tularemia

Summary

Summary: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.

Top Publications

  1. Köşker M, Sener D, Kılıç O, Akil F, Yilmaz M, Ozturk O, et al. A case of oculoglandular tularemia resistant to medical treatment. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:725-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is a zoonotic disease of the northern hemisphere. Oculoglandular tularemia is the rarest form, comprising 1.4-4.2% of all cases...
  2. Qin A, Scott D, Rabideau M, Moore E, Mann B. Requirement of the CXXC motif of novel Francisella infectivity potentiator protein B FipB, and FipA in virulence of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24611 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementation with a gene that encoded a CXXA containing FipB protein was significantly defective in intracellular growth; however, only slightly attenuated in vivo...
  3. Djordjevic Spasic M, Potkonjak A, Kostic V, Lako B, Spasic Z. Oropharyngeal tularemia in father and son after consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:977-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia has been recognized for more than 10 y in Serbia, since the first epidemic of tularemia occurred in Sokobanja region in 1999...
  4. Walters K, Olsufka R, Kuestner R, Cho J, Li H, Zornetzer G, et al. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response: role of bacterial gene expression in temporal regulation of host defense responses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62412 pubmed publisher
  5. Kingry L, Troyer R, Marlenee N, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Bowen R, Schenkel A, et al. Genetic identification of unique immunological responses in mice infected with virulent and attenuated Francisella tularensis. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:261-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these findings indicate that altered apoptosis, antigen presentation and production of inflammatory mediators explain the differences in pathogenicity of F. tularensis Schu4 and LVS. ..
  6. Vonkavaara M, Pavel S, Hölzl K, Nordfelth R, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Francisella is sensitive to insect antimicrobial peptides. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:50-9 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Arthropod vectors are important transmission routes for the disease, although it is not known how Francisella survives the efficient arthropod immune response...
  7. Troyer R, Propst K, Fairman J, Bosio C, Dow S. Mucosal immunotherapy for protection from pneumonic infection with Francisella tularensis. Vaccine. 2009;27:4424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude therefore that activation of local pulmonary innate immune responses is capable of eliciting significant protection from inhalational exposure to a virulent bacterial pathogen. ..
  8. Qin A, Scott D, Thompson J, Mann B. Identification of an essential Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis virulence factor. Infect Immun. 2009;77:152-61 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the highly virulent etiologic agent of tularemia, is a low-dose intracellular pathogen that is able to escape from the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol...
  9. Dlugaiczyk J, Harrer T, Zwerina J, Traxdorf M, Schwarz S, Splettstoesser W, et al. Oropharyngeal tularemia--a differential diagnosis of tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2010;122:110-4 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has been recognized as a human and zoonotic pathogen for almost 100 years...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Valentino M, Maben Z, Hensley L, Woolard M, Kawula T, Frelinger J, et al. Identification of T-cell epitopes in Francisella tularensis using an ordered protein array of serological targets. Immunology. 2011;132:348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate the feasibility of screening an arrayed protein library that should be applicable to a variety of pathogens...
  2. Georgi E, Schacht E, Scholz H, Splettstoesser W. Standardized broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strains from Europe and rare Francisella species. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2429-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results, aminoglycosides or quinolones are recommended as first-choice antibiotics for the therapy of F. hispaniensis, F. philomiragia or F. tularensis subsp. novicida infections in immunocompromised patients. ..
  3. Lindgren H, Honn M, Golovlev I, Kadzhaev K, Conlan W, Sjostedt A. The 58-kilodalton major virulence factor of Francisella tularensis is required for efficient utilization of iron. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis to utilize iron bound to siderophores and that it likely has a role also in siderophore-independent iron acquisition. We suggest that the FTT0918 protein be designated Fe utilization protein A, FupA. ..
  4. Barker J, Chong A, Wehrly T, Yu J, Rodriguez S, Liu J, et al. The Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island encodes a secretion system that is required for phagosome escape and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1459-70 pubmed
    Francisella tularensis causes the human disease tularemia. F...
  5. Gyuranecz M, Szeredi L, Makrai L, Fodor L, Mészáros A, Szépe B, et al. Tularemia of European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): a pathological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:958-63 pubmed publisher
    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) plays an important role in the ecology of tularemia, and it may serve as a significant source of human infection...
  6. Medina E, Morris I, Berton M. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation attenuates the TLR2-mediated macrophage proinflammatory cytokine response to Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. J Immunol. 2010;185:7562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This TLR2-independent inhibitory pathway may be an important mechanism by which Francisella suppresses the host's innate immune response...
  7. Savitt A, Mena Taboada P, Monsalve G, Benach J. Francisella tularensis infection-derived monoclonal antibodies provide detection, protection, and therapy. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:414-22 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a potential agent of biowarfare. As an easily transmissible infectious agent, rapid detection and treatment are necessary to provide a positive clinical outcome...
  8. Lang S, Kleines M. Two at one blow: reemergence of tularemia in Upper Austria. New Microbiol. 2012;35:349-52 pubmed
    After field dressing a rabbit in the state of Upper Austria, Austria two members of a family were infected with tularemia in November 2010. The patients were a man in his forties and his father-in-law in his sixties...
  9. Dentan C, Pavese P, Pelloux I, Boisset S, Brion J, Stahl J, et al. Treatment of tularemia in pregnant woman, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:996-8 pubmed publisher
    A pregnant woman who had oropharyngeal tularemia underwent treatment with azithromycin and lymph node resection and recovered without obstetrical complication or infection in the child...
  10. Simsek H, Taner M, Karadenizli A, Ertek M, Vahaboglu H. Identification of Francisella tularensis by both culture and real-time TaqMan PCR methods from environmental water specimens in outbreak areas where tularemia cases were not previously reported. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:2353-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is an endemic disease in Turkey. In this study, we aimed to detect Francisella tularensis by two methods from natural water supplies thought to cause tularemia epidemiologically...
  11. Jia Q, Lee B, Bowen R, Dillon B, Som S, Horwitz M. A Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) mutant with a deletion in capB, encoding a putative capsular biosynthesis protein, is significantly more attenuated than LVS yet induces potent protective immunity in mice against F. tularensis chall. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4341-55 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is in the top category (category A) of potential agents of bioterrorism. The F...
  12. Michell S, Dean R, Eyles J, Hartley M, Waters E, Prior J, et al. Deletion of the Bacillus anthracis capB homologue in Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis generates an attenuated strain that protects mice against virulent tularaemia. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have important implications for the development of a defined and efficacious tularaemia vaccine. ..
  13. Lin Y, Ritchea S, Logar A, Slight S, Messmer M, Rangel Moreno J, et al. Interleukin-17 is required for T helper 1 cell immunity and host resistance to the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Immunity. 2009;31:799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings illustrate a biological function for IL-17A in regulating IL-12-Th1 cell immunity and host responses to an intracellular pathogen. ..
  14. Kaur R, Chen S, Arévalo M, Xu Q, Chen Y, Zeng M. Protective immunity against tularemia provided by an adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing Tul4 of Francisella tularensis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis. Our data support the development and further research of an adenovirus-vectored vaccine against Tul4 of F. tularensis LVS. ..
  15. Salerno Goncalves R, Hepburn M, Bavari S, Sztein M. Generation of heterogeneous memory T cells by live attenuated tularemia vaccine in humans. Vaccine. 2009;28:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, T(M) cells were evaluated in two groups: (1) subjects immunized with live attenuated tularemia vaccine by skin scarification and (2) tularemia naturally infected subjects...
  16. Crane D, Scott D, Bosio C. Generation of a convalescent model of virulent Francisella tularensis infection for assessment of host requirements for survival of tularemia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33349 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for tularemia has been hampered by the lack of understanding of which immune components ..
  17. Hickey A, Hazlett K, Kirimanjeswara G, Metzger D. Identification of Francisella tularensis outer membrane protein A (FopA) as a protective antigen for tularemia. Vaccine. 2011;29:6941-7 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis; however, the findings demonstrate proof of principle that an immune response generated against a component of a subunit vaccine is protective against lethal respiratory and intradermal tularemia.
  18. Abplanalp A, Morris I, Parida B, Teale J, Berton M. TLR-dependent control of Francisella tularensis infection and host inflammatory responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7920 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a Category A select agent. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 as a critical element in the host protective response to F...
  19. Sharma J, Li Q, Mishra B, Georges M, Teale J. Vaccination with an attenuated strain of Francisella novicida prevents T-cell depletion and protects mice infected with the wild-type strain from severe sepsis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4314-26 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of zoonotic tularemia, a severe pneumonia in humans, and Francisella novicida causes a similarly severe tularemia in mice upon inhalation...
  20. Russo B, Horzempa J, O Dee D, Schmitt D, Brown M, Carlson P, et al. A Francisella tularensis locus required for spermine responsiveness is necessary for virulence. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3665-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is a debilitating febrile illness caused by the category A biodefense agent Francisella tularensis. This pathogen infects over 250 different hosts, has a low infectious dose, and causes high morbidity and mortality...
  21. Anderson R, Crane D, Bosio C. Long lived protection against pneumonic tularemia is correlated with cellular immunity in peripheral, not pulmonary, organs. Vaccine. 2010;28:6562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis infection. Instead, survival of SchuS4 infection at extended time points after immunization was only associated with production of IFN-? and activation of T cells in peripheral organs. ..
  22. Reese S, Dietrich G, Dolan M, Sheldon S, Piesman J, Petersen J, et al. Transmission dynamics of Francisella tularensis subspecies and clades by nymphal Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..variabilis (Say) is considered an important biological vector of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia. In this study, we evaluated the vector efficiency of nymphal D...
  23. Marinov K, Georgieva E, Ivanov I, Kantardjiev T. Characterization and genotyping of strains of Francisella tularensis isolated in Bulgaria. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:82-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The strains showed heterogeneity, based on acid production from glycerol and erythromycin susceptibility. Genotyping by analysis of seven loci containing variable-number tandem repeats showed four genotypes among eight strains. ..
  24. Fernandes Alnemri T, Yu J, Juliana C, Solorzano L, Kang S, Wu J, et al. The AIM2 inflammasome is critical for innate immunity to Francisella tularensis. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:385-93 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, infects host macrophages, which triggers production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. We elucidate here how host macrophages recognize F...
  25. Santic M, Al Khodor S, Abu Kwaik Y. Cell biology and molecular ecology of Francisella tularensis. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:129-39 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious intracellular bacterium that causes the fulminating disease tularemia, which can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. Genomic studies have shown that the F...
  26. Bandouchova H, Sedlackova J, Pohanka M, Novotny L, Hubalek M, Treml F, et al. Tularemia induces different biochemical responses in BALB/c mice and common voles. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:101 pubmed publisher
    Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis) are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survive longer with chronic ..
  27. Akalin H, Helvaci S, Gedikoglu S. Re-emergence of tularemia in Turkey. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:547-51 pubmed publisher
    Four tularemia epidemics were reported from three different regions of Turkey between 1936 and 1953. After a long interval, a new tularemia epidemic was reported from the area around Bursa in the northwestern part of Turkey in 1988...
  28. Conlan J. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:391-405 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face...
  29. Bina X, Miller M, Bina J. Construction of a bioluminescence reporter plasmid for Francisella tularensis. Plasmid. 2010;64:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the new bioluminescence reporter plasmid represents a useful tool for tularemia research that is suitable for following F. tularensis growth in both in vitro and in vivo model systems.
  30. Chitadze N, Kuchuloria T, Clark D, Tsertsvadze E, Chokheli M, Tsertsvadze N, et al. Water-borne outbreak of oropharyngeal and glandular tularemia in Georgia: investigation and follow-up. Infection. 2009;37:514-21 pubmed publisher
    In November 2006, an outbreak of waterborne tularemia occurred in an eastern region in the Republic of Georgia. Outbreak investigation revealed 26 cases: 21 oropharyngeal and 5 glandular tularemia cases.
  31. Horzempa J, O Dee D, Shanks R, Nau G. Francisella tularensis DeltapyrF mutants show that replication in nonmacrophages is sufficient for pathogenesis in vivo. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..these mutants retained virulence during infection of chicken embryos and in the murine model of pneumonic tularemia. We hypothesized that the F...
  32. Kugeler K, Mead P, Janusz A, Staples J, Kubota K, Chalcraft L, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Francisella tularensis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:863-70 pubmed publisher
    In the United States, tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis subsps. tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B). Molecular subtyping has further divided type A into 2 subpopulations, A1 and A2...
  33. Moniuszko A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz S, Kondrusik M, Grygorczuk S, Czupryna P. Arthropod-borne tularemia in Poland: a case report. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1399-401 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is a rare zoonosis. The most common way is ingestion of contaminated meat or water, but the infection may also be acquired by insect bite. The clinical picture of the disease may be nonspecific...
  34. Gregory S, Mott S, Phung J, Lee J, Moise L, McMurry J, et al. Epitope-based vaccination against pneumonic tularemia. Vaccine. 2009;27:5299-306 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known. No vaccine is currently approved for public use...
  35. Pechous R, McCarthy T, Zahrt T. Working toward the future: insights into Francisella tularensis pathogenesis and vaccine development. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009;73:684-711 pubmed publisher
    ..is a facultative intracellular gram-negative pathogen and the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Recent advances in the field of Francisella genetics have led to a rapid increase in both the generation and ..
  36. Mortensen B, Fuller J, Taft Benz S, Kijek T, Miller C, Huang M, et al. Effects of the putative transcriptional regulator IclR on Francisella tularensis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5022-32 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterium and is the etiological agent of the disease tularemia. IclR, a presumed transcriptional regulator, is required for full virulence of the animal pathogen, F...
  37. Chase J, Bosio C. The presence of CD14 overcomes evasion of innate immune responses by virulent Francisella tularensis in human dendritic cells in vitro and pulmonary cells in vivo. Infect Immun. 2010;78:154-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the presence of this receptor may aid in control of virulent F. tularensis infections at early, but not late, stages of infection...
  38. Kim T, Pinkham J, Heninger S, Chalabaev S, Kasper D. Genetic modification of the O-polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis results in an avirulent live attenuated vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1056-65 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a highly virulent microbe. One significant virulence factor of F. tularensis is the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) portion of the organism's lipopolysaccharide.
  39. Gyuranecz M, Denes B, Dan A, Rigó K, Földvári G, Szeredi L, et al. Susceptibility of the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus) to Francisella tularensis and its effect on the epizootiology of tularemia in an area where both are endemic. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:1316-20 pubmed
    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious zoonotic agent causing the disease tularemia. The common hamster (Cricetus cricetus) is considered a pest in eastern Europe, and believed to be a source of human tularemia infections...
  40. England K, am Ende C, Lu H, Sullivan T, Marlenee N, Bowen R, et al. Substituted diphenyl ethers as a broad-spectrum platform for the development of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of tularaemia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:1052-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the lead alkyl-substituted diphenyl ether, SBPT04, in the F. tularensis murine model of infection...
  41. Salomonsson E, Kuoppa K, Forslund A, Zingmark C, Golovliov I, Sjostedt A, et al. Reintroduction of two deleted virulence loci restores full virulence to the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..a live vaccine strain, LVS, was developed from a type B strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia. LVS, which is highly attenuated for humans but still virulent for mice by some infection routes, has been ..
  42. Twine S, Shen H, Harris G, Chen W, Sjostedt A, Ryden P, et al. BALB/c mice, but not C57BL/6 mice immunized with a ?clpB mutant of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis are protected against respiratory challenge with wild-type bacteria: association of protection with post-vaccination and post-challenge im. Vaccine. 2012;30:3634-45 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis after 30 days of vaccination, and elevated levels of pulmonary IL-17 on day 7 after respiratory challenge with SCHU S4 were all associated with protection...
  43. Kuolee R, Harris G, Conlan J, Chen W. Role of neutrophils and NADPH phagocyte oxidase in host defense against respiratory infection with virulent Francisella tularensis in mice. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that although neutrophils are not a major effector cell in defense against subsp. tularensis infection, NADPH phagocyte oxidase does play a marginal role...
  44. Geier H, Celli J. Phagocytic receptors dictate phagosomal escape and intracellular proliferation of Francisella tularensis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2204-14 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, survives and proliferates within macrophages of the infected host as part of its pathogenic strategy, through an intracellular life cycle that includes phagosomal escape and ..
  45. Bell B, Mohapatra N, Gunn J. Regulation of virulence gene transcripts by the Francisella novicida orphan response regulator PmrA: role of phosphorylation and evidence of MglA/SspA interaction. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2189-98 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and has been designated a category A biothreat agent by the CDC. Tularemia is characterized by replication and dissemination within host phagocytes...
  46. Thomas L, Schaffner W. Tularemia pneumonia. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24:43-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumonia can occur in tularemia, as either a primary process from direct inhalation, or as a secondary manifestation of ulceroglandular or ..
  47. Ulu Kılıç A, Gulen G, Sezen F, Kilic S, Sencan I. Tularemia in central Anatolia. Infection. 2013;41:391-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is a bacterial zoonosis with diverse clinical manifestations depending on bacterial subspecies and the route of the infection.
  48. Bandara A, Champion A, Wang X, Berg G, Apicella M, McLendon M, et al. Isolation and mutagenesis of a capsule-like complex (CLC) from Francisella tularensis, and contribution of the CLC to F. tularensis virulence in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19003 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a category-A select agent and is responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. The surface components of F. tularensis that contribute to virulence are not well characterized...
  49. Jayakar H, Parvathareddy J, Fitzpatrick E, Bina X, Bina J, Re F, et al. A galU mutant of Francisella tularensis is attenuated for virulence in a murine pulmonary model of tularemia. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:179 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of FT to evade early innate immune responses could be a very important virulence mechanism for this highly infectious bacterial pathogen...
  50. Rasmussen J, Post D, Gibson B, Lindemann S, Apicella M, Meyerholz D, et al. Francisella tularensis Schu S4 lipopolysaccharide core sugar and O-antigen mutants are attenuated in a mouse model of tularemia. Infect Immun. 2014;82:1523-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice immunized with these mutant strains displayed >10-fold protective effects against virulent type A F. tularensis challenge. ..
  51. Kaysser P, Seibold E, Mätz Rensing K, Pfeffer M, Essbauer S, Splettstoesser W. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:157 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007) after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections...
  52. Schulert G, McCaffrey R, Buchan B, Lindemann S, Hollenback C, Jones B, et al. Francisella tularensis genes required for inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst and intramacrophage growth identified by random transposon mutagenesis of strain LVS. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1324-36 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. We have shown that F...
  53. Valentino M, Hensley L, Skrombolas D, McPherson P, Woolard M, Kawula T, et al. Identification of a dominant CD4 T cell epitope in the membrane lipoprotein Tul4 from Francisella tularensis LVS. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1830-8 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative intracellular bacterium that is the causative agent of tularemia. Small mammals such as rodents and rabbits, as well as some biting arthropods, serve as the main vectors for environmental ..
  54. Twine S, Petit M, Fulton K, House R, Conlan J. Immunoproteomics analysis of the murine antibody response to vaccination with an improved Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10000 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis subspecies tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) has been shown to be efficacious in humans, but safety concerns have ..
  55. Wu T, Zsemlye J, Statom G, Hutt J, Schrader R, Scrymgeour A, et al. Vaccination of Fischer 344 rats against pulmonary infections by Francisella tularensis type A strains. Vaccine. 2009;27:4684-93 pubmed publisher
    Pneumonic tularemia caused by inhalation of the type A strains of Francisella tularensis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans...
  56. Sharma J, Li Q, Mishra B, Teale J. Lethal pulmonary infection with Francisella novicida causes depletion of alphabeta T cells from lungs. Cell Immunol. 2009;257:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that lack of transition from an innate to adaptive host response is associated with lethality of respiratory tularemia.
  57. Conlan J, Shen H, Golovliov I, Zingmark C, Oyston P, Chen W, et al. Differential ability of novel attenuated targeted deletion mutants of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis strain SCHU S4 to protect mice against aerosol challenge with virulent bacteria: effects of host background and route of immunization. Vaccine. 2010;28:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A preliminary examination of immune responses to vaccination with LVS, SCHU S4DeltaclpB, or SCHU S4Delta0918DeltacapB provided no obvious correlate to their relative efficacies...
  58. Ryden P, Björk R, Schafer M, Lundstrom J, Petersen B, Lindblom A, et al. Outbreaks of tularemia in a boreal forest region depends on mosquito prevalence. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:297-304 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to evaluate the potential association of mosquito prevalence in a boreal forest area with transmission of the bacterial disease tularemia to humans, and model the annual variation of disease using local weather data.
  59. Berrada Z, Telford S. Diversity of Francisella species in environmental samples from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:277-83 pubmed publisher
    We determined whether Francisella spp. are present in water, sediment, and soil from an active tularemia natural focus on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, during a multiyear outbreak of pneumonic tularemia...
  60. Ireland P, Lebutt H, Thomas R, Oyston P. A Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 mutant deficient in ?-glutamyltransferase activity induces protective immunity: characterization of an attenuated vaccine candidate. Microbiology. 2011;157:3172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have demonstrated that the attenuated mutant is able to induce protective immunity against an F. tularensis SCHU S4 challenge, and thus may be a candidate for the development of an attenuated vaccine...
  61. Barry E, Cole L, Santiago A. Vaccines against tularemia. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:832-8 pubmed
    ..This information has fostered the development of various vaccine candidates including acellular subunit, killed whole cell and live attenuated. This review summarizes the progress and promise of these various candidates...
  62. Raymond C, Conlan J. Differential susceptibility of Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rats to infection by Francisella tularensis. Microb Pathog. 2009;46:231-4 pubmed publisher
    The type A and B subspecies of Francisella tularensis cause severe disease, tularemia, in humans. However, only the former can be lethal especially if inhaled...
  63. Svensson K, Sjodin A, Bystrom M, Granberg M, Brittnacher M, Rohmer L, et al. Genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica strain FSC200, isolated from a child with tularemia. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6965-6 pubmed publisher
    ..holarctica strain FSC200, isolated in 1998 in the Swedish municipality Ljusdal, which is in an area where tularemia is highly endemic...
  64. Seibold E, Maier T, Kostrzewa M, Zeman E, Splettstoesser W. Identification of Francisella tularensis by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: fast, reliable, robust, and cost-effective differentiation on species and subspecies levels. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1061-9 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potential agent of bioterrorism...
  65. Karlsson E, Svensson K, Lindgren P, Bystrom M, Sjodin A, Forsman M, et al. The phylogeographic pattern of Francisella tularensis in Sweden indicates a Scandinavian origin of Eurosiberian tularaemia. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:634-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, the findings reveal the presence of diverse source populations of F.?tularensis subsp. holarctica in Sweden and suggest a historical spread of the disease from Scandinavia to other parts of Eurosiberia...
  66. Muller W, Hotzel H, Otto P, Karger A, Bettin B, Bocklisch H, et al. German Francisella tularensis isolates from European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) reveal genetic and phenotypic diversity. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:61 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis that has been found in many different vertebrates. In Germany most human infections are caused by contact with infected European brown hares (Lepus europaeus)...
  67. Uyar M, Cengiz B, Unlu M, Celebi B, Kilic S, Eryilmaz A. [Evaluation of the oropharyngeal tularemia cases admitted to our hospital from the provinces of Central Anatolia]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:58-66 pubmed
    b>Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic infection which has re-emerged in Turkey in recent years as water-borne endemics. Oropharyngeal form is the most frequently reported form of the disease from Turkey...
  68. Cole L, Yang Y, Elkins K, Fernandez E, Qureshi N, Shlomchik M, et al. Antigen-specific B-1a antibodies induced by Francisella tularensis LPS provide long-term protection against F. tularensis LVS challenge. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4343-8 pubmed publisher
    Francisella tularensis (Ft), a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of tularemia. Infection of mice with <10 Ft Live Vaccine Strain (Ft LVS) organisms i.p...
  69. Goethert H, Telford S. Nonrandom distribution of vector ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) infected by Francisella tularensis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000319 pubmed publisher
    The island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of a sustained outbreak of tularemia due to Francisella tularensis tularensis. Dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, appear to be critical in the perpetuation of the agent there...
  70. Mann B, Ark N. Rationally designed tularemia vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:877-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, can be contracted by the bite of an arthropod vector or by inhalation...
  71. Chiavolini D, Rangel Moreno J, Berg G, Christian K, Oliveira Nascimento L, Weir S, et al. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and survival in a vaccine mouse model of tularemia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11156 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the efficacy of this type of vaccine is influenced by the lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant...
  72. Oyston P. Francisella tularensis vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative approaches to produce subunit vaccines and defined attenuated strains are also in progress. However, the limitations of animal models may make licensing a candidate vaccine challenging...
  73. Cowley S, Meierovics A, Frelinger J, Iwakura Y, Elkins K. Lung CD4-CD8- double-negative T cells are prominent producers of IL-17A and IFN-gamma during primary respiratory murine infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. J Immunol. 2010;184:5791-801 pubmed publisher
  74. Svensson K, Bäck E, Eliasson H, Berglund L, Granberg M, Karlsson L, et al. Landscape epidemiology of tularemia outbreaks in Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1937-47 pubmed publisher
    Summer outbreaks of tularemia that occurred from 1995 through 2005 in 2 locations in Sweden affected 441 persons...
  75. Petersen J, Molins C. Subpopulations of Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis and holarctica: identification and associated epidemiology. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:649-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Tularemia is primarily caused by two subspecies of Francisella tularensis worldwide, ssp. tularensis (type A) and ssp. holarctica (type B), which were originally delineated by phenotypic differences...
  76. Rathinam V, Jiang Z, Waggoner S, Sharma S, Cole L, Waggoner L, et al. The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our observations demonstrate the importance of AIM2 in the sensing of both bacterial and viral pathogens and in triggering innate immunity...
  77. Nelson M, Lever M, Savage V, Salguero F, Pearce P, Stevens D, et al. Establishment of lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis (tularaemia) in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Int J Exp Pathol. 2009;90:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The common marmoset may therefore be considered a suitable model for further studies of inhalational tularaemia...
  78. Huang M, Mortensen B, Taxman D, Craven R, Taft Benz S, Kijek T, et al. Deletion of ripA alleviates suppression of the inflammasome and MAPK by Francisella tularensis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals infected with LVS?ripA mounted a stronger IL-1? and TNF-? response than that of mice infected with wild-type live vaccine strain. This analysis revealed novel immune evasive mechanisms of F. tularensis...
  79. Asare R, Abu Kwaik Y. Molecular complexity orchestrates modulation of phagosome biogenesis and escape to the cytosol of macrophages by Francisella tularensis. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:2559-86 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis-mediated modulation of phagosome biogenesis, phagosomal escape and bacterial proliferation within the cytosol is novel, complex and involves an unusually large portion of the genome of an intracellular pathogen...
  80. Conlan J, Chen W, Bosio C, Cowley S, Elkins K. Infection of mice with Francisella as an immunological model. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2011;Chapter 19:Unit 19.14 pubmed publisher
    ..use of different combinations of mouse and bacterial strains, as well as different routes of infection, murine tularemia models may be used to explore a complete picture of F. tularensis infection and immunity...
  81. Hauri A, Hofstetter I, Seibold E, Kaysser P, Eckert J, Neubauer H, et al. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:238-43 pubmed publisher
    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s...
  82. Parra M, Shaffer S, Hajjar A, Gallis B, Hager A, Goodlett D, et al. Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of Francisella lpp3: an immunogenic lipoprotein. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:531-45 pubmed publisher
    The severe and fatal human disease, tularemia, results from infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis...
  83. Straskova A, Pavkova I, Link M, Forslund A, Kuoppa K, Noppa L, et al. Proteome analysis of an attenuated Francisella tularensis dsbA mutant: identification of potential DsbA substrate proteins. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:5336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..and replication in macrophages and importantly also for in vivo virulence in the mouse infection model for tularemia. Using a combination of classical and shotgun proteome analyses, we were able to identify several proteins that ..
  84. Weber I, Turabelidze G, Patrick S, Griffith K, Kugeler K, Mead P. Clinical recognition and management of tularemia in Missouri: a retrospective records review of 121 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1283-90 pubmed publisher
    Clinical recognition of tularemia is essential for prompt initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Although fluoroquinolones have desirable attributes as a treatment option, limited data on efficacy in the US setting exist.
  85. Rotem S, Bar Haim E, Cohen H, Elia U, Ber R, Shafferman A, et al. Consequences of delayed ciprofloxacin and doxycycline treatment regimens against Francisella tularensis airway infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:5406-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A delay in onset of both antibiotic treatments allowed the rescue of all LVS-infected animals. However, for animals infected with SchuS4, only ciprofloxacin was efficacious and prolongation of treatment rescued all animals...
  86. Cole L, Mann B, Shirey K, Richard K, Yang Y, Gearhart P, et al. Role of TLR signaling in Francisella tularensis-LPS-induced, antibody-mediated protection against Francisella tularensis challenge. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;90:787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..e., production of Ft-LPS-specific antibody, as well as TLR-mediated macrophage activation, to fully control Francisella infection...
  87. Fulton K, Zhao X, Petit M, Kilmury S, Wolfraim L, House R, et al. Immunoproteomic analysis of the human antibody response to natural tularemia infection with Type A or Type B strains or LVS vaccination. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301:591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis is pathogenic for many mammalian species including humans, causing a spectrum of diseases called tularemia. The highly virulent Type A strains have associated mortality rates of up to 60% if inhaled...
  88. Gyuranecz M, Erdélyi K, Fodor L, Janosi K, Szépe B, Füleki M, et al. Characterization of Francisella tularensis strains, comparing their carbon source utilization. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..holarctica. The dendrogram based on the metabolic relationship of the strains shows that the isolates are very similar to each other, which correlates with the conservative genetic character of F. tularensis ssp. holarctica...
  89. Kuroda M, Sekizuka T, Shinya F, Takeuchi F, Kanno T, Sata T, et al. Detection of a possible bioterrorism agent, Francisella sp., in a clinical specimen by use of next-generation direct DNA sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1810-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Identified single-nucleotide variations suggest that the Iwaki-08 case was associated with Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (biovar japonica) but not the highly virulent type A (Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis)...