brain abscess

Summary

Summary: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)

Top Publications

  1. Rath T, Hughes M, Arabi M, Shah G. Imaging of cerebritis, encephalitis, and brain abscess. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:585-607 pubmed publisher
    Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscess, pyogenic infection, and encephalitis. The role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and management of pyogenic brain abscess and its complications is reviewed...
  2. Chew Y, Cheong J, Khir A, Brito Mutunayagam S, Prepageran N. Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: a left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:428, 430 pubmed
    Otogenic brain abscess and postauricular fistula are complications of chronic suppurative otitis media...
  3. Kassis H, Marnejon T, Gemmel D, Cutrona A, Gottimukkula R. Streptococcus sanguinis brain abscess as complication of subclinical endocarditis: emphasizing the importance of prompt diagnosis. South Med J. 2010;103:559-62 pubmed publisher
    A 19-year-old male patient was diagnosed with S. sanguinis brain abscess of unknown etiopathology as a complication of subclinical endocarditis. While viridans streptococci are implicated in dental seeding to the heart, S...
  4. Muzumdar D, Jhawar S, Goel A. Brain abscess: an overview. Int J Surg. 2011;9:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..the advent of newer antibiotics and surgical strategies, the overall outcome and quality of life issues in brain abscess patients still remain a continuous challenge for the neurosurgical community...
  5. Ratnaike T, Das S, Gregson B, Mendelow A. A review of brain abscess surgical treatment--78 years: aspiration versus excision. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:431-6 pubmed publisher
    The literature regarding surgical treatment of brain abscess was reviewed from 1990 to (and including) 2008 to supplement a previous literature review from 1930 to 1990.
  6. Caggiano G, Cantisani P, Rolli M, Gianfreda C, Pizzolante M, Montagna M. The importance of a proper aetiological diagnosis in the management of patients with invasive mycoses: a case report of a brain abscess by Scedosporium apiospermum. Mycopathologia. 2011;172:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors describe a fatal case of a S. apiospermum brain abscess in a 58-year-old female...
  7. Larbcharoensub N, Chongtrakool P, Wirojtananugoon C, Watcharananan S, Sumethkul V, Boongird A, et al. Treatment of a brain abscess caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in a renal transplant recipient. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:484-9 pubmed
    ..Voriconazole may represent a new therapeutic option for these simultaneous infections in the brain...
  8. Al Masalma M, Raoult D, Roux V. Phocaeicola abscessus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from a human brain abscess sample. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:2232-7 pubmed publisher
    A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain, 7401987T, was isolated from a human brain abscess sample. Cells were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, coccoid to rod-shaped and motile by flagella in a lophotrichous arrangement...
  9. Smith S, Ughratdar I, Macarthur D. Never go to sleep on undrained pus: a retrospective review of surgery for intraparenchymal cerebral abscess. Br J Neurosurg. 2009;23:412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Delay had an adverse affect, so operation should be as expeditious as possible whenever the differential diagnosis includes abscess, diagnosis of which may be aided by advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Keller P, Rampini S, Bloemberg G. Detection of a mixed infection in a culture-negative brain abscess by broad-spectrum bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2250-2 pubmed publisher
    We describe the identification of two bacterial pathogens from a culture-negative brain abscess by the use of broad-spectrum 16S rRNA gene PCR...
  2. Liu W, Chen H, Cai B, Li G, You C, Li H. Successful treatment of sellar aspergillus abscess. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:1587-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and correct diagnosis via surgery can improve the prognosis. A combination of surgical resection and antifungal therapy has a good outcome. The importance of early treatment for sellar aspergillus abscesses is emphasised...
  3. Kumar V, Augustine D, Panikar D, Nandakumar A, Dinesh K, Karim S, et al. Brevibacterium casei as a cause of brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4374-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first case of B. casei brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy.
  4. McNeil C, Luo R, Vogel H, Banaei N, Ho D. Brain abscess caused by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in an immunocompromised patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1171-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first documented case of central nervous system involvement with brain abscess formation in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and review the literature on Phaeoacremonium ..
  5. Dohe V, Deshpande S, Bharadwaj R. Tubercular brain abscess--case report. Indian J Tuberc. 2010;57:102-3 pubmed
    ..CNS tuberculosis can present as meningitis, arachnoiditis, tuberculoma and brain abscess. Tubercular Brain Abscess (TBA) is a rare manifestation of central nervous system tuberculosis...
  6. Chotai S, Moon H, Kim J, Kim J, Chung H, Park Y, et al. Brain abscess caused by Gemella morbillorum: case report and review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22:374-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge only eight cases of Gemella morbillorum brain abscess have been reported in the literature...
  7. Viriyavejakul P, Riganti M. Undiagnosed amebic brain abscess. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:1183-7 pubmed
    We report a case of amebic brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica. The patient was a 31-year-old man who presented with amebic liver abscess. His clinical course deteriorated in spite of proper drainage and treatment...
  8. Helweg Larsen J, Astradsson A, Richhall H, Erdal J, Laursen A, Brennum J. Pyogenic brain abscess, a 15 year survey. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:332 pubmed publisher
    b>Brain abscess is a potentially fatal disease. This study assesses clinical aspects of brain abscess in a large hospital cohort.
  9. Sarica F, Tufan K, Cekinmez M, Erdogan B, Altinors M. A rare but fatal case of granulomatous amebic encephalitis with brain abscess: the first case reported from Turkey. Turk Neurosurg. 2009;19:256-9 pubmed
    ..This paper presents a case of GAE with abscess formation in a 75-year-old male patient...
  10. Saito N, Hida A, Koide Y, Ooka T, Ichikawa Y, Shimizu J, et al. Culture-negative brain abscess with Streptococcus intermedius infection with diagnosis established by direct nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal RNA gene. Intern Med. 2012;51:211-6 pubmed
    ..The patient exhibited complete remission. Thus, 16S rRNA gene analysis was highly useful not only for pathogen identification with negative culture results but also for the appropriate selection of antibiotics...
  11. Tsai C, Su S, Cheng Y, Chou Y, Tsai T, Lieu A. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:102 pubmed publisher
    ..previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis...
  12. Limmahakhun S, Chayakulkeeree M. Listeria monocytogenes brain abscess: two cases and review of the literature. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:468-78 pubmed
    ..Listerial brain abscesses are rare. We report here two brain abscess cases caused by L. monocytogenes in patients receiving immunosuppressive agents...
  13. Tam M, Wong G, Ip M, Kam M, Abrigo J, Zhu X, et al. Management outcome of NPC-related and non-NPC-related brain abscess in Hong Kong. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:560-3 pubmed publisher
    1) To review the patient profile, management outcome and prognostic factors of brain abscess; (2) To compare the neurological outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)-related brain abscess with non-NPC related brain abscess.
  14. Vidlak D, Mariani M, Aldrich A, Liu S, Kielian T. Roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and superantigens on adaptive immune responses during CNS staphylococcal infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:905-14 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus recognition. However, the interplay between TLR2, SAG, and adaptive immunity during brain abscess formation has not yet been investigated and could reveal novel insights into host-pathogen interactions for ..
  15. Martin Canal G, Saavedra A, Asensi J, Suarez Zarracina T, Rodriguez Guardado A, Bustillo E, et al. Meropenem monotherapy is as effective as and safer than imipenem to treat brain abscesses. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;35:301-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2g/day) [combined standard chemotherapy (CSC)] for the treatment of brain abscess was compared...
  16. Russell W, Taylor W, Ray G, Gravil J, Davidson S. Not just a 'simple stroke'. Acute Med. 2011;10:35-7 pubmed
    ..He was transferred for urgent craniotomy and evacuation of a Streptococcus milleri abscess. Following several weeks of neurosurgical care and antibiotics he made a near full recovery...
  17. Hsiao S, Chang W, Lin W, Tsai N, Huang C, Wang H, et al. The experiences of non-operative treatment in patients with bacterial brain abscess. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:615-20 pubmed publisher
    Although treatment of brain abscess requires a combination of antimicrobials and surgical intervention for the infected foci, nonsurgical, empirical treatment is possible and efficient in selected groups of patients...
  18. Tomar V, Yadav A, Rathore R, Verma S, Awasthi R, Bharadwaj V, et al. Apparent diffusion coefficient with higher b-value correlates better with viable cell count quantified from the cavity of brain abscess. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011;32:2120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..VCD in the abscess cavity correlates with ADC values. The purpose of this study was to investigate which b-value-derived ADC correlates better with VCD...
  19. Manzar N, Manzar B, Kumar R, Bari M. The study of etiologic and demographic characteristics of intracranial brain abscess: a consecutive case series study from Pakistan. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:195-200; discussion 79-83 pubmed publisher
  20. Chakraborti S, Mahadevan A, Govindan A, Nagarathna S, Santosh V, Yasha T, et al. Clinicopathological study of tuberculous brain abscess. Pathol Res Pract. 2009;205:815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary particularly in countries endemic for tuberculosis to ensure an accurate diagnosis and application of an appropriate therapy...
  21. Al Masalma M, Raoult D, Roux V. Staphylococcus massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a human brain abscess. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:1066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..coagulase-negative, non-motile, non-fermentative and novobiocin-susceptible cocci were isolated from a human brain abscess sample (strain 5402776(T)). This novel strain was analysed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach...
  22. Doyle J, Campbell E, Fuller A, Spelman D, Cameron R, Malham G, et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris brain abscess successfully treated with complete surgical excision and prolonged combination antimicrobial therapy. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This case describes successful treatment of a Balamuthia mandrillaris brain abscess using prolonged antimicrobial agents with complete excision...
  23. Hibberd C, Nguyen T. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report. J Can Dent Assoc. 2012;78:c49 pubmed
    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child...
  24. Honda H, Warren D. Central nervous system infections: meningitis and brain abscess. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009;23:609-23 pubmed publisher
    Despite advances in antimicrobial and antiviral therapy, meningitis and brain abscess are infections that result in significant morbidity and mortality...
  25. Doud M, Grimes Zeppegno R, Molina E, Miller N, Balachandar D, Schneper L, et al. A k2A-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae causes liver and brain abscess in a Saint Kitt's man. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6:301-4 pubmed
    ..The K2 serotype has also been strongly associated with hypervirulence. We report the isolation of non-magA, K2 K. pneumoniae strain from a liver abscess of a Saint Kitt's man who survived the invasive syndrome...
  26. Esen N, Wagoner G, Philips N. Evaluation of capsular and acapsular strains of S. aureus in an experimental brain abscess model. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;218:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we aimed to compare potential changes in brain abscess pathogenesis induced by two different strains of S...
  27. Tsou T, Lee P, Lu C, Chang L, Huang L, Chen J, et al. Microbiology and epidemiology of brain abscess and subdural empyema in a medical center: a 10-year experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2009;42:405-12 pubmed
    b>Brain abscess and subdural empyema are the 2 most common forms of intracranial pyogenic infections. Predisposing factors and etiological agents may change with time. This study examined the epidemiological features of these conditions.
  28. Charles M, Johnson E, Macyk Davey A, Henry M, Nilsson J, Miedzinski L, et al. Legionella micdadei brain abscess. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:701-4 pubmed publisher
    We describe an immunocompromised patient who developed a large frontal brain abscess caused by Legionella micdadei. This is, to our knowledge, a rare case of culture-proven Legionella central nervous system infection.
  29. Nathoo N, Nadvi S, Narotam P, van Dellen J. Brain abscess: management and outcome analysis of a computed tomography era experience with 973 patients. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:716-26; discussion 612-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Brain abscess (BA) is a neurosurgical emergency and despite significant medical advances, it remains a surgical challenge. A single institution's two decade computed tomography era management experience with BA is reported.
  30. Shetty P, Moiyadi A, Pantvaidya G, Arya S. Cystic metastasis versus brain abscess: role of MR imaging in accurate diagnosis and implications on treatment. J Cancer Res Ther. 2010;6:356-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss this case and review the literature regarding the role of newer MRI sequences and the ramifications on patient treatment...
  31. Valour F, Boisset S, Lebras L, Martha B, Boibieux A, Perpoint T, et al. Clostridium sordellii brain abscess diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3443-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the first case to our knowledge of a Clostridium sordellii-associated brain abscess, diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, expanding the microbiological spectrum of brain abscesses, with ..
  32. Rahamat Langendoen J, van Vonderen M, Engström L, Manson W, van Winkelhoff A, Mooi Kokenberg E. Brain abscess associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: case report and review of literature. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:702-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a patient with multiple brain abscesses due to infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans and review the English language literature related to this subject...
  33. Nathoo N, Narotam P, Nadvi S, van Dellen J. Taming an old enemy: a profile of intracranial suppuration. World Neurosurg. 2012;77:484-90 pubmed publisher
    Intracranial suppurative disorders (ICSDs; brain abscess, empyema, and purulent ventriculitis), have been a scourge through the ages and attempts at curative surgery, as for cranial trauma, are considered to be one of the first true ..
  34. Gutiérrez Cuadra M, Ballesteros M, Vallejo A, Minambres E, Farinas Alvarez C, García Palomo J, et al. [Brain abscess in a third-level hospital: epidemiology and prognostic factors related to mortality]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2009;22:201-6 pubmed
    To document the epidemiology, causes, treatment and prognostic factors associated with mortality of patients with brain abscess in a tertiary medical center.
  35. Arends J, Stemerding A, Vorst S, De Neeling A, Weersink A. First report of a brain abscess caused by Nocardia veterana. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4364-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first presentation of a case of brain abscess attributable to an N. veterana infection in a patient with type 2 diabetes...
  36. Oh T, Jeong W, McEwan A, Park H, Kim H, Kwon O, et al. Feasibility of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) conductivity imaging to evaluate brain abscess lesion: in vivo canine model. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;38:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) conductivity imaging in terms of its capability to provide new contrast information of abscess lesion and characterize time-course variations before and after the induction of brain abscess.
  37. Ditrich O, Chrdle A, Sak B, Chmelik V, Kubále J, Dykova I, et al. Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I as a causative agent of brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2769-71 pubmed publisher
    A brain abscess caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I together with Streptococcus intermedius occurred in a patient without major immunocompromise and with diabetes. The distinguishing clinical signs were hemiparesis and epilepsy...
  38. Cavusoglu H, Kaya R, Türkmenoğlu O, Colak I, Aydin Y. Brain abscess: analysis of results in a series of 51 patients with a combined surgical and medical approach during an 11-year period. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;24:E9 pubmed publisher
    ..5 cm in diameter, a 6-week or longer course of intravenous antibiotics, and weekly neuroimaging should yield cure rates of > 90% in patients with intracranial abscesses. ..
  39. Roche M, Humphreys H, Smyth E, Phillips J, Cunney R, McNamara E, et al. A twelve-year review of central nervous system bacterial abscesses; presentation and aetiology. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9:803-9 pubmed
    ..Most infections were community-acquired and responded well to a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. The emergence of MRSA in this group of patients is, however, worrying. ..
  40. Ozturk S, Tufan F, Alisir S, Görçin S, Guven D, Cagatay A, et al. A case of isolated Nocardia asteroides brain abscess in a kidney transplant recipient. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3121-4 pubmed
    ..Nocardia brain abscess is a rare condition, seen most commonly among immunocompromised patients...
  41. Khouzam R, El Dokla A, Menkes D. Undiagnosed patent foramen ovale presenting as a cryptogenic brain abscess: case report and review of the literature. Heart Lung. 2006;35:108-11 pubmed
    ..oral hygiene presented with fever and new-onset tonic-clonic seizures secondary to a left parieto-occipital brain abscess defined by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical evacuation...
  42. Corson M, Postlethwaite K, Seymour R. Are dental infections a cause of brain abscess? Case report and review of the literature. Oral Dis. 2001;7:61-5 pubmed
    ..In order to confirm the role of odontogenic infection in the pathogenesis of brain abscess, modern sampling techniques should be used to precisely identify the isolates...
  43. Wagner K, Schön R, Schumacher M, Schmelzeisen R, Schulze D. Case report: brain and liver abscesses caused by oral infection with Streptococcus intermedius. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:e21-3 pubmed
    ..Streptococcus intermedius was isolated from oral smear, liver and ventricular drainage, and blood sample. After the commencement of antibiotic therapy, drainage of abscesses and oral rehabilitation, complete recovery was noted...
  44. Erdogan E, Cansever T. Pyogenic brain abscess. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;24:E2 pubmed publisher
    ..The pitfalls and evolution in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscesses are discussed in this study. ..
  45. Wong W, Cheng P, Chan F, Leong L. Improved diagnosis of a temporal lobe abscess in a post-irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:1040-3 pubmed
  46. Kowlessar P, O Connell N, Mitchell R, Elliott S, Elliott T. Management of patients with Streptococcus milleri brain abscesses. J Infect. 2006;52:443-50 pubmed
    ..Twenty two patients with a S. milleri brain abscess were treated with metronidazole and cefotaxime, in accordance with recent recommendations by the British ..
  47. Salin F, Vianello F, Manara R, Morelli E, Cattelan A, Scarin M, et al. Linezolid in the treatment of brain abscess due to Peptostreptococcus. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:203-5 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of brain abscess secondary to anaerobic infection with Peptostreptococcus, which was successfully treated with parenteral and ..
  48. Yee Guardino S, Danziger Isakov L, Knouse M, Bingaman W, Sabella C, Goldfarb J. Nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas stutzeri brain abscess in a child: case report and review. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:630-2 pubmed
    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a rare cause of nosocomial infection. We report a pediatric case of nosocomially acquired P. stutzeri brain abscess after subdural grid implantation before surgery for refractory epilepsy and review the literature.
  49. Kielian T, Phulwani N, Esen N, Syed M, Haney A, McCastlain K, et al. MyD88-dependent signals are essential for the host immune response in experimental brain abscess. J Immunol. 2007;178:4528-37 pubmed
    ..findings indicate that MyD88 plays an essential role in establishing a protective CNS host response during the early stages of brain abscess development, whereas MyD88-independent pathway(s) are responsible for pathogen containment.
  50. Chang S, Lai P, Chen W, Weng H, Ho J, Wang J, et al. Diffusion-weighted MRI features of brain abscess and cystic or necrotic brain tumors: comparison with conventional MRI. Clin Imaging. 2002;26:227-36 pubmed
    ..001). With some exceptions, DWI is useful in providing a greater degree of confidence in distinguishing brain abscesses from cystic or necrotic brain tumors than conventional MRI and seems to be a valuable diagnostic tool. ..
  51. Liberto M, Matera G, Puccio R, Barbieri V, Quirino A, Capicotto R, et al. An unusual case of brain abscess by Gemella morbillorum. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2006;59:126-8 pubmed
    A case of deep brain abscess by Gemella morbillorum is described...
  52. Iannotti C, Hall G, Procop G, Tuohy M, Staugaitis S, Weil R. Solitary Nocardia farcinica brain abscess in an immunocompetent adult mimicking metastatic brain tumor: rapid diagnosis by pyrosequencing and successful treatment. Surg Neurol. 2009;72:74-9; discussion 79 pubmed publisher
    Nocardia brain abscess carries a higher morbidity and mortality rate than other bacterial cerebral abscesses, with reported mortality rates of 55% and 20% in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, respectively...
  53. Al Masalma M, Armougom F, Scheld W, Dufour H, Roche P, Drancourt M, et al. The expansion of the microbiological spectrum of brain abscesses with use of multiple 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1169-78 pubmed publisher
    Background. Brain abscess is commonly treated using empirically prescribed antibiotics...
  54. Hakan T, Ceran N, Erdem I, Berkman M, Goktas P. Bacterial brain abscesses: an evaluation of 96 cases. J Infect. 2006;52:359-66 pubmed
    Although the decline of the morbidity and mortality in recent years, brain abscess is still one of the most important problems in Neurosurgery.
  55. Wakui D, Ito H, Ikeda R, Yoshida Y, Furuya Y, Tanaka K, et al. [A complicated case of Nocardia brain abscess for differential diagnosis]. No Shinkei Geka. 2008;36:1011-6 pubmed
    Nocardia brain abscess is rare and has uncertain clinical features. Radiological differential diagnosis based on the metabolic feature of Nocardia is discussed.
  56. Kaushik K, Karade S, Kumar S, Kapila K. Tuberculous brain abscess in a patient with HIV infection. Indian J Tuberc. 2007;54:196-8 pubmed
    Tuberculous Brain Abscess (TBA) is a rare manifestation of CNS tuberculosis. Only a few cases have been reported in literature. A twenty six year old male presented with high grade fever, throbbing headache and altered sensorium...
  57. Greenberg B. Central nervous system infections in the intensive care unit. Semin Neurol. 2008;28:682-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When certain infections are suspected, such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, empiric therapy should be initiated immediately. Outcomes for these conditions are linked to how quickly appropriate therapies are initiated...
  58. Buzina W, Feierl G, Haas D, Reinthaler F, Holl A, Kleinert R, et al. Lethal brain abscess due to the fungus Scedosporium apiospermum (teleomorph Pseudallescheria boydii) after a near-drowning incident: case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol. 2006;44:473-7 pubmed
    A 39-year-old healthy man developed a brain abscess weeks after a near-drowning incident. Scedosporium apiospermum, the anamorph of Pseudallescheria boydii, was isolated from the abscess...
  59. Sifri C, Park J, Helm G, Stemper M, Shukla S. Fatal brain abscess due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e113-7 pubmed
    We report a fatal case of brain abscess caused by infection due to a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (USA300) in a 37-year-old incarcerated woman with a history of furunculosis and injection drug ..
  60. Wasay M, Patel J, Azam I, Khan M, Smego R. Preoperative antifungal therapy may improve survival in patients with Aspergillus brain abscess. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:565-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine if the preoperative use of antifungal therapy positively influences clinical outcome in patients with Aspergillus brain abscess.
  61. Hipolito E, Faria E, Alves A, de Hoog G, Anjos J, Goncalves T, et al. Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:377-80 pubmed publisher
    In the present report, we describe the first case of a phaeohyphomycotic brain abscess in a 5-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) admitted to hospital with seizures...
  62. Javad A, Vahid P, Kazem G, Alireza S, Gholamali G, Qulamreza K. Piperacillin/tazobactam in treatment of brain abscess. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:224-6 pubmed
    ..Successful management of a brain abscess usually requires a combination of antibiotics and surgical drainage for both diagnostic and therapeutic ..
  63. Wang H, Chen Y, Teng L, Hung C, Chen M, Du S, et al. Brain abscess associated with multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga ochracea infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:645-7 pubmed
  64. Fihman V, Berçot B, Mateo J, Losser M, Raskine L, Riahi J, et al. First successful treatment of Nocardia farcinica brain abscess with moxifloxacin. J Infect. 2006;52:e99-102 pubmed
    ..We report here the first case of successful treatment of N. farcinica brain abscess in a renal transplant recipient with an extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin.
  65. Kielian T, Bearden E, Baldwin A, Esen N. IL-1 and TNF-alpha play a pivotal role in the host immune response in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced experimental brain abscess. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004;63:381-96 pubmed
    ..Using an established Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess model, we have sought to define the functional importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha ..
  66. Beloosesky Y, Streifler J, Eynan N, Grinblat J. Brain abscess complicating cerebral infarct. Age Ageing. 2002;31:477-80 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a 68-year-old man who suffered ischemic strokes in the left middle cerebral artery territory and three months later, following urosepsis, developed a cerebral abscess in the infarcted area...