cerebral toxoplasmosis


Summary: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)

Top Publications

  1. Torrey E, Bartko J, Lun Z, Yolken R. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:729-36 pubmed
    ..If an etiological association can be proven, it would have implications for the design of measures for the prevention and treatment of this disease. ..
  2. Prandota J. Recurrent headache as the main symptom of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with no lymphadenopathy: the parasite may be responsible for the neurogenic inflammation postulated as a cause of different. Am J Ther. 2007;14:63-105 pubmed
    ..These cytokine irregularities caused limited control of cerebral toxoplasmosis probably because IL-4 down-regulated both the production of IFN-gamma and its activity, and stimulated ..
  3. Freidel S, Martin Sölch C, Schreiter Gasser U. [Alzheimer's dementia or cerebral toxoplasmosis? Case study of dementia following toxoplasmosis infection]. Nervenarzt. 2002;73:874-8 pubmed
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis can lead to dementia in AIDS and in immunodeficient patients. We present a case study in which cerebral toxoplasmosis was associated with a dementia of Alzheimer type...
  4. Agrawal D, Hussain N. Decompressive craniectomy in cerebral toxoplasmosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24:772-3 pubmed
  5. Beraud G, Pierre François S, Foltzer A, Abel S, Liautaud B, Smadja D, et al. Cotrimoxazole for treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis: an observational cohort study during 1994-2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:583-7 pubmed
    ..06). Consequently, cotrimoxazole could be a first-line drug regimen for curative treatment and prophylaxis of toxoplasmic encephalitis. ..
  6. Vidal J, Hernandez A, de Oliveira A, Dauar R, Barbosa S, Focaccia R. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients in Brazil: clinical features and predictors of treatment response in the HAART era. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19:626-34 pubmed
    A prospective study of 55 confirmed or presumptive cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV positive patients in Brazil was performed to describe clinical characteristics and to identify predictive factors for clinical response to the anti-..
  7. Kurne A, Ozkaya G, Karlioguz K, Shorbagi A, Ustacelebi S, Karabudak R, et al. [The colorful clinical spectrum of cerebral toxoplasmosis in five HIV positive cases: what comes out of Pandora's box?]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2006;40:85-92 pubmed
    ..b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis were diagnosed by clinical findings and imaging techniques...
  8. Cota G, Assad E, Christo P, Giannetti A, Santos Filho J, Xavier M. Ventriculitis: a rare case of primary cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patient and literature review. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12:101-4 pubmed
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains the most important neurological opportunistic infection and the most common cause of intracerebral mass lesion in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  9. Prandota J. Migraine associated with patent foramen ovale may be caused by reactivation of cerebral toxoplasmosis triggered by arterial blood oxygen desaturation. Int J Neurosci. 2010;120:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..or medications associated with marked immune irregularities, which sometimes cause reactivation of latent cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). Recently, in a group of 104 subjects with migraine, 46 individuals (44...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Naqi R, Azeemuddin M, Ahsan H. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:316-8 pubmed
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis commonly affects patients with advanced HIV immunodeficiency...
  2. Julander I, Martin C, Lappalainen M, Guy E, Isberg B, Evengard B. Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV-positive patients. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:538-41 pubmed
    ..This small study confirms earlier data indicating that the PCR test has a low sensitivity but a high specificity. ..
  3. Suzuki Y. Immunopathogenesis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 Suppl 2:S234-40 pubmed
  4. Gonzalez Vicent M, Diaz M, Sevilla J, Madero L. Cerebral toxoplasmosis following etanercept treatment for idiophatic pneumonia syndrome after autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT). Ann Hematol. 2003;82:649-53 pubmed
    ..The patient developed cerebral toxoplasmosis immediately after etanercept treatment with a good outcome.
  5. Vidal J, Colombo F, de Oliveira A, Focaccia R, Pereira Chioccola V. PCR assay using cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in Brazilian AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4765-8 pubmed
    ..In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients...
  6. Colombo F, Vidal J, Penalva de Oliveira A, Hernandez A, Bonasser Filho F, Nogueira R, et al. Diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients in Brazil: importance of molecular and immunological methods using peripheral blood samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5044-7 pubmed
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral focal lesion in AIDS and still accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Its occurrence is more frequent in patients with low CD4(+) T-cell counts...
  7. Ferreira I, Vidal J, Costa Silva T, Meira C, Hiramoto R, Penalva de Oliveira A, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: genotyping of strains from Brazilian AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:221-7 pubmed
    ..investigated the genetic characteristics of the Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from 87 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, treated in Sao Paulo State, Brazil...
  8. Prandota J. Mollaret meningitis may be caused by reactivation of latent cerebral toxoplasmosis. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:1655-92 pubmed
    ..Recently, we found that recurrent headaches in non-HIV-infected subjects were due to acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT)...
  9. Young J, McGwire B. Infliximab and reactivation of cerebral toxoplasmosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1530-1; discussion 1530-1 pubmed
  10. Murata M, Furusyo N, Otaguro S, Nabeshima S, Ariyama I, Hayashi J. HIV infection with concomitant cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated histoplasmosis in a 45-year-old man. J Infect Chemother. 2007;13:51-5 pubmed
    ..of a man from Ghana infected with HIV who was hospitalized in Japan and who suffered from coinfection with cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated histoplasmosis...
  11. Bedu Addo G. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: a case report. West Afr J Med. 2006;25:252-3 pubmed
    This is a case of HIV infection with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is an AIDS- related infection and is one of the causes of CNS mass lesions in AIDS...
  12. Pereira Chioccola V, Vidal J, Su C. Toxoplasma gondii infection and cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:1363-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients, particularly from developing countries. This article summarizes current literature on cerebral toxoplasmosis...
  13. Bacchu S, Fegan C, Neal J. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with fludarabine. Br J Haematol. 2007;139:349 pubmed
  14. Halonen S, Taylor G, Weiss L. Gamma interferon-induced inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii in astrocytes is mediated by IGTP. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5573-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IGTP plays a central role in the IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of T. gondii in murine astrocytes. ..
  15. Pezzini A, Zavarise P, Palvarini L, Viale P, Oladeji O, Padovani A. Holmes' tremor following midbrain Toxoplasma abscess: clinical features and treatment of a case. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002;8:177-80 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a patient with Holmes' tremor due to a presumed Toxoplasma abscess of the midbrain. The positive response to a combined therapy with levodopa and isoniazid is also reported. ..
  16. Kirk O, Reiss P, Uberti Foppa C, Bickel M, Gerstoft J, Pradier C, et al. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:239-50 pubmed
    ..for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Observational study...
  17. Deckert M, Sedgwick J, Fischer E, Schluter D. Regulation of microglial cell responses in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis by CD200/CD200 receptor interaction. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;111:548-58 pubmed
    ..Thus, in Toxoplasma encephalitis, microglial activity was regulated via CD200/CD200R-mediated interaction further pointing to an intrinsic regulation of brain resident cells under inflammatory CNS conditions. ..
  18. Kumar G, Mahadevan A, Guruprasad A, Kovoor J, Satishchandra P, Nath A, et al. Eccentric target sign in cerebral toxoplasmosis: neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;31:1469-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  19. Issakhanian M, Chang L, Cornford M, Witt M, Speck O, Goldberg M, et al. HIV-2 infection with cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. J Neuroimaging. 2001;11:212-6 pubmed
    ..The lesion showed a biochemical and perfusion pattern that was intermediate for infectious and neoplastic processes. Further neuropathology confirmed a secondary diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis...
  20. Abgrall S, Rabaud C, Costagliola D. Incidence and risk factors for toxoplasmic encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1747-55 pubmed
    ..1 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.0-0.2) and was not increased by discontinuation of cotrimoxazole. ..
  21. Mele A, Paterson P, Prentice H, Leoni P, Kibbler C. Toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplantation: a report of two cases and systematic review of the literature. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:691-8 pubmed
    ..We report two cases of toxoplasmosis: one of successfully treated cerebral toxoplasmosis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and a fatal case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a BMT ..
  22. Kang H, Liesenfeld O, Remington J, Claflin J, Wang X, Suzuki Y. TCR V beta 8+ T cells prevent development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in BALB/c mice genetically resistant to the disease. J Immunol. 2003;170:4254-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Vbeta8(+) T cells appear to play a crucial role in the genetic resistance of BALB/c mice against development of TE. ..
  23. Webster J. The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: playing cat and mouse. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:752-6 pubmed
    ..This article reviews evidence of behavioral alterations in animal hosts and considers what these may elucidate about the potential mechanisms involved and what implications such alterations could have on animal and human health. ..
  24. Mortensen P, Nørgaard Pedersen B, Waltoft B, Sørensen T, Hougaard D, Yolken R. Early infections of Toxoplasma gondii and the later development of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:741-4 pubmed
    ..gondii. Causal linking mechanisms are at present speculative but include possible direct effects of maternal IgG on the developing central nervous system (CNS) of the offspring. Additional studies are underway. ..
  25. Strecker K, Schneider J, Sabri O, Wegner F, Then Bergh F, Schwarz J, et al. Responsiveness to a dopamine agent in Holmes tremor--case report. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:e9-e10 pubmed
  26. Di Guardo G, Proietto U, Di Francesco C, Marsilio F, Zaccaroni A, Scaravelli D, et al. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbillivirus infection was not considered to have contributed to death of these animals...
  27. Mesquita R, Ziegler A, Hiramoto R, Vidal J, Pereira Chioccola V. Real-time quantitative PCR in cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosis of Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:641-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients in Brazil, and results in high mortality and morbidity, despite free access to HAART (highly active antiretroviral treatment)...
  28. Dibble E, Boxerman J, Baird G, Donahue J, Rogg J. Toxoplasmosis versus lymphoma: Cerebral lesion characterization using DSC-MRI revisited. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2017;152:84-89 pubmed publisher
    ..RCBV derived from contemporary DSC-MRI is helpful for distinguishing between cerebral toxoplasmosis and cerebral lymphoma on an individual patient basis and may facilitate more timely initiation of ..
  29. Carlin B, Kadane J, Gelfand A. Approaches for optimal sequential decision analysis in clinical trials. Biometrics. 1998;54:964-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, we illustrate and compare the forward and backward approaches using data from a recent AIDS clinical trial. ..
  30. Mayatepek E, Flock B, Zelezny R, Kreutzer K, von Giesen H. LTB4 and LTC4 are absent in the cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive persons with toxoplasmic encephalitis: evidence for inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by Toxoplasma gondii. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:714-6 pubmed
    ..6+/-21.2; LTC4, 45.2+/-18.9 pg/mL). These results point to an essential role of inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase with subsequent failure of LT release as an important mechanism for the survival of T. gondii in vivo. ..
  31. Shen D, Matteson D, Tuaillon N, Suedekum B, Buggage R, Chan C. Involvement of apoptosis and interferon-gamma in murine toxoplasmosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:2031-6 pubmed
    ..Multiple factors are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis. ..
  32. Koch C, Pacak K. Abnormal ACTH-stimulation test in a patient with AIDS: adrenal insufficiency or toxoplasmosis?. Endocr Regul. 2001;35:91-3 pubmed
    ..We conclude that patients with AIDS on megace therapy should receive special attention in regards to the potential development of AI, especially in stress situations such as infections or pain. ..
  33. Gallardo F, Moreno V, Babe J, Cobo J, Rios M, Gomez M. [Brain SPECT with 201-thallium in AIDS patients]. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2001;20:439-42 pubmed
    ..Brain SPECT with 201Tl is a very useful non-invasive technique for the differential diagnosis of cerebral focal lesions in AIDS patients. ..
  34. Carruthers V, Suzuki Y. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the brain. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:745-51 pubmed
  35. Falzone C, Baroni M, De Lorenzi D, Mandara M. Toxoplasma gondii brain granuloma in a cat: diagnosis using cytology from an intraoperative sample and sequential magnetic resonance imaging. J Small Anim Pract. 2008;49:95-9 pubmed
    ..Cytology and magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in making a definitive diagnosis and to follow the evolution of the lesion. ..
  36. Suzuki K, Masuya M, Matsumoto T, Ito N, Ohishi K, Maeda M, et al. High-intensity signals in the basal ganglia from gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI as an early change in toxoplasma encephalitis in an AIDS patient. J Infect Chemother. 2010;16:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the use of MRI in general has become more widespread, it is predicted that preclinical lesions of TE will be found in various clinical settings more frequently...
  37. Angus C, Klivington Evans D, Dubey J, Kovacs J. Immunization with a DNA plasmid encoding the SAG1 (P30) protein of Toxoplasma gondii is immunogenic and protective in rodents. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:317-24 pubmed
    ..No protection was observed when mice were challenged with the highly virulent RH strain tachyzoites. These results suggest that nucleic acid vaccination can provide protection against T. gondii infection in mice. ..
  38. Seta N, Shimizu T, Nawata M, Wada R, Mori K, Sekigawa I, et al. A possible novel mechanism of opportunistic infection in systemic lupus erythematosus, based on a case of toxoplasmic encephalopathy. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002;41:1072-3 pubmed
  39. Que X, Wunderlich A, Joiner K, Reed S. Toxopain-1 is critical for infection in a novel chicken embryo model of congenital toxoplasmosis. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2915-21 pubmed
    ..Our new model provides key in vivo validation for the hypothesis that toxopain-1 is a potential drug target in Toxoplasma gondii and also provides a new animal model for rapid, inexpensive screening of antiparasitic compounds...
  40. Lim Z, Baker B, Zuckerman M, Zuckermann M, Wade J, Ceesay M, et al. Toxoplasmosis following alemtuzumab based allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Infect. 2007;54:e83-6 pubmed
    ..9% and 3.0% respectively. Despite in vivo T-cell depletion with alemtuzumab, the incidence of toxoplasma disease in our cohort was comparable with previously reported T-cell replete HSCT studies. ..
  41. Mitchell S, Zajac A, Kennedy T, Davis W, Dubey J, Lindsay D. Prevention of recrudescent toxoplasmic encephalitis using ponazuril in an immunodeficient mouse model. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2006;53 Suppl 1:S164-5 pubmed
  42. Jamieson S, Cordell H, Petersen E, McLeod R, Gilbert R, Blackwell J. Host genetic and epigenetic factors in toxoplasmosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:162-9 pubmed
    ..These genetic and epigenetic risk factors provide unique insight into molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of disease...
  43. Bastos da Silva I, Batista T, Martines R, Kanamura C, Ferreira I, Vidal J, et al. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii: DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from AIDS patients who died by severe disseminated toxoplasmosis. Exp Parasitol. 2016;165:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..They had previous cerebral toxoplasmosis at least 6 months before the disseminated toxoplasmosis episode...
  44. Homan W, Vercammen M, De Braekeleer J, Verschueren H. Identification of a 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in Toxoplasma gondii, and its use for diagnostic and quantitative PCR. Int J Parasitol. 2000;30:69-75 pubmed
    ..With the quantitative competitive-PCR, furthermore, we could confirm the copy number of the 529bp fragment in tachyzoites and estimate the number of bradyzoites per cyst. ..
  45. Berger J. Mass lesions of the brain in AIDS: the dilemmas of distinguishing toxoplasmosis from primary CNS lymphoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:554-5 pubmed
  46. Solano Remírez M, Oliván Ballabriga A, da Costa Rodríguez G, Alvarez Frías M, González Arencibia C. [Renal failure caused by sulfadiazine in a HIV patient with toxoplasmic encephalitis]. An Med Interna. 2005;22:395-6 pubmed
  47. Corr P. Imaging of neuro-AIDS. J Psychosom Res. 2006;61:295-9 pubmed
    ..Imaging findings are often nonspecific; however, correlations with patient's clinical signs and CD4 count allow a working diagnosis to be made. ..
  48. Zajdenweber M, Muccioli C, Belfort R. [Ocular involvement in AIDS patients with central nervous system toxoplasmosis: before and after HAART]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:773-5 pubmed
    ..Although the incidence of opportunistic infections has decreased since the introduction of recent antiretroviral therapeutic strategies ocular toxoplasmosis continues to be frequent in patients with cen.ral nervous system toxoplasmosis. ..
  49. Arens J, Barnes K, Crowley N, Maartens G. Treating AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis - pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine compared with cotrimoxazole, and outcome with adjunctive glucocorticoids. S Afr Med J. 2007;97:956-8 pubmed
    We conducted a retrospective study of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Eighteen patients received pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine and 25 co-trimoxazole, with comparable baseline characteristics...
  50. Kra O, N Dhatz M, Yao N, Aba T, Dadie N, Bissagnene E, et al. [Morbidity and mortality of military personnel at the Abidjan Military Hospital (AMH) in Côte d'Ivoire]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:38-40 pubmed
    ..5%). The most common diseases were HIV infection (85 cases; 42%), pneumopathy (40 cases; 19%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (22 cases; 10.5%), malaria (18 cases; 9%) and tuberculosis (11 cases; 5%)...
  51. Ferraz Filho J, Santana Netto P, Rocha Filho J, Sgnolf A, Mauad F, Sanches R. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:250-3 pubmed
    ..Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms...
  52. Menotti J, Vilela G, Romand S, Garin Y, Ades L, Gluckman E, et al. Comparison of PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of an unusual case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a stem cell transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5313-6 pubmed
    ..immunosorbent assay and a real-time PCR assay were compared for diagnosis and follow-up of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a stem cell transplant recipient...
  53. Heussel C, Kauczor H, Heussel G, Poguntke M, Schadmand Fischer S, Mildenberger P, et al. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver and brain in hematologic-oncologic patients with fever of unknown origin]. Rofo. 1998;169:128-34 pubmed
    ..Because of the delayed detectability of cerebral manifestations, in cases of persisting suspicion even a previously normal MRI of the brain should be repeated. ..
  54. Kaplan J, Masur H, Holmes K. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons--2002. Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002;51:1-52 pubmed
  55. Suzuki Y, Claflin J, Wang X, Lengi A, Kikuchi T. Microglia and macrophages as innate producers of interferon-gamma in the brain following infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:83-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CD11b+ CD45low microglia and CD11b+ CD45high blood-derived macrophages are the major non-T, non-NK cells which express IFN-gamma in the brain of mice infected with T. gondii. ..
  56. Dickerson F, Boronow J, Stallings C, Origoni A, Yolken R. Toxoplasma gondii in individuals with schizophrenia: association with clinical and demographic factors and with mortality. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:737-40 pubmed
    ..An understanding of the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma infections in individuals with schizophrenia might lead to new approaches to the management of this disorder. ..
  57. Armbruster C, Alesch F, Budka H, Kriwanek S. [Stereotactic brain biopsy in AIDS patients: a necessary patient-oriented and cost-effective diagnostic measure?]. Acta Med Austriaca. 1998;25:91-5 pubmed
    ..In selected patients even expensive investigations should be undertaken considering specific therapy and cost effective homecare. ..
  58. Eberly L, Ohman P, Neaton J, Price R, Abrams D. Kaposi's sarcoma and central nervous system disease: a real association or an artifact of the control group? Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. AIDS. 2000;14:995-1000 pubmed
    ..However, when compared to individuals with no AIDS-defining disease or with a similarly mild AIDS-defining disease such as invasive candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma is associated with an equivalent risk of CNS disease. ..
  59. Contini C, Fainardi E, Cultrera R, Seraceni S, Castellazzi M, Peyron F, et al. Evidence of cerebrospinal fluid free kappa light chains in AIDS patients with Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2000;108:221-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the increased production of T. gondii-specific FkappaLC could provide insights into pathogenesis of reactivated TE in immunocompromised patients and may have important diagnostic usefulness. ..
  60. Schluter D, Kwok L, Lütjen S, Soltek S, Hoffmann S, Korner H, et al. Both lymphotoxin-alpha and TNF are crucial for control of Toxoplasma gondii in the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2003;170:6172-82 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the crucial role of both LTalpha and TNF for control of intracerebral toxoplasms. ..
  61. Francis P, Patel V, Bill P, Bhigjee A. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients--a prospective study. S Afr Med J. 2004;94:51-3 pubmed
    ..This study examines the efficacy of oral co-trimoxazole in 20 AIDS patients with toxoplasmosis and seeks to confirm the experience of Torre et al. ..
  62. Yamamoto T. [Toxoplasma encephalitis]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;95:1260-2 pubmed
  63. Davaro R, Thirumalai A. Life-threatening complications of HIV infection. J Intensive Care Med. 2007;22:73-81 pubmed
    ..In this article, the authors provide a review of the most common life-threatening complications in patients with HIV infection. ..
  64. Makuwa M, Loemba H, Beuzit Y, Livrozet J, Belec L. [Intrathecal synthesis of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies during cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with African AIDS]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1999;92:95-8 pubmed
    ..of the Hôpital Central des Forces Armées Congolaises, Brazzaville, Congo, hospitalized for suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis, have been evaluated for integrity of the blood-brain barrier, intrathecal synthesis of total IgG, ..
  65. Fahnehjelm K, Malm G, Ygge J, Engman M, Maly E, Evengard B. Ophthalmological findings in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Report from a Swedish prospective screening study of congenital toxoplasmosis with two years of follow-up. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000;78:569-75 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmological investigations should start early and continue in co-operation with paediatricians. ..
  66. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Multiple opportunistic AIDS-associated disorders strictly related to immunodeficiency levels, in a girl with congenital HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:638-9 pubmed
  67. Duval X, Pajot O, Le Moing V, Longuet P, Ecobichon J, Mentre F, et al. Maintenance therapy with cotrimoxazole for toxoplasmic encephalitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2004;18:1342-4 pubmed
    ..1 cases per 100 patient-years (95% confidence interval, 0.05-11.3). This strategy could be useful for patients awaiting immune reconstitution which allows the interruption of TE maintenance therapy. ..
  68. Soto Hernandez J, Moreno Andrade T, Gongora Rivera F, Ramírez Crescencio M. Nocardia abscess during treatment of brain toxoplasmosis in a patient with aids, utility of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:493-8 pubmed
    ..Aspiration yielded purulent material and Nocardia asteroides grew in culture. The patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole and recovered with a mild visual field residual defect. ..
  69. Resende M, Fux B, Caetano B, Mendes E, Silva N, Ferreira A, et al. The role of MHC haplotypes H2d/H2b in mouse resistance/susceptibility to cyst formation is influenced by the lineage of infective Toxoplasma gondii strain. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2008;80:85-99 pubmed
    ..These findings are relevant to further understanding of the immunologic mechanisms involved in host protection and pathogenesis during infection with T. gondii. ..
  70. Laure Kamionowska M, Dambska M. Damage of maturing brain in the course of toxoplasmic encephalitis. Neuropatol Pol. 1992;30:307-14 pubmed
    ..Finally, the inflammatory process resulted in hydranencephaly. Proliferation of subependymal glia evident in all cases and blocking the pathways of the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation, may have played a role in this process...
  71. Gherardi A, Sarciron M, Peyron F. Toxoplasma encephalitis: influence of the vehicle on the efficacy of different doses of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine in mice. Parasite. 2000;7:39-42 pubmed
    ..So ddI has an effect on the cerebral cysts of T. gondii even at a low dose. The galenic formulation influences its action since the doses prepared with Maalox were less efficient than those prepared from ground tablets. ..
  72. Vastava P, Pradhan S, Jha S, Prasad K, Kumar S, Gupta R. MRI features of toxoplasma encephalitis in the immunocompetent host: a report of two cases. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:834-8 pubmed
    Central nervous system involvement due to toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host is rare. We describe MRI features in two immunocompetent patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and compare these with those for the immunocompromised host.
  73. Joseph P, Calderon M, Gilman R, Quispe M, Cok J, Ticona E, et al. Optimization and evaluation of a PCR assay for detecting toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4499-503 pubmed
    ..Control clinical diagnostic criteria), 12 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis who had neither CDC diagnostic criteria nor positive mouse inoculation, 26 human immunodeficiency virus-..
  74. Oberdörfer C, Adams O, Mackenzie C, de Groot C, Daubener W. Role of IDO activation in anti-microbial defense in human native astrocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;527:15-26 pubmed
    ..Co-activation of iNOS and IDO on the other hand, results in an inhibition of IDO activity in astrocytes. ..
  75. Arling T, Yolken R, Lapidus M, Langenberg P, Dickerson F, Zimmerman S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii antibody titers and history of suicide attempts in patients with recurrent mood disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:905-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although preliminary and bearing replication, this is the first report, to our knowledge, of an association between attempting suicide and T. gondii. ..
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    ..We conclude that TE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple lesions in sexually active individuals including cases without a prior history of HIV infection. ..
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