulation of ASC during neurotropic coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis. Expansion of CXCR3-expressing ASC in draining lymph nodes prior to accumulation within the CNS was ..
  27. Puntambekar S, Bergmann C, Savarin C, Karp C, Phares T, Parra G, et al. Shifting hierarchies of interleukin-10-producing T cell populations in the central nervous system during acute and persistent viral encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2011;85:6702-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a shift from predominant IL-10 production by CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells to CD25(-) CD4(+) T cells suggests that a transition to nonclassical regulatory T cells precedes and is retained during CNS viral persistence. ..
  28. Balint B, Jarius S, Nagel S, Haberkorn U, Probst C, Blöcker I, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: a new variant with DPPX antibodies. Neurology. 2014;82:1521-8 pubmed publisher
    To describe a novel and distinct variant of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) associated with antibodies directed against dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX), a regulatory subunit of the Kv4...
  29. Ohnishi H, Sawayama Y, Ariyama I, Yamaji K, Furusyo N, Hayashi J. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) onset during meningitis and sepsis]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2007;81:577-81 pubmed
    ..His consciousness disturbance rapidly disappeared and brain MRI showed that the multiple high-intensity lesions had ameliorated. The patient was released after 40 days of treatment. ..
  30. Dunkel B, del Piero F, Wotman K, Johns I, Beech J, Wilkins P. Encephalomyelitis from West Nile flavivirus in 3 alpacas. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:365-7 pubmed
  31. Tora M, Graus F, de Bolos C, Real F. Cell surface expression of paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy-associated Hu antigens in small-cell lung cancers and neuroblastomas. Neurology. 1997;48:735-41 pubmed
    Serum from patients with small-cell lung cancer-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy contains autoantibodies recognizing 35- to 40-kDa nuclear antigens present in neurons, small-cell lung cancers, and some ..
  32. Tsuhako M, Augusto O, Linares E, Chadi G, Giorgio S, Pereira C. Tempol ameliorates murine viral encephalomyelitis by preserving the blood-brain barrier, reducing viral load, and lessening inflammation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:704-12 pubmed publisher
    ..knowledge about the pathogenesis of MS has been derived from murine models, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and viral encephalomyelitis...
  33. Lane T, Liu M, Chen B, Asensio V, Samawi R, Paoletti A, et al. A central role for CD4(+) T cells and RANTES in virus-induced central nervous system inflammation and demyelination. J Virol. 2000;74:1415-24 pubmed
    Infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in a demyelinating encephalomyelitis characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration and white matter destruction similar to the pathology of the human demyelinating ..
  34. Phares T, Marques C, Stohlman S, Hinton D, Bergmann C. Factors supporting intrathecal humoral responses following viral encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2011;85:2589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..virus-specific ASC are crucial in controlling persistent CNS infection following coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis. This report characterizes expression kinetics of factors associated with ASC homing, differentiation, and ..
  35. Greene I, Lee E, Prow N, Ngwang B, Griffin D. Protection from fatal viral encephalomyelitis: AMPA receptor antagonists have a direct effect on the inflammatory response to infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3575-80 pubmed publisher
    Neuronal cell death during fatal acute viral encephalomyelitis can result from damage caused by virus replication, glutamate excitotoxicity, and the immune response...
  36. Savarin C, Bergmann C, Hinton D, Ransohoff R, Stohlman S. Memory CD4+ T-cell-mediated protection from lethal coronavirus encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2008;82:12432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-gamma reduced neutrophil accumulation and directed macrophages to white matter but did not ameliorate myelin loss. ..
  37. Turner M, Irani S, Leite M, Nithi K, Vincent A, Ansorge O. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: glycine and NMDA receptor antibodies. Neurology. 2011;77:439-43 pubmed publisher
    The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus.
  38. Goehring L, Landolt G, Morley P. Detection and management of an outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection and associated neurological disease in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:1176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Serial testing with PCR may be a useful adjunct to determine when the risk of transmission has been minimized. ..
  39. Steffen B, Butcher E, Engelhardt B. Evidence for involvement of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in lymphocyte interaction with endothelium in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the central nervous system in the SJL/J mouse. Am J Pathol. 1994;145:189-201 pubmed
    ..of vascular adhesion molecules during the first stage of chronic inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the SJL/J mouse...
  40. Lin M, Hinton D, Parra B, Stohlman S, van der Veen R. The role of IL-10 in mouse hepatitis virus-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Virology. 1998;245:270-80 pubmed
    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine. To examine its role in virus-induced encephalomyelitis, IL-10-deficient (IL-10 -/-) mice were infected with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV)...
  41. Lee J, Park J, Choi J, Park B, Lee B, Hwang W, et al. Encephalomyelitis associated with akabane virus infection in adult cows. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:269-73 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis revealed a target band of expected size in four cows. This is the first report on an outbreak of natural Akabane virus infection in adult cattle...
  42. Metcalf T, Baxter V, Nilaratanakul V, Griffin D. Recruitment and retention of B cells in the central nervous system in response to alphavirus encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2013;87:2420-9 pubmed publisher
    Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons results in nonfatal viral encephalomyelitis and provides a model system for understanding recovery from virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  43. Rozengurt N, Sanchez S. A spontaneous outbreak of Theiler's encephalomyelitis in a colony of severe combined immunodeficient mice in the UK. Lab Anim. 1993;27:229-34 pubmed
    ..In the present communication, we describe an outbreak of Theiler's encephalomyelitis in a colony of SCID mice which was characterized by an unusually high prevalence of clinically overt cases...
  44. Lampert P, Sims J, Kniazeff A. Mechanism of demyelination in JHM virus encephalomyelitis. Electron microscopic studies. Acta Neuropathol. 1973;24:76-85 pubmed
  45. Ng C, Griffin D. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency increases susceptibility to fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis. J Virol. 2006;80:10989-99 pubmed
    ..Together these data indicate that the increase in susceptibility of ASM-KO mice to SV infection was the result of more-rapid replication and spread of SV in the nervous system and increased neuronal death. ..
  46. Iizuka T, Leite M, Lang B, Waters P, Urano Y, Miyakawa S, et al. Glycine receptor antibodies are detected in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) but not in saccadic oscillations. J Neurol. 2012;259:1566-73 pubmed publisher
    Glycine receptor (GlyR) antibodies were recently identified in a few patients with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM); none of these patients had antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)...
  47. Malone K, Stohlman S, Ramakrishna C, Macklin W, Bergmann C. Induction of class I antigen processing components in oligodendroglia and microglia during viral encephalomyelitis. Glia. 2008;56:426-35 pubmed publisher
  48. Bennetto L, Scolding N. Inflammatory/post-infectious encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75 Suppl 1:i22-8 pubmed
  49. Soto Hernandez J. Human herpesvirus 6 encephalomyelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1700-2 pubmed
  50. Hosking M, Liu L, Ransohoff R, Lane T. A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000648 pubmed publisher
    The functional role of ELR-positive CXC chemokines in host defense during acute viral-induced encephalomyelitis was determined...
  51. Park E, Griffin D. The nsP3 macro domain is important for Sindbis virus replication in neurons and neurovirulence in mice. Virology. 2009;388:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The nsP3 macro domain is important for SINV replication and age-dependent susceptibility to encephalomyelitis.
  52. Lustig S, Jackson A, Hahn C, Griffin D, Strauss E, Strauss J. Molecular basis of Sindbis virus neurovirulence in mice. J Virol. 1988;62:2329-36 pubmed
    ..NSV causes severe encephalomyelitis with hind-limb paralysis and high mortality after intracerebral inoculation in weanling mice...
  53. Graus F, Ferrer I. Analysis of a neuronal antigen (Hu) expression in the developing rat brain detected by autoantibodies from patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Neurosci Lett. 1990;112:14-8 pubmed
    ..Although the Hu is also expressed by neural cells other than neurons, the strongest staining of mature neurons could indicate that Hu plays a role in the process of neuronal differentiation. ..