tick borne diseases

Summary

Summary: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.

Top Publications

  1. Parola P, Raoult D. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:897-928 pubmed
    ..Methods are described for the detection and isolation of bacteria from ticks and advice is given on how tick bites may be prevented and how clinicians should deal with patients who have been bitten by ticks...
  2. Makala L, Mangani P, Fujisaki K, Nagasawa H. The current status of major tick borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Res. 2003;34:27-45 pubmed
    ..It is thus hoped that this review will stimulate the desire to maximize the value of the tick and tick-borne disease research in both Zambia and the international research community...
  3. Raoult D. A new rickettsial disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:812-3 pubmed
  4. Pegram R, Indar L, Eddi C, George J. The Caribbean Amblyomma Program: some ecologic factors affecting its success. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1026:302-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, feral or free-ranging livestock were rarely a problem in these islands. These differences in land use management are compared and discussed in relation to their perceived profound impact on TBT eradication efforts in the region...
  5. McQuiston J, Paddock C, Singleton J, Wheeling J, Zaki S, Childs J. Imported spotted fever rickettsioses in United States travelers returning from Africa: a summary of cases confirmed by laboratory testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999-2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:98-101 pubmed
  6. Oteo J, Ibarra V, Blanco J, Martinez de Artola V, Marquez F, Portillo A, et al. Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy: clinical and epidemiological features of a new tick-borne disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:327-31 pubmed
    ..The probable aetiological agent is Rickettsia slovaca. Similar cases have been reported in other European countries...
  7. Jensenius M, Fournier P, Vene S, Ringertz S, Myrvang B, Raoult D. Comparison of immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and cross-adsorption assays for diagnosis of African tick bite fever. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:786-8 pubmed
    ..01). A specific diagnosis of Rickettsia africae infection could be established in 15% of the patients by IFA and in 73% of the patients by a combination of WB and cross-adsorption assays (P < 0.01)...
  8. De La Fuente J, Almazan C, Blouin E, Naranjo V, Kocan K. RNA interference screening in ticks for identification of protective antigens. Parasitol Res. 2005;96:137-41 pubmed
  9. Consigny P, Rolain J, Mizzi D, Raoult D. African tick-bite fever in French travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1804-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications82

  1. Chapman A, Bakken J, Folk S, Paddock C, Bloch K, Krusell A, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis--United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-27 pubmed
  2. Halperin T, Orr N, Cohen R, Hasin T, Davidovitch N, Klement E, et al. Detection of relapsing fever in human blood samples from Israel using PCR targeting the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) gene. Acta Trop. 2006;98:189-95 pubmed
    ..A second modified GlpQ PCR was able to discriminate between probable B. persica and B. recurrentis and B. crocidurae infection. This study describes the first molecular assay for the diagnosis of relapsing fever caused by B. persica...
  3. Jensenius M, Fournier P, Raoult D. Tick-borne rickettsioses in international travellers. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8:139-46 pubmed
    ..We describe the current knowledge of tick-borne rickettsioses as they relate to international travel, their microbiological diagnosis, treatment, possible prevention, and future prospects...
  4. Swanson S, Neitzel D, Reed K, Belongia E. Coinfections acquired from ixodes ticks. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:708-27 pubmed
    ..Clinicians should consider the likelihood of coinfection when pursuing laboratory testing or selecting therapy for patients with tick-borne illness...
  5. Jensenius M, Fournier P, Kelly P, Myrvang B, Raoult D. African tick bite fever. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:557-64 pubmed
    ..Travellers to endemic areas should be informed of the risk of contracting African tick bite fever and be encouraged to take personal protective measures against tick bites...
  6. Parola P, Paddock C, Raoult D. Tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:719-56 pubmed
    ..We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases...
  7. Wyplosz B, Mihaila Amrouche L, Baixench M, Bigel M, Berardi Grassias L, Fontaine C, et al. Imported tickborne relapsing fever, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1801-3 pubmed
  8. Lepidi H, Fournier P, Raoult D. Histologic features and immunodetection of African tick-bite fever eschar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1332-7 pubmed
    ..Neutrophils in ATBF are a notable component of the host reaction, perhaps because ATBF is a milder disease than the other rickettsioses. Immunohistochemical detection of rickettsial antigens may be useful in diagnosing ATBF...
  9. Jongejan F, Nene V, De La Fuente J, Pain A, Willadsen P. Advances in the genomics of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:391-6 pubmed
    ..Each advance reveals new levels of complexity, but there are encouraging signs that genomics is leading to novel means of parasite control...
  10. De La Fuente J, Kocan K, Almazan C, Blouin E. RNA interference for the study and genetic manipulation of ticks. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:427-33 pubmed
    ..It is probable that the knowledge gained from this experimental approach will contribute to development of vaccines to control tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens...
  11. Bell Sakyi L, Zweygarth E, Blouin E, Gould E, Jongejan F. Tick cell lines: tools for tick and tick-borne disease research. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:450-7 pubmed
  12. Brouqui P, Bacellar F, Baranton G, Birtles R, Bjoersdorff A, Blanco J, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis of tick-borne bacterial diseases in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:1108-32 pubmed
    ..These guidelines aim to help clinicians and microbiologists in diagnosing infection transmitted by tick bites and to provide the scientific and medical community with a better understanding of these infectious diseases...
  13. Hill C, Wikel S. The Ixodes scapularis Genome Project: an opportunity for advancing tick research. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:151-3 pubmed
    ..The IGP will be the first genomic analysis of a member of the subphylum Chelicerata and will accelerate the pace of tick research. The challenge for scientists is to translate IGP data into public health benefits...
  14. Shpynov S, Fournier P, Rudakov N, Tankibaev M, Tarasevich I, Raoult D. Detection of a rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia aeschlimannii, "Rickettsia heilongjiangensis," Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4, and Ehrlichia muris in ticks collected in Russia and Kazakhstan. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2221-3 pubmed
    ..In Kazakhstan, we detected Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4 and a rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia aeschlimannii. These agents should be considered in a differential diagnosis of tick-borne infections in these areas...
  15. Jackson Y, Chappuis F, Loutan L. African tick-bite fever: four cases among Swiss travelers returning from South Africa. J Travel Med. 2004;11:225-8 pubmed
    ..African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is a recently described disease belonging to the spotted fever group. It is caused by Rickettsia africae, and cases are mainly diagnosed in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa...
  16. Paddock C, Sumner J, Comer J, Zaki S, Goldsmith C, Goddard J, et al. Rickettsia parkeri: a newly recognized cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:805-11 pubmed
    ..parkeri rickettsiosis and possibly other novel SFG rickettsioses in the United States...
  17. Scott J. Typing African relapsing fever spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1722-9 pubmed
    ..and a unique clade, distant from those associated with relapsing fever, possibly equivalent to a novel species in ticks from this region. Clinical significance of this spirochete is undetermined...
  18. Socolovschi C, Doudier B, Pages F, Parola P. [Ticks and human tick-borne diseases in Africa]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:119-33 pubmed
    ..The next part of the article describes the main human tick borne diseases in Africa with particular focus on spotted fever group rickettsioses, relapsing fever borrelioses, and ..
  19. Moore V, Varela A, Yabsley M, Davidson W, Little S. Detection of Borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:424-7 pubmed
    ..lonestari or another closely related Borrelia species. Our findings expand the known geographic range of B. lonestari and provide the first evidence of this organism in a vertebrate other than humans...
  20. Raoult D, Lakos A, Fenollar F, Beytout J, Brouqui P, Fournier P. Spotless rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia slovaca and associated with Dermacentor ticks. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1331-6 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence and/or Western blot analysis detected antibodies in 50% of tested patients. Three Dermacentor ticks obtained from patients revealed R. slovaca by PCR...
  21. Raoult D, Fournier P, Fenollar F, Jensenius M, Prioe T, De Pina J, et al. Rickettsia africae, a tick-borne pathogen in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1504-10 pubmed
    ..African tick-bite fever occurs after contact with ticks that carry Rickettsia africae and that parasitize cattle and game. Sporadic reports suggest that this infection has specific clinical and epidemiologic features...
  22. Parola P, Raoult D. Tick-borne bacterial diseases emerging in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001;7:80-3 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi complex and a new relapsing fever borrelia. We present these emerging diseases and focus on the factors that play a role in the recognition of new tick-borne diseases...
  23. Jongejan F. Integrated control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Parassitologia. 1999;41 Suppl 1:57-8 pubmed
    ..This paper gives a brief overview of the ICTTD project activities against the background of recent initiatives to assess the impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Mediterranean region...
  24. Burt F, Spencer D, Leman P, Patterson B, Swanepoel R. Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia. Epidemiol Infect. 1996;116:353-61 pubmed
    ..The latter patient suffered from febrile illness with prolonged thrombocytopenia...
  25. van Dam A, van Gool T, Wetsteyn J, Dankert J. Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2027-30 pubmed
    ..Spirochetes were also cultured from blood samples from both patients in modified Kelly's medium and were identified as B. crocidurae by partial sequencing of the PCR-amplified rrs gene...
  26. Vorobyeva N, Korenberg E, Grigoryan Y. Diagnostics of tick-borne diseases in the endemic region of Russia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114:610-2 pubmed
    ..The specific characteristics of human monocytic ehrlichiosis include nervous impairments, hepatic lesions, the frequent development of a two-wave course and hemogram changes...
  27. Fournier P, Jensenius M, Laferl H, Vene S, Raoult D. Kinetics of antibody responses in Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia conorii infections. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9:324-8 pubmed
    ..We recommend that sera collected 4 weeks after the onset of signs of patients with suspected African tick-bite fever should be used for the definitive serological diagnosis of R. africae infections...
  28. Lakos A. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA). Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114:648-54 pubmed
    ..From 1996 through 2000, we collected data on 86 patients with similar symptoms following a tick bite. The inclusion criteria were: enlarged regional lymph nodes and/or vesicular-ulcerative local reaction at the site of the tick bite...
  29. Toutous Trellu L, Péter O, Chavaz P, Saurat J. African tick bite fever: not a spotless rickettsiosis!. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:S18-9 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a patient with an unusual site of a tick bite and discuss cutaneous differences from other spotted fevers that may help dermatologists with clinical diagnosis...
  30. Ceci L, Carelli G. Tick-borne diseases of livestock in Italy: general review and results of recent studies carried out in the Apulia region. Parassitologia. 1999;41 Suppl 1:25-9 pubmed
    ..In another study in the same region a microscopic prevalence of 78% for Theileria spp. was found in 60 cows. Afterwards using the IFAT test the Theileria sp. was identified as Theileria buffeli/orientalis...
  31. Cutler S, Akintunde C, Moss J, Fukunaga M, Kurtenbach K, Talbert A, et al. Successful in vitro cultivation of Borrelia duttonii and its comparison with Borrelia recurrentis. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 4:1793-9 pubmed
    ..7% homology with three strains deposited by others in GenBank. The rrs gene of eight representative clinical isolates of B. recurrentis confirmed their close similarity with B. duttonii...
  32. Estrada Pena A, Jongejan F. Ticks feeding on humans: a review of records on human-biting Ixodoidea with special reference to pathogen transmission. Exp Appl Acarol. 1999;23:685-715 pubmed
    ..Finally, despite the fact that most people who are bitten destroy the offending tick in disgust, it is recommended that they preserve specimens in ethanol for taxonomic identification and detection of pathogens by molecular methods...
  33. Jensenius M, Fournier P, Vene S, Hoel T, Hasle G, Henriksen A, et al. African tick bite fever in travelers to rural sub-Equatorial Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1411-7 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that ATBF is not uncommon in travelers to rural sub-Saharan Africa and that many cases have a nonspecific presentation...
  34. Uilenberg G. [Microscopic diagnosis of tick-borne diseases in Maghreb]. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 2004;81:35-40 pubmed
    ..The focus of the paper is on practical details and pitfalls to be avoided in sample taking, smear preparation, fixing and staining, microscopic examination and interpretation of the results ..
  35. Yabsley M, Quick T, Little S. Theileriosis in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:806-9 pubmed
    ..cervi parasitemias have been commonly reported in healthy white-tailed deer, the severe parasitemia in this fawn may have contributed to overt clinical disease, perhaps as part of a combined malnutrition and parasitemia syndrome. ..
  36. Gern L, Lienhard R, Peter O. [Diseases and pathogenic agents transmitted by ticks in Switzerland]. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6:1906-9 pubmed
    ..Results of sero-epidemiologic studies suggest human infections. Active surveillance by physicians is necessary and clinical studies are required to evaluate the importance of these infections in Switzerland. ..
  37. Caulfield A, Pritt B. Lyme Disease Coinfections in the United States. Clin Lab Med. 2015;35:827-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Coinfections with B burgdorferi and these other agents are often difficult to diagnose and may go untreated, and thus contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality from tick-borne infections. ..
  38. Randolph S. Tick ecology: processes and patterns behind the epidemiological risk posed by ixodid ticks as vectors. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S37-65 pubmed
    ..Temperate and tropical patterns will be illustrated with reference mostly to Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, respectively. ..
  39. ValcÁrcel F, SÁnchez J, Jaime J, Basco Basco P, Guajardo S, Cutuli M, et al. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. ..
  40. Pérez Sánchez R, Oleaga A. Acaricidal activity of fluralaner against Ornithodoros moubata and Ornithodoros erraticus argasid ticks evaluated through in vitro feeding. Vet Parasitol. 2017;243:119-124 pubmed publisher
  41. Torina A, Vicente J, Alongi A, Scimeca S, Turla R, Nicosia S, et al. Observed prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Sicily, Italy during 2003-2005. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:8-15 pubmed
  42. Guerrero A, Gimeno F, Colomina J, Molina M, Oteo J, Cuenca M. Low incidence of tick-borne rickettsiosis in a Spanish Mediterranean area. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:200-2 pubmed
    ..At the present time our data suggest a low tick-borne rickettsiosis incidence of MSF and a superior incidence of TIBOLA than MSF in the Spanish Mediterranean area. ..
  43. Parola P. Tick-borne rickettsial diseases: emerging risks in Europe. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;27:297-304 pubmed
    ..We present here these emerging diseases and discuss other potential threat for the future. ..
  44. Abdela N, Ibrahim N, Begna F. Prevalence, risk factors and vectors identification of bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis in and around Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 2018;177:9-18 pubmed publisher
  45. Didyk Y, Blaňarová L, Pogrebnyak S, Akimov I, Petko B, Vichova B. Emergence of tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ricketsia raoultii and Babesia microti) in the Kyiv urban parks, Ukraine. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017;8:219-225 pubmed publisher
  46. Fandamu P, Thys E, Duchateau L, Berkvens D. Perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of east coast fever immunization in southern Zambia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2006;38:9-16 pubmed
    ..These findings provide valuable information on how livestock farmers perceive and adopt new animal disease control strategies and the information could be useful in their planning and implementation. ..
  47. Schulze T, Jordan R, Schulze C, Mixson T, Papero M. Relative encounter frequencies and prevalence of selected Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:450-6 pubmed
    ..americanum encounter frequencies compared with I. scapularis may result in increased risk of acquiring exposure to A. americanum-transmitted pathogens. The potential public health implications of these results are discussed. ..
  48. Marshall C. Empiric antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with tick bites. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:774; author reply 774, 776 pubmed
  49. Rosa R, Pugliese A, Norman R, Hudson P. Thresholds for disease persistence in models for tick-borne infections including non-viraemic transmission, extended feeding and tick aggregation. J Theor Biol. 2003;224:359-76 pubmed
    ..Finally, we incorporated the effects of tick aggregation on the hosts and correlation of tick stages and found that both had an important effect on infection persistence, if non-viraemic transmission occurred. ..
  50. Billeter S, Blanton H, Little S, Levy M, Breitschwerdt E. Detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in association with a tick bite rash. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:607-10 pubmed
    ..amblyommii" by sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which R. amblyommii was temporally associated with a rash. ..
  51. Rudolf I, Venclíková K, Blažejová H, Betášová L, Mendel J, Hubalek Z, et al. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from the Czech Republic. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:1222-1224 pubmed publisher
    ..reticulatus population indicating possible future emergence of Dermacentor-borne necrotic erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL) in the region. ..
  52. Telford S, Goethert H. Emerging tick-borne infections: rediscovered and better characterized, or truly 'new' ?. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S301-27 pubmed
    ..We suggest that newly recognised agents or tick/pathogen associations receive careful scrutiny before being declared as potential public health burdens. ..
  53. Gould E, Solomon T. Pathogenic flaviviruses. Lancet. 2008;371:500-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Ding W. Optimal control on hybrid ode systems with application to a tick disease model. Math Biosci Eng. 2007;4:633-59 pubmed
    ..The goal is to maximize disease-free ticks and minimize infected ticks through an optimal control strategy of treatment with acaricide. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results...
  55. Labuda M, Nuttall P. Tick-borne viruses. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S221-45 pubmed
    ..Key challenges are to determine the molecular adaptations that allow tick-borne viruses to infect and replicate in both tick and vertebrate cells, and to identify the principal ecological determinants of tick-borne virus survival...
  56. Otranto D. Assessment of the efficacy of parasiticides for the control of tick infection in dogs under field conditions: what's new?. Parassitologia. 2006;48:141-4 pubmed
    ..Due the important role of immatures in the spread of TBDs, the immature tick load should be calculated to assess the efficacy of acaricidal products both under laboratory and field conditions...
  57. Willadsen P. Anti-tick vaccines. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S367-87 pubmed
    ..The groundwork has been laid; the potential of the field is still to be effectively exploited...
  58. Chaillon A, Besnier J, Choutet P. [Pathology of inoculation]. Rev Prat. 2008;58:213-21 pubmed
  59. Ai S. Global stability of equilibria in a tick-borne disease model. Math Biosci Eng. 2007;4:567-72 pubmed
    ..D. Gaff and L.J. Gross (Bull. Math. Biol., 69 (2007), 265-288) where local stability results were obtained. These results provide the parameter ranges for controlling long-term population and disease dynamics...
  60. Mathis A, Hilpertshauser H, Deplazes P. [Piroplasms of ruminants in Switzerland and zoonotic significance of Babesia]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:151-9 pubmed
    ..Reasons for this could be differences in virulence of the parasites or in the transmission by the respective tick-vectors on the two continents...
  61. Johnson E, Allen K, Breshears M, Panciera R, Little S, Ewing S. Experimental transmission of Hepatozoon americanum to rodents. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:164-9 pubmed
    ..americanum sequences previously reported from naturally-infected dogs (AF176836 and AY864676, respectively). Merogonous and gamontogonous stages of the parasite were not detected in any of the cystozoite-infected rodents...
  62. Steiner F, Pinger R, Vann C, Grindle N, Civitello D, Clay K, et al. Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:289-97 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi in male ticks, which co-occurred less frequently than expected. Thus, I. scapularis hosts an array of pathogenic and symbiotic agents and potential evidence of interactions among microbial species was observed...
  63. Standfast N, Bock R, Wiecek M, deVos A, Jorgensen W, Kingston T. Overcoming constraints to meeting increased demand for Babesia bigemina vaccine in Australia. Vet Parasitol. 2003;115:213-22 pubmed
    ..bigemina-infected red cells were washed by centrifugation to remove agglutinating antibodies. Washing had no effect on parasite viability and this method is now in routine use in the production of trivalent vaccine...
  64. Ndhlovu D, Makaya P, Penzhorn B. Tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2009;76:235-48 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis indicate that the cattle population in the study area is at high risk of a theileriosis outbreak, a tick-borne disease that has not been reported from this area...
  65. Boillat N, Greub G. [Rickettsiosis: a clinical approach]. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3:1222-7 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry may provide early diagnosis. Doxycyclin is the first-line treatment and should be given empirically as soon as a rickettsial disease is suspected...
  66. Bodaan C. [Tick eradication project extended one more year]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2006;131:497 pubmed
  67. Elfving K, Lindblom A, Nilsson K. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection among tick-bitten patients and blood donors in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:74-7 pubmed
    ..Owing to a known occurrence of immunological cross-reactivites, however, the results must be cautiously interpreted with regard to species of Rickettsia involved...
  68. Gajewska A. [Lyme disease in children]. Przegl Lek. 2006;63 Suppl 7:88-90 pubmed
    ..The treatment is based on antibiotic therapy - penicillin's and cephalosporins. The period of therapy depends on clinical form of borreliosis. Early tick removing is the best borreliosis prophylaxis...
  69. Scoles G, Broce A, Lysyk T, Palmer G. Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:668-75 pubmed
  70. Bodaan C, Nihof A, Postigo M, Nieuwenhuijs H, Opsteegh M, Franssen L, et al. [Ticks and tick borne pathogens in domestic animals in the Netherlands]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2007;132:517-23 pubmed
  71. de la Fuente J, Kocan K. Strategies for development of vaccines for control of ixodid tick species. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:275-83 pubmed
    ..The future of research directed toward tick vaccine development is exciting because of new and emerging technologies for gene discovery, and vaccine formulation and delivery...
  72. Foglia Manzillo V, Cappiello S, Oliva G. Tick-transmitted diseases in dogs: clinicopathological findings. Parassitologia. 2006;48:135-6 pubmed
    ..It is important to point out that co-infection between two or more agents is possible. In this case it is very difficult to attribute the clinical signs and haematological and/or biochemical abnormalities to a single specific agent...
  73. Torina A, Caracappa S. Babesiosis in Italy: an overview. Parassitologia. 2007;49 Suppl 1:23-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our research has lately been focused on the investigation of the presence of Babesia parasites in wild animals, yielding very interesting results...