pneumococcal pneumonia

Summary

Summary: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.

Top Publications

  1. Lahti E, Mertsola J, Kontiokari T, Eerola E, Ruuskanen O, Jalava J. Pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema in children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:783-9 pubmed
    ..value of the pneumolysin-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema was evaluated with 33 whole blood samples and 12 pleural fluid samples...
  2. Matthias K, Roche A, Standish A, Shchepetov M, Weiser J. Neutrophil-toxin interactions promote antigen delivery and mucosal clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Immunol. 2008;180:6246-54 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates how microbial-host interactions affect Ag delivery and the effectiveness of mucosal immunity. ..
  3. Slupsky C, Rankin K, Fu H, Chang D, Rowe B, Charles P, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia: potential for diagnosis through a urinary metabolic profile. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:5550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the urinary metabolomic profile for pneumococcal pneumonia was significantly different from the profiles for viral and other bacterial forms of pneumonia...
  4. Arévalo M, Xu Q, Paton J, Hollingshead S, Pichichero M, Briles D, et al. Mucosal vaccination with a multicomponent adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in the lung. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;55:346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae strain D39 colonization in mouse lungs. Taken together, these data demonstrate the feasibility of developing a mucosal vaccine against S. pneumoniae using recombinant adenoviruses for antigen delivery. ..
  5. Quinton L, Jones M, Simms B, Kogan M, Robson B, Skerrett S, et al. Functions and regulation of NF-kappaB RelA during pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2007;178:1896-903 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that RelA is essential for the host defense response to pneumococcus in the lungs and that RelA in airway epithelial cells is primarily activated by TNF and IL-1. ..
  6. Walter N, Taylor T, Shay D, Thompson W, Brammer L, Dowell S, et al. Influenza circulation and the burden of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia during a non-pandemic period in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:175-83 pubmed publisher
    Animal models and data from influenza pandemics suggest that influenza infection predisposes individuals to pneumococcal pneumonia. Influenza may contribute to high winter rates of pneumococcal pneumonia during non-pandemic periods, but ..
  7. Ogunniyi A, LeMessurier K, Graham R, Watt J, Briles D, Stroeher U, et al. Contributions of pneumolysin, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), and PspC to pathogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 in a mouse model. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1843-51 pubmed
    ..These findings further demonstrate that the mechanism of pneumococcal pathogenesis is highly complex and multifactorial but ascribes a role for each of these virulence proteins, alone or in combination, in the process. ..
  8. Madhi S, Klugman K. World Health Organisation definition of "radiologically-confirmed pneumonia" may under-estimate the true public health value of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:2413-9 pubmed
    ..vaccine (PCV) in preventing pneumonia would only be appreciated if the tool used for measuring "pneumococcal pneumonia" had good sensitivity...
  9. Lim J, Stirling B, Derry J, Koga T, Jono H, Woo C, et al. Tumor suppressor CYLD regulates acute lung injury in lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Immunity. 2007;27:349-60 pubmed
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes high early mortality in pneumococcal pneumonia, which is characterized by acute lung injury (ALI). The molecular mechanisms underlying ALI and the high early mortality remain unknown...

More Information

Publications71

  1. McNamee L, Harmsen A. Both influenza-induced neutrophil dysfunction and neutrophil-independent mechanisms contribute to increased susceptibility to a secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6707-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, an influenza infection of 6 days increases susceptibility to S. pneumoniae by both suppression of neutrophil function and by neutrophil-independent mechanisms such as enhanced cytokine production...
  2. Mancuso P, Lewis C, Serezani C, Goel D, Peters Golden M. Intrapulmonary administration of leukotriene B4 enhances pulmonary host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the current study in an animal model serve as a proof of concept for the potential utility of treatment with aerosolized LTB(4) as an immunostimulatory strategy in patients with bacterial pneumonia...
  3. Klugman K, Chien Y, Madhi S. Pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza: a deadly combination. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 3:C9-C14 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination with PCV for children and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults should be considered essential to pandemic influenza preparedness...
  4. Witzenrath M, Schmeck B, Doehn J, Tschernig T, Zahlten J, Loeffler J, et al. Systemic use of the endolysin Cpl-1 rescues mice with fatal pneumococcal pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:642-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The recently purified bacteriophage endolysin Cpl-1 rapidly and specifically kills pneumococci on contact. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic potential of Cpl-1 in a mouse model of severe pneumococcal pneumonia.
  5. Flory J, Joffe M, Fishman N, Edelstein P, Metlay J. Socioeconomic risk factors for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:717-26 pubmed publisher
    Demographic and clinical risk factors are important in guiding vaccination policy for pneumococcal pneumonia. We present data on these variables from a population-based surveillance network covering adult bacteraemic pneumococcal ..
  6. Moens L, Verhaegen J, Pierik M, Vermeire S, De Boeck K, Peetermans W, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms in invasive pneumococcal disease. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:15-20 pubmed
    ..Studies have revealed associations between polymorphisms in TLRs and human diseases. The effect of polymorphisms in TLR2 and TLR4 in the human defense to S. pneumoniae has not been studied...
  7. Marriott H, Hellewell P, Cross S, Ince P, Whyte M, Dockrell D. Decreased alveolar macrophage apoptosis is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2006;177:6480-8 pubmed
    ..infection, we have explored the role of macrophage apoptosis in regulating inflammatory responses during pneumococcal pneumonia, using inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice...
  8. Gauthier J, Fortin A, Bergeron Y, Dumas M, Champagne M, Bergeron M. Differential contribution of bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine and host-derived CXC chemokines to neutrophil infiltration into pulmonary alveoli during murine pneumococcal pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5361-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the contribution of each in the context of pneumococcal pneumonia, CD1, BALB/c, CBA/ca, C57BL/6, and formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-knockout C57BL/6 mice were infected with ..
  9. Hortal M, Sehabiague G, Camou T, Iraola I, Estevan M, Pujadas M. Pneumococcal pneumonia in hospitalized Uruguayan children and potential prevention with different vaccine formulations. J Pediatr. 2008;152:850-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide information on pneumococcal pneumonias, on their associated serotypes, and to estimate the coverage potentially afforded by antipneumococcal vaccines...
  10. Giebelen I, Leendertse M, Florquin S, van der Poll T. Stimulation of acetylcholine receptors impairs host defence during pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae did not reveal an anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine either. The present data suggest that nicotine transiently impairs host defence in pneumococcal pneumonia.
  11. Diederen B, Peeters M. Rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults using the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen test. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:284-5 pubmed
  12. Lu Y, Forte S, Thompson C, Anderson P, Malley R. Protection against Pneumococcal colonization and fatal pneumonia by a trivalent conjugate of a fusion protein with the cell wall polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a covalent construct of three antigens common to all serotypes exhibits protection with both mucosal and systemic administration...
  13. Marriott H, Jackson L, Wilkinson T, Simpson A, Mitchell T, Buttle D, et al. Reactive oxygen species regulate neutrophil recruitment and survival in pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:887-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative importance of each role remains poorly defined in community-acquired pneumonia...
  14. Hinojosa E, Boyd A, Orihuela C. Age-associated inflammation and toll-like receptor dysfunction prime the lungs for pneumococcal pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether aging and chronic inflammation were associated with increased pIgR and PAFr levels in the lungs and increased susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infection...
  15. Feldman C, Alanee S, Yu V, Richards G, Ortqvist A, Rello J, et al. Severity of illness scoring systems in patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia: implications for the intensive care unit care. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and the Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS) in evaluating severity of illness in 766 patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative ..
  16. Boulware D, Daley C, Merrifield C, Hopewell P, Janoff E. Rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among HIV-infected adults with urine antigen detection. J Infect. 2007;55:300-9 pubmed
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and associated bacteremia during HIV infection. Rapid diagnostic assays may limit inappropriate therapy...
  17. Metlay J, Fishman N, Joffe M, Kallan M, Chittams J, Edelstein P. Macrolide resistance in adults with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1223-30 pubmed
    We conducted a case-control study of adults with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia to identify factors associated with macrolide resistance...
  18. Saldías P F, Viviani G P, Pulgar B D, Valenzuela F F, Paredes E S, Díaz P O. [Prognostic factors and mortality in immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia]. Rev Med Chil. 2009;137:1545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults...
  19. Kirby A, Newton D, Carding S, Kaye P. Pulmonary dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages are regulated by gammadelta T cells during the resolution of S. pneumoniae-induced inflammation. J Pathol. 2007;212:29-37 pubmed
    ..These findings support a model whereby expansion of gammadelta T cells helps restore mononuclear phagocyte numbers to homeostatic levels, protecting the lung from the consequences of inappropriate inflammation...
  20. Schabbauer G, Matt U, Günzl P, Warszawska J, Furtner T, Hainzl E, et al. Myeloid PTEN promotes inflammation but impairs bactericidal activities during murine pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2010;185:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K activity dampened pulmonary inflammation, reduced neutrophil influx, and augmented phagocytic properties of macrophages, which ultimately resulted in decreased tissue injury and improved survival during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.
  21. Padrones S, Garcia Vidal C, Fernández Serrano S, Fernandez A, Masuet C, Carratala J, et al. Impact of antibiotic therapy on systemic cytokine expression in pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..016). Our data suggest that systemic expression of IL-6 production in patients with PP correlates with prognosis. Initial combination antibiotic therapy produces a faster decrease in this cytokine in the first 48 h...
  22. Weinberger D, Harboe Z, Sanders E, Ndiritu M, Klugman K, Rückinger S, et al. Association of serotype with risk of death due to pneumococcal pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:692-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IPD outcome, like other epidemiologic measures, is a stable serotype-associated property. ..
  23. Cao J, Chen T, Li D, Wong C, Chen D, Xu W, et al. Mucosal immunization with purified ClpP could elicit protective efficacy against pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis in mice. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..induced both systemic and mucosal antibodies, and in this way reduced lung colonization in an invasive pneumococcal pneumonia model and also protected mice against death in an intraperitoneal-sepsis model...
  24. Rueda A, Ormond M, Gore M, Matloobi M, Giordano T, Musher D. Hyperglycemia in diabetics and non-diabetics: effect on the risk for and severity of pneumococcal pneumonia. J Infect. 2010;60:99-105 pubmed publisher
    We sought to determine whether poor glucose control among diabetics is associated with increased risk for pneumococcal pneumonia and whether elevated admitting plasma glucose (APG) levels are associated with increased severity of this ..
  25. Musher D, Rueda Jaimes A, Graviss E, Rodriguez Barradas M. Effect of pneumococcal vaccination: a comparison of vaccination rates in patients with bacteremic and nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1004-8 pubmed
    ..Despite the widespread acceptance of the 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), its protective effect continues to be disputed. We describe a novel approach to examine the protective effect of this vaccine...
  26. Lagler H, Sharif O, Haslinger I, Matt U, Stich K, Furtner T, et al. TREM-1 activation alters the dynamics of pulmonary IRAK-M expression in vivo and improves host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2009;183:2027-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the function of TREM-1 in pneumococcal pneumonia, we first established TREM-1 up-regulation in infected lungs and human plasma together with augmented ..
  27. Jambo K, Sepako E, Heyderman R, Gordon S. Potential role for mucosally active vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:81-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pneumococcal pneumonia is a life-threatening disease with high mortality and morbidity among children under 5 years of age, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals worldwide...
  28. Ferreira D, Darrieux M, Silva D, Leite L, Ferreira J, Ho P, et al. Characterization of protective mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by pneumococcal surface protein PspA and PspC nasal vaccines against a respiratory pneumococcal challenge in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:636-45 pubmed publisher
  29. Hsu A, Aronoff D, Phipps J, Goel D, Mancuso P. Leptin improves pulmonary bacterial clearance and survival in ob/ob mice during pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;150:332-9 pubmed
    ..In this report we assessed the impact of chronic leptin deficiency, using ob/ob mice, on pneumococcal pneumonia and examined whether restoring circulating leptin to physiological levels in vivo could improve host ..
  30. McAuley J, Hornung F, Boyd K, Smith A, McKeon R, Bennink J, et al. Expression of the 1918 influenza A virus PB1-F2 enhances the pathogenesis of viral and secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:240-9 pubmed
    ..These findings help explain both the unparalleled virulence of the 1918 strain and the high incidence of fatal pneumonia during the pandemic...
  31. Musher D, Rueda A, Kaka A, Mapara S. The association between pneumococcal pneumonia and acute cardiac events. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:158-65 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine the incidence of such events in patients who were hospitalized for community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia.
  32. Saindou M, Chidiac C, Miailhes P, Voirin N, Baratin D, Amiri M, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia in HIV-infected patients by antiretroviral therapy periods. HIV Med. 2008;9:203-7 pubmed publisher
    To ascertain the relationship between periods of various antiretroviral therapies and the incidence of first community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAPP) among HIV-1 infected patients.
  33. Schaaf B, Kruse J, Rupp J, Reinert R, Droemann D, Zabel P, et al. Sepsis severity predicts outcome in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:517-24 pubmed
    ..value < or =60 mmHg) and age > or =65 yrs (CRB-65) score in 105 patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. In addition, the influence of timing of the antimicrobial treatment on outcome was investigated...
  34. Farnworth S, Henderson N, Mackinnon A, Atkinson K, Wilkinson T, Dhaliwal K, et al. Galectin-3 reduces the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia by augmenting neutrophil function. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteremia and lung damage compared to wild-type mice and that galectin-3 reduces the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia in part by augmenting neutrophil function...
  35. O Brien K, Wolfson L, Watt J, Henkle E, Deloria Knoll M, McCall N, et al. Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet. 2009;374:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..To support local and global policy decisions on pneumococcal disease prevention and treatment, we estimated country-specific incidence of serious cases and deaths in children younger than 5 years...
  36. Lin C, Chen P, Huang F, Lee T, Chi C, Lin C. Radiographic, clinical, and prognostic features of complicated and uncomplicated community-acquired lobar pneumonia in children. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2006;39:489-95 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the radiographic, clinical, and predicted factors of complicated and uncomplicated lobar pneumonia in children...
  37. Yanagihara K, Fukuda Y, Seki M, Izumikawa K, Miyazaki Y, Hirakata Y, et al. Effects of specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat sodium hydrate, in murine model of severe pneumococcal pneumonia. Exp Lung Res. 2007;33:71-80 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation for the improved survival is that sivelestat prevents tissue damage by inhibiting NE activity in the lung. Therefore, NE inhibitors may be useful for treating with patients with severe pneumonia...
  38. Smith M, Schmidt J, Rehg J, Orihuela C, McCullers J. Induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza. Comp Med. 2007;57:82-9 pubmed
    ..Mortality correlated with the development of pneumonia and lung inflammation but not with bacteremia. This model has the potential to help us understand the pathogenesis of severe lung infections...
  39. Dessing M, Knapp S, Florquin S, de Vos A, van der Poll T. CD14 facilitates invasive respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175:604-11 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the contribution of CD14 to host defense against gram-positive infections is limited...
  40. Dalal A, Ahmad H. Austrian syndrome (pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis): a case report. Am J Med Sci. 2008;336:354-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Austrian syndrome is seen infrequently in this antibiotic era but is still associated with a poor outcome. Hence early recognition and appropriate medical or combined medical-surgical treatment needs to be considered promptly...
  41. Andreo F, Prat C, Ruiz Manzano J, Lores L, Blanco S, Cuesta M, et al. Persistence of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen excretion after pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to determine the duration of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen excretion in urine after pneumococcal pneumonia. Urinary antigen detection remained positive in nonconcentrated urine in 18 (52...
  42. Marks M, Burns T, Abadi M, Seyoum B, Thornton J, Tuomanen E, et al. Influence of neutropenia on the course of serotype 8 pneumococcal pneumonia in mice. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1586-97 pubmed
    ..To investigate the contribution of PMNs to host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia, we determined the effect of the PMN-depleting rat monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 (RB6) on survival and ..
  43. Calbo E, Alsina M, Rodriguez Carballeira M, Lite J, Garau J. The impact of time on the systemic inflammatory response in pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..analyse the impact of time from onset of symptoms on the systemic cytokine concentrations in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Adults with severe pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively included...
  44. Garnacho Montero J, García Cabrera E, Díaz Martín A, Lepe Jiménez J, Iraurgi Arcarazo P, Jiménez Alvarez R, et al. Determinants of outcome in patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia: importance of early adequate treatment. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..53, 95% CI 0.29-0.95; p = 0.033). Administration of adequate antimicrobial therapy within 4 h of arrival is a critical determinant of survival in patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal CAP...
  45. Porcel J, Ruiz González A, Falguera M, Nogues A, Galindo C, Carratala J, et al. Contribution of a pleural antigen assay (Binax NOW) to the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Chest. 2007;131:1442-7 pubmed
    ..To determine whether the detection of pneumococcal antigen in pleural fluid augments conventional microbiological methods used for the etiologic diagnosis of pneumonia...
  46. Hocke A, Lampe M, Witzenrath M, Mollenkopf H, Zerrahn J, Schmeck B, et al. Cell-specific interleukin-15 and interleukin-15 receptor subunit expression and regulation in pneumococcal pneumonia--comparison to chlamydial lung infection. Cytokine. 2007;38:61-73 pubmed
    ..The induction of pneumococcal pneumonia but not the infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae evoked a significant up-regulation of IL-15 on ..
  47. Obando I, Arroyo L, Sanchez Tatay D, Moreno D, Hausdorff W, Brueggemann A. Molecular typing of pneumococci causing parapneumonic empyema in Spanish children using multilocus sequence typing directly on pleural fluid samples. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:962-3 pubmed
  48. Sun K, Salmon S, Lotz S, Metzger D. Interleukin-12 promotes gamma interferon-dependent neutrophil recruitment in the lung and improves protection against respiratory Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1196-202 pubmed
    ..The findings show that IL-12 and IFN-gamma can mediate a protective effect against respiratory infection caused by extracellular bacterial pathogens...
  49. Abdeldaim G, Stralin K, Olcen P, Blomberg J, Herrmann B. Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae target genes, with special reference to the Spn9802 fragment. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;60:143-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Spn9802 real-time PCR is highly sensitive and specific. The quantification it provides enables differentiation between pneumococcal pathogenicity and commensalism...
  50. Kang C, Rouse M, Patel R, Kita H, Juhn Y. Allergic airway inflammation and susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia in a murine model with real-time in vivo evaluation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:552-61 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between allergic airway inflammation and pneumococcal pneumonia is not well understood. We assessed susceptibility to experimental pneumococcal pneumonia in mice with and without allergic airway inflammation...
  51. van Zoelen M, Schouten M, de Vos A, Florquin S, Meijers J, Nawroth P, et al. The receptor for advanced glycation end products impairs host defense in pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2009;182:4349-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that RAGE plays a detrimental role in the host response to S. pneumoniae pneumonia by facilitating the bacterial growth and dissemination and concurrently enhancing the pulmonary inflammatory and procoagulant response...
  52. Kukavica Ibrulj I, Hamelin M, Prince G, Gagnon C, Bergeron Y, Bergeron M, et al. Infection with human metapneumovirus predisposes mice to severe pneumococcal pneumonia. J Virol. 2009;83:1341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior infection with either hMPV or influenza A virus predisposes mice to severe pneumococcus infection...
  53. Pírez García M, Giachetto Larraz G, Romero Rostagno C, Zabala Chain C, Algorta Rusiñol G, Montano Lotito A, et al. [Invasive pneumococcal pneumonia in children 0-24 months old: does bacterial resistance affect outcome]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2008;69:205-9 pubmed
    ..S. pneumoniae is the most frequent agent. The disease is more severe in children less than two years old. The relationship between pneumococcal penicillin resistance and outcome is still an unresolved problem...
  54. Abdeldaim G, Herrmann B, Molling P, Holmberg H, Blomberg J, Olcen P, et al. Usefulness of real-time PCR for lytA, ply, and Spn9802 on plasma samples for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Spn9802 and lytA PCRs may be useful for the rapid detection of bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas ply PCR is not specific enough for routine use and blood PCR with small plasma volumes is not ..
  55. van der Poll T, Opal S. Pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia. Lancet. 2009;374:1543-56 pubmed publisher
  56. Garcia Vidal C, Ardanuy C, Tubau F, Viasus D, Dorca J, Linares J, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia presenting with septic shock: host- and pathogen-related factors and outcomes. Thorax. 2010;65:77-81 pubmed publisher
    Host- and pathogen-related factors associated with septic shock in pneumococcal pneumonia are not well defined. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for septic shock and to ascertain patient outcomes...
  57. Lucero M, Nohynek H, Williams G, Tallo V, Simoes E, Lupisan S, et al. Efficacy of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children less than 2 years of age in the Philippines: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..No information is available from Asia on the impact of PCV on childhood pneumonia...
  58. Rello J, Lisboa T, Lujan M, Gallego M, Kee C, Kay I, et al. Severity of pneumococcal pneumonia associated with genomic bacterial load. Chest. 2009;136:832-840 pubmed publisher
    ..As viral load is useful in viral infections, we hypothesized that bacterial load may be associated with outcomes in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.
  59. Dessing M, Van Der Sluijs K, Florquin S, Akira S, van der Poll T. Toll-like receptor 2 does not contribute to host response during postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:609-14 pubmed
    ..the objective of this study was to determine the role of TLR2 in the host response to postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia. TLR2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus...
  60. Eisenhut M. Investigating the role of bacterial zinc-containing metalloproteases in the pathogenesis of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1382-3 pubmed publisher
  61. Jover F, Cuadrado J, Andreu L, Martinez S, Cañizares R, de la Tabla V, et al. A comparative study of bacteremic and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19:15-21 pubmed publisher
    Few attempts have been made to compare bacteremic and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, mainly because it is difficult to gain agreement on which cases represent non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia...
  62. Grijalva C, Nuorti J, Arbogast P, Martin S, Edwards K, Griffin M. Decline in pneumonia admissions after routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA: a time-series analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1179-86 pubmed
    ..We therefore assessed the effect of the programme on rates of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia admissions.