yaws

Summary

Summary: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.

Top Publications

  1. Levrero F, Gatti S, Gautier Hion A, Menard N. Yaws disease in a wild gorilla population and its impact on the reproductive status of males. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;132:568-75 pubmed
    ..The observed lesions were typical of yaws, a treponematosis described in gorillas and humans living in tropical regions...
  2. Asiedu K, Amouzou B, Dhariwal A, Karam M, Lobo D, Patnaik S, et al. Yaws eradication: past efforts and future perspectives. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:499-499A pubmed
  3. Mafart B. Goundou: a historical form of yaws. Lancet. 2002;360:1168-70 pubmed
  4. Mitjà O, Hays R, Ipai A, Penias M, Paru R, Fagaho D, et al. Single-dose azithromycin versus benzathine benzylpenicillin for treatment of yaws in children in Papua New Guinea: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet. 2012;379:342-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Yaws--an endemic treponematosis and, as such, a neglected tropical disease--is re-emerging in children in rural, tropical areas. Oral azithromycin is effective for syphilis...
  5. Mitjà O, Hays R, Ipai A, Gubaila D, Lelngei F, Kirara M, et al. Outcome predictors in treatment of yaws. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1083-5 pubmed publisher
    ..rates after treatment with benzathine penicillin and to identify determinants of failure that affected outcomes for yaws, we conducted a cohort study of 138 patients; treatment failed in 24 (17.4%)...
  6. Akogun O. Yaws and syphilis in the Garkida area of Nigeria. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289:101-7 pubmed
    Sixty-four (4.2%) cases of yaws and forty-one (2.7%) cases of syphilis were encountered during an epidemiological survey for filariasis in the mid-Hawal river valley...
  7. Anselmi M, Araujo E, Narvaez A, Cooper P, Guderian R. Yaws in Ecuador: impact of control measures on the disease in the Province of Esmeraldas. Genitourin Med. 1995;71:343-6 pubmed
    To determine the impact of a community-based programme of yaws control in Esmeraldas province in Ecuador.
  8. Noordhoek G, Cockayne A, Schouls L, Meloen R, Stolz E, van Embden J. A new attempt to distinguish serologically the subspecies of Treponema pallidum causing syphilis and yaws. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:1600-7 pubmed
    In an effort to serologically differentiate syphilis from yaws, 69 monoclonal antibody species raised against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were tested by immunoblotting for their reactivity with Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue...
  9. Mitjà O, Smajs D, Bassat Q. Advances in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses: yaws, bejel, and pinta. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2283 pubmed publisher
    ..to inform clinical practice and to ensure the best outcome for a new global initiative for the eradication of yaws, bejel, and pinta...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Mitjà O, Asiedu K, Mabey D. Yaws. Lancet. 2013;381:763-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Yaws is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue-a bacterium that closely resembles the causative agent of syphilis-and is spread by skin-to-skin contact in humid tropical regions...
  2. Fegan D, Glennon M, Thami Y, Pakoa G. Resurgence of yaws in Tanna, Vanuatu: time for a new approach?. Trop Doct. 2010;40:68-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent reports from the island of Tanna in Vanuatu suggest that yaws has resurged. We carried out a serological and clinical survey to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of yaws on the island...
  3. Satter E, Tokarz V. Secondary yaws: an endemic treponemal infection. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:364-7 pubmed publisher
    Although yaws is rare in developed countries, as worldwide travel has become commonplace, it is essential to recognize this condition when evaluating patients who traveled from endemic regions...
  4. Martin P, Cockayne A, Georges A, Penn C. Immune response to Treponema pertenue and Treponema pallidum Nichols in patients with yaws. Res Microbiol. 1990;141:181-6 pubmed
    Human sera from African patients with acute yaws were analysed by Western blot (WB) against antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols and two Treponema pertenue isolates...
  5. Backhouse J, Hudson B, Hamilton P, Nesteroff S. Failure of penicillin treatment of yaws on Karkar Island, Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59:388-92 pubmed
    The endemic treponematosis yaws remains a significant cause of morbidity in many tropical countries, despite mass treatment campaigns to eradicate it...
  6. Pětrošová H, Zobaníková M, Čejková D, Mikalová L, Pospíšilová P, Strouhal M, et al. Whole genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, strain Mexico A, suggests recombination between yaws and syphilis strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1832 pubmed publisher
    ..pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations...
  7. Tharmaphornpilas P, Srivanichakorn S, Phraesrisakul N. Recurrence of yaws outbreak in Thailand, 1990. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1994;25:152-6 pubmed
    In November 1990, an outbreak of yaws was reported in a rural village of southern Thailand...
  8. Anselmi M, Moreira J, Caicedo C, Guderian R, Tognoni G. Community participation eliminates yaws in Ecuador. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:634-8 pubmed
    b>Yaws is no longer a national and international health priority for intervention, but there is still a negative perception of the disease in the few affected communities...
  9. Manning L, Ogle G. Yaws in the periurban settlements of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. P N G Med J. 2002;45:206-12 pubmed
    b>Yaws is a re-emerging disease in Papua New Guinea. A resurgence of yaws is documented in the periurban settlements around Port Moresby. A total of 494 cases were identified from April 2000 to September 2001...
  10. Harris M, Nako D, Hopkins T, Powell D, Kenny C, Carroll C, et al. Yaws infection in Tanna, Vanuatu 1989. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22:113-9 pubmed
    b>Yaws has been resurgent in the island of Tanna in southern Vanatu in the 1980's...
  11. de Noray G, Capuano C, Abel M. [Campaign to eradicate yaws on Santo Island, Vanuatu in 2001]. Med Trop (Mars). 2003;63:159-62 pubmed
    ..During the year 2000, twenty cases of yaws were diagnosed on Santo Island in Vanuatu...
  12. Rothschild B, Rothschild C. Treponemal disease revisited: skeletal discriminators for yaws, bejel, and venereal syphilis. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:1402-8 pubmed
    ..collection of individuals in whom syphilis was diagnosed, and skeletal remains from Guam of individuals who had yaws were analyzed to quantitatively assess their skeletal damage...
  13. Asiedu K. The return of yaws. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:507-8 pubmed
  14. Edorh A, Siamevi E, Adanlete F, Aflagah E, Kassankogno Y, Amouzou A, et al. [Resurgence of endemic yaws in Togo. Cause and eradication approach]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1994;87:17-8 pubmed
    In Togo, since 1940, yaws declared endemic has been controlled after the 1956 and 1961 eradication campaign. Nowadays, unfortunately, the mutilating treponematosis has reappeared in force...
  15. Mohamed K. Imported yaws in Johor, Malaysia. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1988;8:222-4 pubmed
    b>Yaws was detected in a six-member family in the southern Malaysia state of Johor. This stresses the need to be vigilant against a long-forgotten disease of childhood which was of great public health concern in the past.
  16. Mitjà O, Hays R, Ipai A, Wau B, Bassat Q. Osteoperiostitis in early yaws: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:771-4 pubmed publisher
    ..and radiological manifestations and outcome after treatment of 7 children who received a diagnosis of early yaws osteoperiostitis...
  17. Engelkens H, Vuzevski V, Judanarso J, van Lier J, van der Stek J, van der Sluis J, et al. Early yaws: a light microscopic study. Genitourin Med. 1990;66:264-6 pubmed
    ..presents the light microscopic findings in biopsies of skin lesions from 45 patients, in whom a diagnosis of early yaws was suspected...
  18. Guderian R, Guzman J, Calvopina M, Cooper P. Studies on a focus of yaws in the Santiago Basin, province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Trop Geogr Med. 1991;43:142-7 pubmed
    A clinical and serological epidemiological study done on a yaws focus in the Santiago Basin area, province of Esmeraldas, showed a prevalence of 11.3% for active clinical lesions and a seropositivity of 94.9%...
  19. Fegan D, Glennon M, Macbride Stewart G, Moore T. Yaws in the Solomon Islands. J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;93:52-7 pubmed
    b>Yaws is a chronic, relapsing, non-venereally transmitted disease caused by Treponema pertenue. As a result of the WHO mass treatment campaign of the late 1950s, the prevalence in the Solomon Islands fell dramatically...
  20. Gershman K, Rolfs R, Larsen S, Zaidi A, Palafox N. Seroepidemiological characterization of a syphilis epidemic in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, formerly a yaws endemic area. Int J Epidemiol. 1992;21:599-606 pubmed
    ..of syphilis, therefore, may have been partly the result of increased surveillance or, since the RMI was formerly a yaws endemic area, possibly due to a resurgence of yaws...
  21. Koff A, Rosen T. Nonvenereal treponematoses: yaws, endemic syphilis, and pinta. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29:519-35; quiz 536-8 pubmed
    The nonvenereal treponematoses--yaws, endemic syphilis, and pinta--constitute a major health concern for many third world countries...
  22. Antal G, Lukehart S, Meheus A. The endemic treponematoses. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:83-94 pubmed
    ..pallidum) and the endemic (non-venereal) treponematoses, i.e. yaws (T. pallidum subsp. pertenue), endemic syphilis (T. pallidum subsp. endemicum) and pinta (T. carateum)...
  23. Guerrier G, Marcon S, Garnotel L, Deltour R, Schinas S, Mathelin J, et al. Yaws in Polynesia's Wallis and Futuna Islands: a seroprevalence survey. N Z Med J. 2011;124:29-31 pubmed
    We carried out a serological and clinical survey to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of yaws on two twin islands in Polynesia: Wallis and Futuna...
  24. Smajs D, Norris S, Weinstock G. Genetic diversity in Treponema pallidum: implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..pallidum ssp. pertenue, T. pallidum ssp. endemicum and Treponema carateum, which cause yaws, bejel and pinta, respectively...
  25. Čejková D, Zobaníková M, Chen L, Pospíšilová P, Strouhal M, Qin X, et al. Whole genome sequences of three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue strains: yaws and syphilis treponemes differ in less than 0.2% of the genome sequence. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1471 pubmed publisher
    The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA)...
  26. Mitjà O, Hays R, Lelngei F, Laban N, Ipai A, Pakarui S, et al. Challenges in recognition and diagnosis of yaws in children in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:113-6 pubmed publisher
    A global resurgence of yaws in developing countries highlights the need for reliable diagnostic criteria for this neglected infection...
  27. Gerstl S, Kiwila G, Dhorda M, Lonlas S, Myatt M, Ilunga B, et al. Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6338 pubmed publisher
    Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
  28. Herve V, Kassa Kelembho E, Normand P, Georges A, Mathiot C, Martin P. [Resurgence of yaws in Central African Republic. Role of the Pygmy population as a reservoir of the virus]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1992;85:342-6 pubmed
    ..a clinical (framboesia) and serological (TPHA and VDRL) investigation aimed at defining the reservoir of virus of yaws in the Lobaye area (southwest of CAR) out of which the disease spreads in spite of previous mass treatment ..
  29. Pillay A, Chen C, Reynolds M, Mombouli J, Castro A, Louvouezo D, et al. Laboratory-confirmed case of yaws in a 10-year-old boy from the Republic of the Congo. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4013-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of yaws in a patient with puritic cutaneous eruption who was initially suspected of infection with monkeypox. The diagnosis was established by real-time PCR and sequencing of specific treponemal DNA sequences...
  30. Zobaníková M, Strouhal M, Mikalová L, Čejková D, Ambrožová L, Pospíšilová P, et al. Whole genome sequence of the Treponema Fribourg-Blanc: unspecified simian isolate is highly similar to the yaws subspecies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2172 pubmed publisher
    ..This strain was morphologically indistinguishable from T. pallidum ssp. pallidum or ssp. pertenue strains, and it was shown to cause human infections...
  31. Wallace A, Ellis J. Juxta-articular bone lesions in tertiary yaws. Med J Aust. 1989;150:217-9 pubmed
    A case of tertiary yaws in an immigrant from the Solomon Islands is presented. The report highlights the atypical features and diagnostic difficulties of late-stage treponemal infection.
  32. Bora D, Dhariwal A, Lal S. Yaws and its eradication in India--a brief review. J Commun Dis. 2005;37:1-11 pubmed
    Until 1996-97, when Yaws Eradication Programme (YEP) in India was launched, there were three initiatives to assess/control the yaws disease in the country...
  33. Engelkens H, ten Kate F, Judanarso J, Vuzevski V, van Lier J, Godschalk J, et al. The localisation of treponemes and characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate in skin biopsies from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws. Genitourin Med. 1993;69:102-7 pubmed
    To study the localisation of treponemes and to analyse the inflammatory infiltrate in biopsy specimens from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws.
  34. Toure B, Koffi N, Assi K, Ake O, Konan D. [Yaws in Côte d'lvoire: health problem forgotten and neglected]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2007;100:130-2 pubmed
    b>Yaws is endemic in Côte d'Ivoire, with an hospital incidence estimated by the medical statistics at 0.58 per thousand in 2000; cases of yaws were notified in all medical districts...
  35. Meheus A, Antal G. The endemic treponematoses: not yet eradicated. World Health Stat Q. 1992;45:228-37 pubmed
    The endemic treponematoses which comprise yaws, endemic syphilis (bejel) and pinta constitute a group of potentially disabling and disfiguring infections which primarily afflict children in tropical and subtropical areas...
  36. Noordhoek G, Wieles B, van der Sluis J, van Embden J. Polymerase chain reaction and synthetic DNA probes: a means of distinguishing the causative agents of syphilis and yaws?. Infect Immun. 1990;58:2011-3 pubmed
    ..in one nucleotide at residue 123, and three of four syphilis strains were of the Nichols type, whereas five of six yaws strains were of the CDC 2575 type, indicating that the nucleotide at position 123 of the tpf-1 or tyf-1 gene is not ..
  37. Engelkens H, Oranje A, Stolz E. Early yaws, imported in The Netherlands. Genitourin Med. 1989;65:316-8 pubmed
    Early yaws in a 9 year old girl from Ghana, diagnosed as imported disease in The Netherlands is reported. She had lived in The Netherlands for six months...
  38. Martin P, Gonzalez J, Martin M, Georges Courbot M, Palisson M, Georges A. Clinical aspects and usefulness of indirect absorbed immunofluorescence for diagnosis of yaws in Central Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 1988;26:2432-3 pubmed
    The incidence of yaws in 533 pygmies from the Central African Republic was surveyed. It appeared that there is still an impressive incidence of yaws in pygmy children who have poor hygiene...
  39. Mikalová L, Strouhal M, Čejková D, Zobaníková M, Pospíšilová P, Norris S, et al. Genome analysis of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and subsp. pertenue strains: most of the genetic differences are localized in six regions. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15713 pubmed publisher
    ..p. pallidum and T. p. pertenue strains. These regions of sequence divergence could be used for the molecular detection and discrimination of syphilis and yaws strains.
  40. Scolnik D, Aronson L, Lovinsky R, Toledano K, Glazier R, Eisenstadt J, et al. Efficacy of a targeted, oral penicillin-based yaws control program among children living in rural South America. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1232-8 pubmed
    b>Yaws is endemic in rural Guyana. An observational study was conducted to determine the efficacy of oral penicillin V therapy in treating skin lesions of yaws in children...
  41. Harper K, Ocampo P, Steiner B, George R, Silverman M, Bolotin S, et al. On the origin of the treponematoses: a phylogenetic approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e148 pubmed publisher
    ..pallidum and its relationship to the pathogens responsible for the other treponemal diseases: yaws, endemic syphilis, and pinta...
  42. Lahariya C, Pradhan S. Can Southeast Asia eradicate yaws by 2010? Some lessons from the Yaws Eradication Programme of India. Natl Med J India. 2007;20:81-6 pubmed
    b>Yaws has traditionally been known as a skin disease that affects people living in hilly, remote and inaccessible areas...
  43. Backhouse J, Hudson B. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of yaws. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:1875-8 pubmed
    ..IgG) EIA, for the detection of IgG antibodies to Treponema pallidum was evaluated for use as a screening test for yaws (Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue)...
  44. Engelkens H, Vuzevski V, ten Kate F, van der Heul P, van der Sluis J, Stolz E. Ultrastructural aspects of infection with Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (Pariaman strain). Genitourin Med. 1991;67:403-7 pubmed
    ..To study ultrastructural aspects of infection with Treponema pertenue (Pariaman strain), originating from West Sumatra, Indonesia...
  45. Fitzpatrick C, Sankara D, Agua J, Jonnalagedda L, Rumi F, Weiss A, et al. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005922 pubmed publisher
    ..targeted for eradication by WHO, two are so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)-guinea worm disease (GWD) and yaws. The Guinea Worm Eradication Programme (GWEP) is in its final stages, with only 25 reported in 2016...
  46. Noordhoek G, Engelkens H, Judanarso J, van der Stek J, Aelbers G, van der Sluis J, et al. Yaws in West Sumatra, Indonesia: clinical manifestations, serological findings and characterisation of new Treponema isolates by DNA probes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991;10:12-9 pubmed
    The results of a yaws survey on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia are presented...
  47. Dada Y, Milord F, Frost E, Manshande J, Kamuragiye A, Youssouf J, et al. The Indian Ocean paradox revisited: HIV and sexually transmitted infections in the Comoros. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:596-600 pubmed
    ..Only 1/70 (1.4%) and 0/83 sex workers sampled in 2004 and 2005 were HIV-infected. The Comoros have been protected by their insular status, male circumcision and paucity of syphilis. HIV control should focus on sex workers. ..
  48. Dyson L, Marks M, Crook O, Sokana O, Solomon A, Bishop A, et al. Targeted Treatment of Yaws With Household Contact Tracing: How Much do we Miss?. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    b>Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas...
  49. Akinsolu F, de Paiva V, Souza S, Varga O. Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families. Global Health. 2017;13:82 pubmed publisher
    ..filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws. The aim of this study is to map out research and development (R&D) landscape through patent analysis of these ..
  50. STAMM L. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:901-3 pubmed publisher
    ..or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T...
  51. Fitzpatrick C, Asiedu K, Sands A, Gonzalez Pena T, Marks M, Mitjà O, et al. The cost and cost-effectiveness of rapid testing strategies for yaws diagnosis and surveillance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005985 pubmed publisher
    b>Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. The disease is targeted by WHO for eradication by 2020...
  52. Buckley H. Subadult health and disease in prehistoric Tonga, Polynesia. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;113:481-505 pubmed
    ..A differential diagnosis of haematogenous osteomyelitis, congenital syphilis, yaws, scurvy, hypervitaminosis A, trauma, Caffey's disease, and iron-deficiency anaemia is discussed...
  53. McBride W, Hannah R, Le Cornec G, Bletchly C. Cutaneous chancroid in a visitor from Vanuatu. Australas J Dermatol. 2008;49:98-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesion responded to intramuscular benzathine penicillin. This report adds further evidence that cutaneous chancroid should be considered in the evaluation of skin ulcers in the south Pacific...
  54. Engelkens H, Ginai A, Judanarso J, Stolz E. Case report 724. Yaws. Skeletal Radiol. 1992;21:194-7 pubmed
    A 15-year-old girl presented with the typical clinical, serological, and pathological lesions of yaws. The patient was a native of Sumatra. The important diagnostic criteria and the relationship to venereal syphilis were discussed.
  55. . Eradication of yaws--the Morges strategy. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2012;87:189-94 pubmed
  56. Bumann D, Bruns J. [Tertiary yaws--skeletal manifestations at the distal tibia]. Aktuelle Radiol. 1994;4:46-8 pubmed
    We describe the case of a 16-year old male patient from African presenting tertiary yaws at the distal tibia. Clinical signs, biochemical results and the different diagnostic imaging methods are demonstrated...
  57. Strouhal M, Mikalová L, Havlíčková P, Tenti P, Čejková D, Rychlik I, et al. Complete genome sequences of two strains of Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue from Ghana, Africa: Identical genome sequences in samples isolated more than 7 years apart. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005894 pubmed publisher
    Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) is the causative agent of yaws, a multi-stage disease, endemic in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America...
  58. Kamali A, Nunn A, Mulder D, Van Dyck E, Dobbins J, Whitworth J. Seroprevalence and incidence of genital ulcer infections in a rural Ugandan population. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75:98-102 pubmed
  59. Engelkens H, Ginai A, Judanarso J, Kasim C, van der Stek J, van der Sluis J, et al. Radiological and dermatological findings in two patients suffering from early yaws in Indonesia. Genitourin Med. 1990;66:259-63 pubmed
    Two children suffering from early yaws in Indonesia are presented...
  60. Konan Y, M Bea K, Coulibaly A, Tetchi E, Kpébo D, Aké O, et al. [A description of the yaws infection and prevention conditions in the health district of Adzopé]. Sante Publique. 2007;19:111-8 pubmed
    This article reports on a cross-sectional study which aims to describe the situation of yaws in the boroughs of Asseudji located in the health district of Adzopé...
  61. Yanagihara Y, Yanagihara I. [Syphilis]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;91:2983-9 pubmed