spirochaetales infections


Summary: Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.

Top Publications

  1. Esteve M, Salas A, Fernández Bañares F, Lloreta J, Mariné M, Gonzalez C, et al. Intestinal spirochetosis and chronic watery diarrhea: clinical and histological response to treatment and long-term follow up. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:1326-33 pubmed
    ..Treatment with metronidazole is advisable in patients with persistent symptoms. ..
  2. Karlsson M, Aspan A, Landén A, Franklin A. Further characterization of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:281-5 pubmed
    ..No other co-resistance with tiamulin was found. ..
  3. La T, Phillips N, Reichel M, Hampson D. Protection of pigs from swine dysentery by vaccination with recombinant BmpB, a 29.7 kDa outer-membrane lipoprotein of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:97-109 pubmed
    ..The incidence of disease for the three His6-BmpB vaccinated groups was significantly less (P = 0.047) than for the control groups, with a approximately 50% reduction. BmpB appears to have potential as an SD vaccine component. ..
  4. Choi C, Han D, Kim J, Cho W, Chung H, Jung T, et al. Prevalence of Brachyspira pilosicoli in Korean pigs, determined using a nested PCR. Vet Rec. 2002;150:217-8 pubmed
  5. Davis A, Smith S, Moore R. The Brachyspira hyodysenteriae ftnA gene: DNA vaccination and real-time PCR quantification of bacteria in a mouse model of disease. Curr Microbiol. 2005;50:285-91 pubmed
    ..hyodysenteriae infection. Vaccine efficacy was monitored by caecal pathology and quantification of B. hyodysenteriae numbers in the caeca of infected mice by real-time PCR. ..
  6. Karlsson M, Gunnarsson A, Franklin A. Susceptibility to pleuromutilins in Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:59-65 pubmed
    ..031 microg/ml to 32 microg/ml. Valnemulin MIC was not determined for the B. hyodysenteriae strain that only went through 29 passages. The valnemulin MIC of the other B. pilosicoli strain increased from 0.031 to 4 microg/ml. ..
  7. Rosey E, Kennedy M, Yancey R. Dual flaA1 flaB1 mutant of Serpulina hyodysenteriae expressing periplasmic flagella is severely attenuated in a murine model of swine dysentery. Infect Immun. 1996;64:4154-62 pubmed
    ..This strain represents the first spirochete engineered to contain specifically defined mutations in more than one genetic locus. ..
  8. Møller K, Jensen T, Jorsal S, Leser T, Carstensen B. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes, Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli from swine herds with and without diarrhoea among growing pigs. Vet Microbiol. 1998;62:59-72 pubmed
    ..In addition, herd-type had a significant impact, that is specific pathogen-free herds showed an odds ratio at 0.2 relative to conventional herds for the development of diarrhoea. ..
  9. Fossi M, Pohjanvirta T, Sukura A, Heinikainen S, Lindecrona R, Pelkonen S. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of porcine hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3153-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, B. pilosicoli can be either hippurate positive or negative and, thus, the scheme for biochemical differentiation of porcine Brachyspira should be revised to include identification of hippurate-negative B. pilosicoli...

More Information


  1. La T, Phillips N, Wanchanthuek P, Bellgard M, O Hara A, Hampson D. Evidence that the 36 kb plasmid of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae contributes to virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2011;153:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the likelihood that plasmid-encoded genes of B. hyodysenteriae are involved in colonisation and/or disease expression. ..
  2. Durmic Z, Pethick D, Mullan B, Accioly J, Schulze H, Hampson D. Evaluation of large-intestinal parameters associated with dietary treatments designed to reduce the occurrence of swine dysentery. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:159-69 pubmed
  3. Mikosza A, La T, Margawani K, Brooke C, Hampson D. PCR detection of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli in human faeces. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;197:167-70 pubmed
    ..These new faecal PCR protocols should be valuable for future studies on the epidemiology of intestinal spirochaete infections in human populations, particularly as it is not currently possible to isolate B. aalborgi from faeces. ..
  4. Jensen T, Boye M, Møller K. Extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with Brachyspira pilosicoli. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:309-12 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to report extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with B. pilosicoli. ..
  5. Guzman G, Weisenberg E. Intestinal spirochetosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:1188 pubmed
  6. Hampson D, Oxberry S, La T. Potential for zoonotic transmission of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:869-70 pubmed
  7. Trott D, Huxtable C, Hampson D. Experimental infection of newly weaned pigs with human and porcine strains of Serpulina pilosicoli. Infect Immun. 1996;64:4648-54 pubmed
    ..This study confirms the role of S. pilosicoli in the etiology of PIS and provides evidence that S. pilosicoli strains of human origin have pathogenic potential in an animal model. ..
  8. Barcellos D, de Uzeda M, Ikuta N, Lunge V, Fonseca A, Kader I, et al. Identification of porcine intestinal spirochetes by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA encoding 23S rRNA. Vet Microbiol. 2000;75:189-98 pubmed
    ..innocens (II), Brachyspira murdochii (III), B. pilosicoli (IV) and B. alvinipulli (V). The 23S rRNA PCR/RFLP provided a relatively simple genotypic method for identification of porcine pathogenic B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli...
  9. Kraaz W, Pettersson B, Thunberg U, Engstrand L, Fellström C. Brachyspira aalborgi infection diagnosed by culture and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing using human colonic biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3555-60 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy showed spirochetes attached end-on to the colonic mucosal surface. The isolate grew poorly on a commonly used selective medium for intestinal spirochetes, which may explain previous failures to isolate B. aalborgi...
  10. Carvajal A, de Arriba M, Rodriguez H, Vidal A, Duhamel G, Rubio P. Prevalence of Brachyspira species in pigs with diarrhoea in Spain. Vet Rec. 2006;158:700-1 pubmed
  11. Heine R, Ward P, Mikosza A, Bennett Wood V, Robins Browne R, Hampson D. Brachyspira aalborgi infection in four Australian children. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;16:872-5 pubmed
    ..No other enteric pathogens were found. Although all patients appeared to respond to antibiotic treatment, the clinical significance of B. aalborgi as a human pathogen requires further investigation. ..
  12. Calderaro A, Bommezzadri S, Gorrini C, Piccolo G, Peruzzi S, Villanacci V, et al. Infective colitis associated with human intestinal spirochetosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1772-9 pubmed
    ..Our study reports the detection and identification of intestinal spirochetosis in patients with colonic diseases in a tertiary-care hospital over a 12-year period, and includes a description of all cases we diagnosed...
  13. Margawani K, Robertson I, Brooke C, Hampson D. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira pilosicoli in humans on the island of Bali, Indonesia. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:325-32 pubmed
    ..On the second visit, colonization was significantly more common in people with wet faeces than in those with normal faeces. ..
  14. van Mook W, Koek G, van der Ven A, Ceelen T, Bos R. Human intestinal spirochaetosis: any clinical significance?. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;16:83-7 pubmed
    ..Very infrequently the organism may become invasive. In this article the literature on human intestinal spirochaetosis is reviewed, and key points for daily clinical practice are emphasized. ..
  15. Fellström C, Gunnarsson A. Phenotypical characterisation of intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs. Res Vet Sci. 1995;59:1-4 pubmed
    ..There was a statistical relationship between pigs with diarrhoea and the isolation of group IV spirochaetes but no relationship with group III spirochaetes...
  16. Pringle M, Landén A, Unnerstad H, Molander B, Bengtsson B. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:54 pubmed publisher
    ..pilosicoli but to some extent the cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae may be applicable also for monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility in B. pilosicoli. ..
  17. Fossii M, Pohjanvirta T, Pelkonen S. Molecular epidemiological study of Brachyspira pilosicoli in Finnish sow herds. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131:967-73 pubmed
    ..B. pilosicoli was re-isolated after 3 years in three herds; the same MRP persisted in each of these herds. A genetic clustering of B. pilosicoli isolates between two major pork production areas was not detected. ..
  18. Suh D, Song J. Simultaneous detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in swine intestinal specimens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:231-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to standard diagnostic methods for detection of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. from swine intestinal specimens...
  19. Duhamel G. Comparative pathology and pathogenesis of naturally acquired and experimentally induced colonic spirochetosis. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:3-17 pubmed
    ..This review describes the lesions seen in naturally occurring and experimentally induced CS of animals, and it sets the stage for future research into the pathogenic mechanisms of infection and colitis caused by B. pilosicoli. ..
  20. Jensen T, Møller K, Boye M, Leser T, Jorsal S. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs. Vet Pathol. 2000;37:22-32 pubmed
    ..In addition, the study shows the applicability of FISH for specific identification of B. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed tissue. ..
  21. Kim T, Jung S, Lee J. Characterization of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Korea. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:335-9 pubmed
    ..intermedia, D to B. murdochii and E to B. pilosicoli. The 10 Korean isolates of B. hyodysenteriae were relatively diverse, being divided into 9 ETs within MLEE division A. They were all distinct from the non-Korean strains. ..
  22. King N, Fidda N, Gourley G. Colorectal spirochetosis in a child with rectal bleeding: case report and literature review. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41:673-5 pubmed
  23. De Smet K, Worth D, Barrett S. Variation amongst human isolates of Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998;48 Pt 4:1257-63 pubmed
    ..pilosicoli, it is concluded that this species is more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. However, it cannot be excluded that some isolates may belong to uncharacterized related Brachyspira/Serpulina species...
  24. Waters W, Sacco R, Dorn A, Hontecillas R, Zuckermann F, Wannemuehler M. Systemic and mucosal immune responses of pigs to parenteral immunization with a pepsin-digested Serpulina hyodysenteriae bacterin. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1999;69:75-87 pubmed
    ..However, it appears that regulatory mechanisms affecting IFN-gamma production in response to S. hyodysenteriae antigen differ between peripheral and colonic compartments. ..
  25. Nodit L, Parizhskaya M. Intestinal spirochetosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:823-4 pubmed
  26. Lobová D, Smola J, Cizek A. Decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:287-91 pubmed
    ..0 and 8.0 microg ml. The increase in MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin demonstrated in this study reflect the intensity of pleuromutilin use in the treatment of swine dysentery in the Czech Republic. ..
  27. Langford D, Masliah E. The emerging role of infectious pathogens in neurodegenerative diseases. Exp Neurol. 2003;184:553-5 pubmed
  28. Carpentieri D, Souza Morones S, Gardetto J, Ross H, Downey K, Ingebo K, et al. Intestinal spirochetosis in children: five new cases and a 20-year review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2010;13:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are needed to determine the correlation between IS and coexisting gastrointestinal diseases and/or immunodeficiencies. ..
  29. Phillips N, La T, Hampson D. Survival of intestinal spirochaete strains from chickens in the presence of disinfectants and in faeces held at different temperatures. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:639-43 pubmed
    ..It should be relatively easy to break the cycle of infection between batches of laying birds by resting sheds for a few days, and by using disinfectants on any residual faecal matter. ..
  30. Hontecillas R, Wannemeulher M, Zimmerman D, Hutto D, Wilson J, Ahn D, et al. Nutritional regulation of porcine bacterial-induced colitis by conjugated linoleic acid. J Nutr. 2002;132:2019-27 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CLA fed preventively before the onset of enteric disease attenuated inflammatory lesion development and growth failure. ..
  31. Jensen N, Stanton T, Swayne D. Identification of the swine pathogen Serpulina hyodysenteriae in rheas (Rhea americana). Vet Microbiol. 1996;52:259-69 pubmed
    ..hyodysenteriae strains confirmed that rhea spirochetes R1 and NIV-1 were strains of S. hyodysenteriae. These results indicate that S. hyodysenteriae has a broader host range than previously recognized. ..
  32. Råsbäck T, Jansson D, Johansson K, Fellström C. A novel enteropathogenic, strongly haemolytic spirochaete isolated from pig and mallard, provisionally designated 'Brachyspira suanatina' sp. nov. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:983-91 pubmed
    ..We propose that this atypical spirochaete genotype should be regarded as a new species within the genus Brachyspira, and be provisionally designated 'Brachyspira suanatina' sp. nov...
  33. Thomsen L, Knudsen K, Jensen T, Christensen A, Møller K, Roepstorff A. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:152-63 pubmed
    ..The study showed that diets supplemented with highly fermentable carbohydrates from dried chicory roots and sweet lupins can protect pigs against developing swine dysentery, but do not have any significant influence on T. suis. ..
  34. Peruzzi S, Gorrini C, Piccolo G, Calderaro A, Dettori G, Chezzi C. Human intestinal spirochaetosis in Parma: a focus on a selected population during 2002-2005. Acta Biomed. 2007;78:128-32 pubmed
    ..12%). These results stimulate us to extend the research of intestinal spirochaetosis in the general population, when long standing gastrointestinal disorders and potential risk factors are present. ..
  35. Molnar L. Sensitivity of strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae isolated in Hungary to chemotherapeutic drugs. Vet Rec. 1996;138:158-60 pubmed
    ..Monensin was good for the prevention of swine dysentery, but resistance may evolve quickly; the MIC values ranged from 0.4 to 25 micrograms/ml. For sedecamycin, the MIC values (6.25 to 100 micrograms/ml) were much higher than expected...
  36. Townsend K, Giang V, Stephens C, Scott P, Trott D. Application of nox-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the differentiation of Brachyspira intestinal spirochetes isolated from pigs and poultry in Australia. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:103-9 pubmed
    ..This protocol represents a significant improvement over conventional methods currently used in veterinary diagnostic laboratories for rapid specific identification of Brachyspira spp. isolated from both pigs and poultry...
  37. Fellström C, Pettersson B, Thomson J, Gunnarsson A, Persson M, Johansson K. Identification of Serpulina species associated with porcine colitis by biochemical analysis and PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:462-7 pubmed
    ..A simple classification scheme, suitable for routine classification of porcine intestinal spirochetes, is also presented. The scheme is based on hemolysis, indole production, and the hippurate hydrolysis test. ..
  38. Yang M, Lapham R. Appendiceal spirochetosis. South Med J. 1997;90:30-2 pubmed
    ..We observed appendiceal spirochetosis to be an uncommon phenomenon that affects both sexes, occurring with or without symptoms of acute appendicitis. None of our four positive cases occurred in the pediatric age group...
  39. Atyeo R, Stanton T, Jensen N, Suriyaarachichi D, Hampson D. Differentiation of Serpulina species by NADH oxidase gene (nox) sequence comparisons and nox-based polymerase chain reaction tests. Vet Microbiol. 1999;67:47-60 pubmed
    ..pilosicoli strains, even at low stringency. Tests NOX1 and NOX4 should prove useful in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, whilst NOX2 and NOX3 require further refinement...
  40. Mikosza A, La T, de Boer W, Hampson D. Comparative prevalences of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli as etiologic agents of histologically identified intestinal spirochetosis in Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:347-50 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that B. aalborgi is much more commonly involved in histologically identified IS in Australian patients than is B. pilosicoli. This is the first report of amplification of B. pilosicoli DNA from humans with IS...
  41. Rohde J, Kessler M, Baums C, Amtsberg G. Comparison of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC values for pleuromutilin drugs for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:25-32 pubmed
    ..05), while in 2002 the average MIC significantly decreased when compared to the value in 2000 (P < 0.05). However, strains with MIC values for tiamulin as high as 8 microg/ml (broth dilution) could still be isolated. ..
  42. Karlsson M, Fellström C, Gunnarsson A, Landén A, Franklin A. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of porcine Brachyspira (Serpulina) species isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2596-604 pubmed
    ..No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin were found among the Swedish isolates tested. ..
  43. Korner M, Gebbers J. Clinical significance of human intestinal spirochetosis--a morphologic approach. Infection. 2003;31:341-9 pubmed
    ..Homosexual and HIV-positive men are more likely to be symptomatic irrespective of invasion. Rare cases of spirochetemia and multiple organ failure have been reported in critically ill patients. ..
  44. Bassaganya Riera J, Hontecillas R, Zimmerman D, Wannemuehler M. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modulates phenotype and effector functions of porcine CD8(+) lymphocytes. J Nutr. 2001;131:2370-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that dietary CLA enhances cellular immunity by modulating phenotype and effector functions of CD8(+) cells involved in both adaptive and innate immunity. ..
  45. Asano T, Adachi Y. Effects of griseoviridin and viridogrisein against swine dysentery in experimental infection by using mice and pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:555-60 pubmed
    ..hyodysenteriae, a large difference was not observed between the effect of griseoviridin alone and that in combination with viridogrisein. Nevertheless, griseoviridin alone exhibited a therapeutic effect superior to that of lincomycin. ..
  46. Pettersson B, Wang M, Fellström C, Uhlen M, Molin G, Jeppsson B, et al. Phylogenetic evidence for novel and genetically different intestinal spirochetes resembling Brachyspira aalborgi in the mucosa of the human colon as revealed by 16S rDNA analysis. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2000;23:355-63 pubmed
    ..aalborgi. The presented data aid significantly to the diagnostic and taxonomic work on these organisms. ..
  47. Karlsson M, Oxberry S, Hampson D. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Australian isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae using a new broth dilution method. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:123-33 pubmed
    ..Over all the isolates, and also amongst the isolates obtained from different years on the three farms, there was no trend for the susceptibility of the isolates to alter with time. ..
  48. Nemes C, Glavits R, Dobos Kovacs M, Ivanics E, Kaszanyitzky E, Beregszászi A, et al. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in goose flocks. Avian Pathol. 2006;35:4-11 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on the isolation of B. alvinipulli from laying geese affected with fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis. ..
  49. Zeller J, Takeuchi A. Infection of the colon of the rhesus monkey by spiral-shaped organisms. Vet Pathol Suppl. 1982;19 Suppl 7:26-32 pubmed
    ..Spirochetes and flagellates infrequently penetrated beyond the brush border into the epithelial cytoplasm and also into the lamina propria. Even in cases where invasion was documented, no inflammatory response was found...
  50. Koteish A, Kannangai R, Abraham S, Torbenson M. Colonic spirochetosis in children and adults. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:828-32 pubmed
    ..While treatment information remains limited, treatment can lead to resolution of symptoms in some cases...
  51. Hopwood D, Pethick D, Hampson D. Increasing the viscosity of the intestinal contents stimulates proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Brachyspira pilosicoli in weaner pigs. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:523-32 pubmed
    ..These pigs did not develop a natural infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli after the diet change, confirming the particular susceptibility of pigs to enterotoxigenic E. coli proliferation immediately post-weaning. ..
  52. Stephens C, Hampson D. Experimental infection of broiler breeder hens with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli causes reduced egg production. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:169-75 pubmed
    ..This study confirms that B. pilosicoli can cause serious egg production losses in adult chickens, while B. innocens is not obviously pathogenic. ..
  53. Guccion J, Benator D, Zeller J, Termanini B, Saini N. Intestinal spirochetosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrastructural studies of two cases. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1995;19:15-22 pubmed
  54. Salama C, Finch D, Bottone E. Fusospirochetosis causing necrotic oral ulcers in patients with HIV infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:321-3 pubmed
    ..We report 3 patients with HIV infection and fusospirochetal ulcerative stomatitis and review the clinical presentation, microbiologic diagnosis, potential pathogenesis, and treatment of these lesions. ..
  55. Knopf B, Bethke B, Stolte M. [Human intestinal spirochetosis]. Pathologe. 2003;24:192-5 pubmed
  56. Willen R, Wanders A, Engstrand L. Intestinal spirochaetosis. Histopathology. 2006;49:658-9 pubmed
  57. Fellström C, Karlsson M, Pettersson B, Zimmerman U, Gunnarsson A, Aspan A. Emended descriptions of indole negative and indole positive isolates of Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Vet Microbiol. 1999;70:225-38 pubmed
    ..hyodysenteriae remained stable for a period of up to 8 years. In vivo development of resistance to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics due to use of tylosin was clearly indicated for two epidemic clones. ..
  58. Suh D, Song J. Prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella in swine herds. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:289-93 pubmed
    ..intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were distributed throughout Korea, although the relationship among other pathogens such as viral or parasitic ones and/or with metabolic disorders was not determined. ..
  59. Dassanayake R, Sarath G, Duhamel G. Penicillin-binding proteins in the pathogenic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1561-3 pubmed
    ..Identification of PBPs of B. pilosicoli provides a basis for characterization of the genes encoding these proteins among pathogenic intestinal spirochetes of humans and animals. ..
  60. Phillips N, La T, Pluske J, Hampson D. The wheat variety used in the diet of laying hens influences colonization with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira intermedia. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:586-90 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the wheat variety can influence colonization with B. intermedia, apparently through diet-related alterations in the intestinal microenvironment. ..
  61. Tasu C, Tanaka T, Tanaka T, Adachi Y. Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated from pigs in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:875-7 pubmed
    ..2 to 0.3 microm in diameter, 4 periplasmic flagella at each end were observed dominantly. The isolates were hippurate positive but indole negative. This is the first report on the isolation of B. pilosicoli from pigs in Japan. ..
  62. Thomas N, Bunikis J, Barbour A, Wolcott M. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:187-93 pubmed
    ..The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird. ..
  63. Jansson D, Bröjer C, Gavier Widen D, Gunnarsson A, Fellström C. Brachyspira spp. (Serpulina spp.) in birds: a review and results from a study of Swedish game birds. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:93-100 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination of spirochete-positive birds revealed numerous spirochetes in the lumen and crypts of the cecum, in some cases densely adhered by one end to the luminal surface. The significance of the findings is discussed. ..