central nervous system infections


Summary: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.

Top Publications

  1. Schmidt Hieber M, Zweigner J, Uharek L, Blau I, Thiel E. Central nervous system infections in immunocompromised patients: update on diagnostics and therapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:24-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we give an overview on the diagnostics and management of cerebral infections in these patients including evidence evaluation of efficacy of treatment. ..
  2. Taha M, Olcen P. Molecular genetic methods in diagnosis and direct characterization of acute bacterial central nervous system infections. APMIS. 2004;112:753-70 pubmed
    ..In many cases, the molecular assays have decreased the identification time of positive cultures and rescued detection of pathogens in culture-negative clinical samples. ..
  3. Somand D, Meurer W. Central nervous system infections. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009;27:89-100, ix pubmed publisher
    b>Central nervous system infections have long been recognized as among the most devastating of diseases...
  4. Jong A, Huang S. Blood-brain barrier drug discovery for central nervous system infections. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005;5:65-72 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the major BBB drug targeting strategies in the development of therapeutics for CNS infections. A combination of these strategies will ultimately lead to improved treatments. ..
  5. Walker M, Zunt J. Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1005-15 pubmed
  6. Jiao F, Zhang X, Bai T, Lin J, Cui W, Liu B. Clinical evaluation of the function of hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in children with central nervous system infections. Ital J Pediatr. 2011;37:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring a little amount of blood (1 ml)or CSF required for this method is a simple, convenient and accurate method. ..
  7. Pruitt A. Central nervous system infections in cancer patients. Semin Neurol. 2004;24:435-52 pubmed
    ..Among several recently recognized syndromes in the latter are infections due to human herpesviruses 6 and 7, West Nile virus, and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ..
  8. Kepa L, Oczko Grzesik B, Stolarz W, Sobala Szczygiel B. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis in suspected central nervous system infections. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:562-4 pubmed
    ..Detailed anamnesis is essential, particularly related to medication use immediately prior to the appearance of symptoms of CNS impairment. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of CNS infections should include DIAM. ..
  9. Kelbich P, Koudelková M, Machová H, Tomaskovic M, Vachata P, Kotalíková P, et al. [Importance of urgent cerebrospinal fluid examination for early diagnosis of central nervous system infections]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek. 2007;13:9-20 pubmed

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nau R, Sorgel F, Eiffert H. Penetration of drugs through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:858-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct injection of drugs, which do not readily penetrate into the CNS, into the ventricular or lumbar CSF is indicated when other effective therapeutic options are unavailable. ..
  2. Chow F, Marra C, Cho T. Cerebrovascular disease in central nervous system infections. Semin Neurol. 2011;31:286-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we address bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic causes of cerebrovascular disease. ..
  3. Mory F, Fougnot S, Rabaud C, Schuhmacher H, Lozniewski A. In vitro activities of cefotaxime, vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid and other antibiotics alone and in combination against Propionibacterium acnes isolates from central nervous system infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:265-8 pubmed
    ..acnes, and that these activities may be enhanced when vancomycin is combined with cefotaxime or when cefotaxime is combined with quinupristin/dalfopristin. ..
  4. Ziai W, Lewin J. Update in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system infections. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:427-68, viii pubmed publisher
  5. Leveque N, Van Haecke A, Renois F, Boutolleau D, Talmud D, Andreoletti L. Rapid virological diagnosis of central nervous system infections by use of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR DNA microarray. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3874-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 versus 1.4 days; P = 0.038). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that this DNA microarray could be a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for single and mixed DNA and RNA virus infections of the CNS. ..
  6. Taylor W, Nguyen K, Nguyen D, Nguyen H, Horby P, Nguyen H, et al. The spectrum of central nervous system infections in an adult referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42099 pubmed publisher
    ..8%). Most infections lacked microbiological confirmation. S. suis was the most common cause of BM in this setting. Improved diagnostics are needed for meningoencephalitic syndromes to inform treatment and prevention strategies. ..
  7. Cerceo E, Christie J, Nachamkin I, Lautenbach E. Central nervous system infections due to Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species: an emerging challenge?. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;48:161-5 pubmed
    ..Given the significant negative clinical impact of Abiotrophia/Granulicatella infections, elucidation of the emerging epidemiology of CNS infections with these bacteria is warranted. ..
  8. Huang C, Morse D, Slater B, Anand M, Tobin E, Smith P, et al. Multiple-year experience in the diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections with a panel of polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of 11 viruses. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:630-5 pubmed
    ..Medical chart reviews indicated that apparent CNS infection resolves in approximately 50% of cases. ..
  9. Cunha B. The diagnostic usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid levels in central nervous system infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1260-1 pubmed
  10. Trachtenberg J, Kambugu A, McKellar M, Semitala F, Mayanja Kizza H, Samore M, et al. The medical management of central nervous system infections in Uganda and the potential impact of an algorithm-based approach to improve outcomes. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:524-30 pubmed
    ..the early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, and other common central nervous system infections. In retrospective comparison with current management, the CNS algorithm reduced overall time to ..
  11. Misra U, Kalita J, Nair P. Status epilepticus in central nervous system infections: an experience from a developing country. Am J Med. 2008;121:618-23 pubmed publisher
    There is a paucity of comprehensive study in status epilepticus in central nervous system infections. This observational study evaluated the response to antiepileptic drugs in patients with status epilepticus and central nervous system ..
  12. Moore C, Blacksell S, Taojaikong T, Jarman R, Gibbons R, Lee S, et al. A prospective assessment of the accuracy of commercial IgM ELISAs in diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in patients with suspected central nervous system infections in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..compared with a reference standard (AFRIMS JEV MAC ELISA) in a prospective study of the causes of central nervous system infections in Laos...
  13. Sanchetee P. Stroke and central nervous system infections. J Indian Med Assoc. 2009;107:372-7 pubmed
    Stroke is the first cause of disability in adults worldwide. Central nervous system infections as a cause of stroke are not uncommon...
  14. Kongsiriwattanakul S, Suankratay C. Central nervous system infections in HIV-infected patients hospitalized at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011;94:551-8 pubmed
    ..The authors' findings suggest an urgent need to actively search and treat most HIV-infected patients in the community before they become severely immunocompromised. ..
  15. Rock R, Gekker G, Hu S, Sheng W, Cheeran M, Lokensgard J, et al. Role of microglia in central nervous system infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:942-64, table of contents pubmed
    ..It is proposed that an enhanced understanding of microglia will yield improved therapies of central nervous system infections, since such therapies are, by and large, sorely needed.
  16. Carrera E, Claassen J, Oddo M, Emerson R, Mayer S, Hirsch L. Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring in critically ill patients with central nervous system infections. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:1612-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and other continuous electroencephalographic monitoring findings in critically ill patients with central nervous system infections. Retrospective cohort study. Eighteen-bed neurocritical care unit...
  17. Wolffs P, Vink C, Keijdener J, Habek B, Reijans M, Simons G, et al. Evaluation of MeningoFinder, a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for simultaneous detection of six virus species causing central nervous system infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2620-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay, termed MeningoFinder, showed an accordance of 97%, concordance of 96%, interlaboratory sensitivity of 90%, and interlaboratory specificity of 94% compared to PCRs. ..
  18. Daxboeck F. Mycoplasma pneumoniae central nervous system infections. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006;19:374-8 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes and discusses recent findings in the field of M. pneumoniae central nervous system infections in context with previously published findings, with reference to clinical spectrum, pathogenesis, ..
  19. Gedeborg R, Furebring M, Michaelsson K. Diagnosis-dependent misclassification of infections using administrative data variably affected incidence and mortality estimates in ICU patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60:155-62 pubmed
    ..Accuracy of hospital discharge diagnoses varied depending on diagnosis and case definition. The pattern of misclassification makes estimates of relative risk more accurate than estimates of absolute risk. ..
  20. Rumboldt Z, Thurnher M, Gupta R. Central nervous system infections. Semin Roentgenol. 2007;42:62-91 pubmed
  21. Kantarcioglu A, Guarro J, de Hoog G. Central nervous system infections by members of the Pseudallescheria boydii species complex in healthy and immunocompromised hosts: epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcome. Mycoses. 2008;51:275-90 pubmed publisher
    ..As the therapeutic options were poor, the treatment was difficult in general and the prognosis was poor...
  22. Vu K, Weksler B, Romero I, Couraud P, Gelli A. Immortalized human brain endothelial cell line HCMEC/D3 as a model of the blood-brain barrier facilitates in vitro studies of central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1803-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the immortalized human brain endothelial cell line HCMEC/D3 is a useful alternative to primary brain endothelial cells as a model of the blood-brain barrier for studies of central nervous system infection. ..
  23. Weiser M, Werbeloff N, Levine A, Livni G, Schreiber S, Halperin D, et al. CNS infection in childhood does not confer risk for later schizophrenia: a case-control study. Schizophr Res. 2010;124:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..81, 95% CI: 0.5-1.32. Overall there was no significant association between childhood CNS infection and schizophrenia. These data do not support the presence of an infectious etiology of schizophrenia. ..
  24. Cervantes Barragan L, Firner S, Bechmann I, Waisman A, Lahl K, Sparwasser T, et al. Regulatory T cells selectively preserve immune privilege of self-antigens during viral central nervous system infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:3678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Tregs preserve CNS immune privilege through selective control of CNS-specific Th cells while keeping protective antiviral immunity fully operative. ..
  25. Michael B, Powell G, Curtis S, Bailey L, Almond S, McGill F, et al. Improving the diagnosis of central nervous system infections in adults through introduction of a simple lumbar puncture pack. Emerg Med J. 2013;30:402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work is needed to see if these results are more widely reproducible, and to examine the clinical, health and economic impact on overall management of patients with suspected CNS infections. ..
  26. Tan L, van Doorn H, Nghia H, Chau T, Tu L, de Vries M, et al. Identification of a new cyclovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infections. MBio. 2013;4:e00231-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to address the epidemiology and pathogenicity of this novel, potentially zoonotic virus. ..
  27. Leveque N, Legoff J, Mengelle C, Mercier Delarue S, N Guyen Y, Renois F, et al. Virological diagnosis of central nervous system infections by use of PCR coupled with mass spectrometry analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52:212-7 pubmed publisher
  28. Koponen H, Rantakallio P, Veijola J, Jones P, Jokelainen J, Isohanni M. Childhood central nervous system infections and risk for schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;254:9-13 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that viral CNS infections during childhood may have a role as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Their role may be modest at the population level due to their relative rareness. ..
  29. Dalman C, Allebeck P, Gunnell D, Harrison G, Kristensson K, Lewis G, et al. Infections in the CNS during childhood and the risk of subsequent psychotic illness: a cohort study of more than one million Swedish subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:59-65 pubmed
    ..The association with specific viruses suggests that the risk is related to infectious agents with a propensity to invade the brain parenchyma. ..
  30. Hickie I, Banati R, Stewart C, Stewart C, Lloyd A. Are common childhood or adolescent infections risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders?. Med J Aust. 2009;190:S17-21 pubmed
    ..This pathophysiological path should be investigated more systematically as it may explain a novel "neuroprotective" mode of action for some existing antipsychotic compounds. ..
  31. Phares T, Stohlman S, Hwang M, Min B, Hinton D, Bergmann C. CD4 T cells promote CD8 T cell immunity at the priming and effector site during viral encephalitis. J Virol. 2012;86:2416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The data highlight the necessity for temporally and spatially distinct CD4 T cell helper functions in sustaining CD8 T cell activity during CNS infection...
  32. Long M, Huang S, Wu C, Shackleford G, Jong A. Lipid raft/caveolae signaling is required for Cryptococcus neoformans invasion into human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between Cryptococcus neoformans and HBMEC, relevant to its brain invasion, is still largely unknown...
  33. Ho Dang Trung N, Le Thi Phuong T, Wolbers M, Nguyen Van Minh H, Nguyen Thanh V, Van M, et al. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37825 pubmed publisher
    ..Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. ..
  34. Zhong H, Lin Y, Su L, Cao L, Xu M, Xu J. Prevalence of human parechoviruses in central nervous system infections in children: a retrospective study in Shanghai, China. J Med Virol. 2013;85:320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided data on the molecular epidemiology of HPeV infections in CNS-related diseases in Shanghai, China and suggest that the screening for HPeV by PCR should be included in the routine viral testing of CSF...
  35. Nwosu C, Njeze G, Opara C, Nwajuaku C, Chukwurah C. Central nervous system infections in the rainforest zone of Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2001;78:97-101 pubmed
    To ascertain incidence rates of central nervous system infections and provide information for health care planners...
  36. Tunkel A, Pradhan S. Central nervous system infections in injection drug users. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002;16:589-605 pubmed
    b>Central nervous system infections in injection drug users are often devastating in terms of excess morbidity and mortality...
  37. Cunha B. Central nervous system infections in the compromised host: a diagnostic approach. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2001;15:567-90 pubmed
    ..In compromised hosts, differential diagnostic possibilities are more extensive and the likelihood of noninfectious explanations for CNS symptomatology is greater. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) ..
  38. Villani P, Regazzi M, Marubbi F, Viale P, Pagani L, Cristini F, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid linezolid concentrations in postneurosurgical central nervous system infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:936-7 pubmed
  39. Böttcher T, von Mering M, Ebert S, Meyding Lamade U, Kuhnt U, Gerber J, et al. Differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in experimental murine central nervous system infections. Neurosci Lett. 2003;344:17-20 pubmed
    ..The TLR mRNA regulation observed probably represents a combination of specific response to the causative pathogen and non-specific activation of the innate immune system. ..
  40. Nau R, Sorgel F, Prange H. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of the treatment of bacterial central nervous system infections. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998;35:223-46 pubmed
    ..Conclusive evidence of the reduction of neuronal damage by this approach, however, is lacking. ..
  41. Amar A, Ghosh S, Apuzzo M. Treatment of central nervous system infections: a neurosurgical perspective. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2000;10:445-59 pubmed
    ..This article surveys the surgical management of intracranial infections with special emphasis on subdural and epidural empyema, brain abscesses, mycotic aneurysms, and neurocysticercosis. ..
  42. Azumagawa K, Suzuki S, Tanabe T, Wakamiya E, Kawamura N, Tamai H. Neopterin, biopterin, and nitric oxide concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with central nervous system infections. Brain Dev. 2003;25:200-2 pubmed
    ..Although these findings are preliminary, it may suggest that cerebrospinal fluids nitric oxide would be a useful marker to prospect neurological prognoses in the CNS infections. ..
  43. Carter J, Neville B, Newton C. Neuro-cognitive impairment following acquired central nervous system infections in childhood: a systematic review. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003;43:57-69 pubmed
    ..Higher morbidity for similar mortality in acute bacterial meningitis compared with cerebral malaria in the epidemiological data may suggest future research directions for clinical research to devise more effective interventions. ..
  44. Thomson R, Bertram H. Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2001;15:1047-71 pubmed
    ..The responsibility for proper use of laboratory testing lies both with the clinician and laboratory technician...
  45. Kneen R, Solomon T, Appleton R. The role of lumbar puncture in suspected CNS infection--a disappearing skill?. Arch Dis Child. 2002;87:181-3 pubmed
  46. Lerou P, Daley G. Therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells. Blood Rev. 2005;19:321-31 pubmed
    ..In addition to discussing the therapeutic potential of hESC, this chapter will cover limitations to using hESC for replacement cell therapy, strategies to overcome these limitations, and alternative methods of deriving hESC. ..
  47. Tu Y, Chuang H, Huang C, Chuang C, Wang S, Tsai M, et al. Frequency and prediction of abnormal findings on neuroimaging of infants with bulging anterior fontanelles. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:1185-90 pubmed
    ..Emergent neuroimaging should be considered for infants who meet high-risk criteria: 1) febrile children younger than two months or 2) nonfebrile children with abnormal findings on neurologic examination. ..
  48. Balin B, Little C, Hammond C, Appelt D, Whittum Hudson J, Gerard H, et al. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008;13:371-80 pubmed
    ..This review focuses specifically on infection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in LOAD and how this infection may function as a "trigger or initiator" in the pathogenesis of this disease. ..
  49. Nourbakhsh A, Vannemreddy P, Minagar A, Toledo E, Palacios E, Nanda A. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system: a review of literature with an emphasis on Latin American countries. Neurol Res. 2010;32:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive programs should break the parasite life cycle and also educate the farmers in endemic areas. ..
  50. Chitravas N, Jung R, Kofskey D, Blevins J, Gambetti P, Leigh R, et al. Treatable neurological disorders misdiagnosed as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Adherence to revised criteria for CJD, which include distinctive magnetic resonance imaging features of prion disease, is likely to improve diagnostic accuracy. ..
  51. Mullins M. Emergent neuroimaging of intracranial infection/inflammation. Radiol Clin North Am. 2011;49:47-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews some of the salient factors in understanding intracranial infection/ inflammation, including pathophysiology and neuroimaging protocols/findings, and provides some examples and a few "pearls and pitfalls."..
  52. Huang C, Chen S, Tsai N, Chang C, Lu C, Chuang Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia meningitis in adults: a high incidence in patients with a postneurosurgical state, long hospital staying and antibiotic use. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:1709-15 pubmed publisher
  53. Compain C, Sacre K, Puechal X, Klein I, Vital Durand D, Houeto J, et al. Central nervous system involvement in Whipple disease: clinical study of 18 patients and long-term follow-up. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013;92:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Late prognosis may be better than previously reported, as a consequence of earlier diagnosis and a better use of antimicrobial therapy, including hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline combination...
  54. Ergunay K, Ismayilova V, Colpak I, Kansu T, Us D. A case of central nervous system infection due to a novel Sandfly Fever Virus (SFV) variant: Sandfly Fever Turkey Virus (SFTV). J Clin Virol. 2012;54:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..SFTV was initially characterized in 2010 in samples from outbreaks of febrile diseases occurred during 2007-2008 and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an SFTV-related central nervous system (CNS) infection. ..
  55. Hahnel S, Storch Hagenlocher B, Kress B, Stippich C, Sartor K, Forsting M, et al. [Infectious diseases of brain parenchyma in adults: imaging and differential diagnosis aspects]. Rofo. 2005;177:1349-65 pubmed
    ..In this review we present the imaging criteria for the most important brain infections in adults and discuss in detail differential diagnostic aspects. ..
  56. Pisani F, Cerminara C, Fusco C, Sisti L. Neonatal status epilepticus vs recurrent neonatal seizures: clinical findings and outcome. Neurology. 2007;69:2177-85 pubmed
    ..517, 95% CI 1.321 to 32.148, p = 0.021). Newborns with status epilepticus are at high risk of severe neurologic disability and postneonatal epilepsy. This is particularly evident in early preterm and full-term infants. ..
  57. Mace S. Central nervous system infections as a cause of an altered mental status? What is the pathogen growing in your central nervous system?. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28:535-70 pubmed publisher
  58. Liao P, Chiang T, Lee M, Huang C. Tuberculosis with meningitis, myeloradiculitis, arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus: a case report. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2010;19:189-93 pubmed
    ..Methods for detection of CNS TB and treatment protocols should be constantly re-evaluated to improve treatment outcome and reduce likelihood and severity of neurological sequelae. ..
  59. Davis D, Salazar A, Chan T, Vilke G. Prospective evaluation of a clinical decision guideline to diagnose spinal epidural abscess in patients who present to the emergency department with spine pain. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in diagnostic delays and a lower incidence of motor deficits at the time of diagnosis was observed. ..
  60. Azevedo C, Casal G, Matos P, Alves A, Matos E. Henneguya torpedo sp. nov. (Myxozoa), a parasite from the nervous system of the Amazonian teleost Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hypopomidae). Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;93:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, from this description we propose the establishment of a new species, which we have named Henneguya torpedo sp. nov. ..
  61. Fang F, Wirdefeldt K, Jacks A, Kamel F, Ye W, Chen H. CNS infections, sepsis and risk of Parkinson's disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides preliminary evidence for an association between CNS infections, but not sepsis, and a higher future risk of PD. It also shows that PD patients were more prone to CNS infections and sepsis than controls. ..
  62. Ranawaka U, Rajindrajith E, Perera K, Dassanayake K, Premaratne B, de Silva H. Clinical profile and difficulties in diagnosis of central nervous system infections in adult patients in a tertiary care hospital. Ceylon Med J. 2013;58:26-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7%). Intravenous antibiotics and aciclovir were given on emperical grounds, largely without microbiological confirmation. Diagnosis of CNS infections is highly unsatisfactory with available facilities, even in a tertiary care setting. ..
  63. Bangera R, Ødegård J, Nielsen H, Gjøen H, Mortensen A. Genetic analysis of vibriosis and viral nervous necrosis resistance in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) using a cure model. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier termination of the challenge test or back truncation of survival data is not recommended as this likely shifts the focus of selection towards endurance rather than susceptibility. ..
  64. Ramanan P, Bryson A, Binnicker M, Pritt B, Patel R. Syndromic Panel-Based Testing in Clinical Microbiology. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2018;31: pubmed publisher
    ..targets designed to assist in the diagnosis of bloodstream, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, or central nervous system infections. While these panel-based assays have the clear advantages of a rapid turnaround time and the ..
  65. de Diego Glaría M, Moscciati G, Ramos R. Determination of ceftriaxone in cerebrospinal fluid by ion-pair liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:436-9 pubmed
    ..This method was used to quantify ceftriaxone in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. The results showed that the method described here is useful for the determination of ceftriaxone in cerebrospinal fluid. ..
  66. Dalla Valle L, Toffolo V, Lamprecht M, Maltese C, Bovo G, Belvedere P, et al. Development of a sensitive and quantitative diagnostic assay for fish nervous necrosis virus based on two-target real-time PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2005;110:167-79 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the developed real-time RT-PCR assays are a reliable, specific and sensitive tool for the quantitative diagnosis of betanodavirus. ..
  67. Mihály I, Kolozsi T, Liptai Z, Lukács A, Molnar P, Budai J, et al. [Experience with multiplex nested PCR and fluorescent antibody tests in the diagnosis of acute central nervous system infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2]. Orv Hetil. 2010;151:1896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..5. There is a need for cooperation between clinicians and virologists in the appropriate interpretation of the results and in finding etiology. ..
  68. Husain N, Kumar P. Pathology of tropical diseases. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2011;21:757-75, vii pubmed publisher
    ..Nutritional disorders present with generalized and nonspecific imaging manifestations. The pathology of commonly encountered vitamin deficiencies is also discussed...
  69. De Bonis P, Sturiale C, Anile C, Gaudino S, Mangiola A, Martucci M, et al. Decompressive craniectomy, interhemispheric hygroma and hydrocephalus: a timeline of events?. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:1308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Craniectomy close to the midline can predispose patients to the development of hydrocephalus. SH could be generated with the same mechanism, and these three events could be correlated on a timeline. ..
  70. Adhikari S, Sathian B, Koirala D, Rao K. Profile of children admitted with seizures in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroimaging should be advised in all afebrile children for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Children diagnosed as seizure disorder require long term follow up studies including neurophysiologic studies. ..
  71. Joshi S, Emala C, Pile Spellman J. Intra-arterial drug delivery: a concise review. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2007;19:111-9 pubmed
    ..This review describes the pharmacologic principles, applications, and pitfalls of IA drug delivery to the brain. ..
  72. Choi J. Progressive myelopathy due to meningeal thickening in shunted patients: description of a novel entity and the role of surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:855 pubmed
  73. Astigarraga P, Montero J, Cerrato S, Colomo O, Martínez M, Crespo R, et al. [GEIPC-SEIMC (Study Group for Infections in the Critically Ill Patient of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and GTEI-SEMICYUC ( Working Group on Infectious Diseases of the Spanish Society of Intensive Medicine, Cr. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25:446-66 pubmed
  74. Gao X, Hu X, Qian L, Yang S, Zhang W, Zhang D, et al. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity via microglial activation: a mediator between peripheral infection and neurodegeneration?. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:593-8 pubmed publisher
    ..fMLP (10(-13) M) induces DA neurotoxicity through activation of microglial PHOX and subsequent production of superoxide, suggesting a role of fMLP in the central nervous system inflammatory process. ..
  75. Gaston I, Muruzabal J, Quesada P, Maravi E. [Infections of the central nervous system in emergency department]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2008;31 Suppl 1:99-113 pubmed
  76. Chen L, Zhou B, Li J, Zhu Y, Wang J, Sander J, et al. Clinical features of convulsive status epilepticus: a study of 220 cases in western China. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Central nervous system infection and AEDs withdrawal in epilepsy patients were the most important causes of CSE. There is a large gap between antiepileptic therapy in China and European Status Epilepticus guidelines. ..
  77. Dahan E, Dichtwald S, Amar E, Sorkine P, Weinbroum A. Low plasma C-reactive protein level as an early diagnostic tool for heatstroke vs central nervous system-associated infection in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:1176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This available laboratory test could identify noninfectious hyperthermic patients upon admission, saving precious time until treatment and avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests. ..
  78. Klastersky J, Aoun M. Opportunistic infections in patients with cancer. Ann Oncol. 2004;15 Suppl 4:iv329-35 pubmed
  79. Benavente Fernández I, Garcia Cazorla A, Jordán García Y, Capdevila Cirera A, Campistol J. [Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections]. Rev Neurol. 2010;50:133-8 pubmed
    ..DWI sequence can be useful in the early diagnosis of neurological complications in CNS infections. ..
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    ..The portal hypertension with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis also plays an important role in the pathogenesis. Here the pathways through which NS occurs in the CNS were reviewed...
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    ..These findings indicate childhood CNS viral infections increase the risk of adult psychotic illness. Possible mechanisms may include both direct effects of pathogens, and the effects of inflammatory response on the developing brain. ..
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    ..Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome. ..
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    ..However, more studies will further demonstrate the therapeutic values of IVT tigecycline to intracranial infection, and not only restricted to A baumannii infections. ..
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    ..to determine the frequency of the absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in patients with central nervous system infections, as well as the clinical impact of this condition. It was found that 18% of neurosyphilis, 7...
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    ..out for studies from January 1990 through March 2008 reporting on ventriculostomy, EVD-related central nervous system infections, in particular ventriculitis and meningitis...
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    ..Ventriculostomy-associated infections are a serious complication of external ventricular drains. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical features of and risk factors for such infections...
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    ..Because treatment is different when neurologic disease is present (ie, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs doxycycline/hydroxychloroquine), clinicians should consider brain imaging in patients diagnosed with Whipple's endocarditis. ..
  91. Rasalkar D, Chu W. Imaging in children presenting with acute neurological deficit: paediatric stroke mimics. Postgrad Med J. 2012;88:639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These conditions and their respective imaging findings are briefly discussed here. ..
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    ..Social factors related to hygiene and living situations are also linked to specific microorganisms, such as Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Bartonella quintana, Vibrio vulnificus, and Capnocytophaga canimorus.. ..