impetigo

Summary

Summary: A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.

Top Publications

  1. Bangert S, Levy M, Hebert A. Bacterial resistance and impetigo treatment trends: a review. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29:243-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. The prevalence of colonization and infection with resistant strains is continually increasing, forcing clinicians to reevaluate treatment strategies...
  2. Bentley J, Barankin B, Guenther L. A review of common pediatric lip lesions: herpes simplex/recurrent herpes labialis, impetigo, mucoceles, and hemangiomas. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2003;42:475-82 pubmed
    ..Four of the most common lip lesions a pediatrician will see are herpes simplex/recurrent herpes labialis, impetigo, mucoceles, and hemangiomas...
  3. Akiyama H, Hamada T, Huh W, Yamasaki O, Oono T, Fujimoto W, et al. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observation of glycocalyx production by Staphylococcus aureus in skin lesions of bullous impetigo, atopic dermatitis and pemphigus foliaceus. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:526-32 pubmed
    ..Glycocalyx collapses during dehydration to produce electron-dense accretions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) may be used to visualize fully hydrated microbial biofilms...
  4. George A, Rubin G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatments for impetigo. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53:480-7 pubmed
    b>Impetigo is a common clinical problem seen in general practice. Uncertainty exists as to the most effective treatment, or indeed if treatment is necessary.
  5. Tveten Y, Jenkins A, Kristiansen B. A fusidic acid-resistant clone of Staphylococcus aureus associated with impetigo bullosa is spreading in Norway. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:873-6 pubmed
    ..To investigate the possibility that the increased prevalence of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Norway is caused by clonal spread...
  6. Kumar R, Vohra H, Chakraborty A, Sharma Y, Bandhopadhya S, Dhanda V, et al. Epidemiology of group A streptococcal pharyngitis & impetigo: a cross-sectional & follow up study in a rural community of northern India. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:765-71 pubmed
    ..Hence, disease burden due to GAS in 5-15 yr old school children in northern India was studied and emm typing of GAS isolates was carried out to help in designing prevention strategies...
  7. Rørtveit S, Skutlaberg D, Langeland N, Rortveit G. Impetigo in a population over 8.5 years: incidence, fusidic acid resistance and molecular characteristics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:1360-4 pubmed publisher
    From around year 2000, impetigo caused by fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was observed in countries of Northern Europe...
  8. Koning S, van Suijlekom Smit L, Nouwen J, Verduin C, Bernsen R, Oranje A, et al. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2002;324:203-6 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo.
  9. Imai N, Watanabe R, Fujiwara H, Ito M, Nakamura A. Successful treatment of impetigo herpetiformis with oral cyclosporine during pregnancy. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:128-9 pubmed

More Information

Publications67

  1. Gravet A, Couppie P, Meunier O, Clyti E, Moreau B, Pradinaud R, et al. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in cases of impetigo produces both epidermolysin A or B and LukE-LukD in 78% of 131 retrospective and prospective cases. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4349-56 pubmed
    Clinical symptoms of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome may not only be expressed as the splitting of cell layers within the epidermis but are often accompanied by some localized inflammation...
  2. Koning S, van der Sande R, Verhagen A, van Suijlekom Smit L, Morris A, Butler C, et al. Interventions for impetigo. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD003261 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo is a common, superficial bacterial skin infection, which is most frequently encountered in children. There is no generally agreed standard therapy, and guidelines for treatment differ widely...
  3. Stanley J, Amagai M. Pemphigus, bullous impetigo, and the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1800-10 pubmed
  4. Johnston G. Treatment of bullous impetigo and the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in infants. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2004;2:439-46 pubmed
    b>Impetigo is a common, superficial, bacterial infection of the skin characterized by an inflamed and infected epidermis...
  5. Smeesters P, Vergison A, Campos D, de Aguiar E, Miendje Deyi V, Van Melderen L. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e10 pubmed
    ..Group A Streptococcus (GAS) clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood...
  6. Noguchi N, Nakaminami H, Nishijima S, Kurokawa I, So H, Sasatsu M. Antimicrobial agent of susceptibilities and antiseptic resistance gene distribution among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2119-25 pubmed
    ..The data of MRSA strains that are causative agents of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) were compared with those of MRSA strains isolated from patients ..
  7. Yang L, Keam S. Spotlight on retapamulin in impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In the EU, retapamulin is indicated for use in patients with impetigo or with infected small lacerations, abrasions, or sutured wounds (without abscesses); in the US, it is indicated ..
  8. Koning S, van Belkum A, Snijders S, van Leeuwen W, Verbrugh H, Nouwen J, et al. Severity of nonbullous Staphylococcus aureus impetigo in children is associated with strains harboring genetic markers for exfoliative toxin B, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3017-21 pubmed
    Nonbullous impetigo is a common skin infection in children and is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal toxins and especially exfoliative toxin A are known mediators of bullous impetigo in children...
  9. O Neill A, Larsen A, Skov R, Henriksen A, Chopra I. Characterization of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1505-10 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to the antibiotic fusidic acid in European strains of Staphylococcus aureus causing impetigo has increased in recent years...
  10. Koning S, van der Wouden J, Chosidow O, Twynholm M, Singh K, Scangarella N, et al. Efficacy and safety of retapamulin ointment as treatment of impetigo: randomized double-blind multicentre placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:1077-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo is a common skin infection, primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus and mainly occurring in children. It is usually treated topically with antibiotics to achieve a quick cure and prevent spread of the infection...
  11. Svensson M, Sjöbring U, Luo F, Bessen D. Roles of the plasminogen activator streptokinase and the plasminogen-associated M protein in an experimental model for streptococcal impetigo. Microbiology. 2002;148:3933-45 pubmed
    ..A streptococci (GAS) takes place at either the throat or skin of the human host, often leading to pharyngitis or impetigo, respectively. Many GAS strains differ in their preference for throat and skin tissue sites...
  12. Hayashida S, Furusho N, Uchi H, Miyazaki S, Eiraku K, Gondo C, et al. Are lifetime prevalence of impetigo, molluscum and herpes infection really increased in children having atopic dermatitis?. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;60:173-8 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous infections such as impetigo contagiosum (IC), molluscum contagiosum (MC) and herpes virus infection (HI) appear to be associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), but there are no reports of concrete epidemiological evidence.
  13. Bessen D, Carapetis J, Beall B, Katz R, Hibble M, Currie B, et al. Contrasting molecular epidemiology of group A streptococci causing tropical and nontropical infections of the skin and throat. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1109-16 pubmed
    Disease caused by group A streptococci (GAS) in tropical regions often takes the form of impetigo, whereas pharyngitis tends to predominate in temperate zones...
  14. Brook I, Frazier E, Yeager J. Microbiology of nonbullous impetigo. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14:192-5 pubmed
    Our objective was to establish the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of nonbullous impetigo (NI) in children. We used a retrospective review of clinical microbiology laboratory and patients' records...
  15. Iovino S, Krantz K, Blanco D, Fernández J, Ocampo N, Najafi A, et al. NVC-422 topical gel for the treatment of impetigo. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;4:587-95 pubmed
    b>Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection affecting children worldwide that is caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or both...
  16. Valdés E, Núñez T, Pedraza D, Muñoz H. [Recurrent Impetigo Herpetiformis: successfully managed with ciclosporine. Report of one case]. Rev Med Chil. 2005;133:1070-4 pubmed
    b>Impetigo Herpetiformis is a high-risk gestational skin disease that represents a risk for both the mother and offspring. Its management is based on multisystemic support and maternal steroid therapy...
  17. Bloom M, Carter E. Bullous impetigo of the face after epilation by threading. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:1174-5 pubmed
  18. Sahin H, Sahin H, Metin A, Zeteroglu S, Ugras S. Recurrent impetigo herpetiformis in a pregnant adolescent: case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;101:201-3 pubmed
    b>Impetigo Herpetiformis is a rare pustular dermatosis that typically occurs in pregnant women with unknown etiology...
  19. Hanakawa Y, Schechter N, Lin C, Garza L, Li H, Yamaguchi T, et al. Molecular mechanisms of blister formation in bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:53-60 pubmed
    Bullous impetigo due to Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common bacterial infections of man, and its generalized form, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), is a frequent manifestation of staphylococcal epidemics in ..
  20. Payne A, Hanakawa Y, Amagai M, Stanley J. Desmosomes and disease: pemphigus and bullous impetigo. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:536-43 pubmed
    ..pathophysiologic targets of autoimmune or toxin-mediated disruption in the human diseases pemphigus and bullous impetigo (including its generalized form, called staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome)...
  21. Steer A, Jenney A, Kado J, Batzloff M, La Vincente S, Waqatakirewa L, et al. High burden of impetigo and scabies in a tropical country. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e467 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo and scabies are endemic diseases in many tropical countries; however the epidemiology of these diseases is poorly understood in many areas, particularly in the Pacific.
  22. Yang L, Keam S. Retapamulin: a review of its use in the management of impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections. Drugs. 2008;68:855-73 pubmed
    ..In the EU, retapamulin is indicated for use in patients with impetigo or with infected small lacerations, abrasions or sutured wounds (without abscesses); in the US, it is indicated ..
  23. Occelli P, Blanie M, Sanchez R, Vigier D, Dauwalder O, Darwiche A, et al. Outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo in a maternity ward linked to an asymptomatic healthcare worker. J Hosp Infect. 2007;67:264-70 pubmed
    An outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo occurred over a period of five months in a maternity ward involving seven infected and two colonised neonates...
  24. Durupt F, Mayor L, Bes M, Reverdy M, Vandenesch F, Thomas L, et al. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in furuncles and impetigo. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:1161-7 pubmed
    ..The precise role of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in common skin infections remains unclear...
  25. Alsterholm M, Flytström I, Bergbrant I, Faergemann J. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90:52-7 pubmed publisher
    Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FRSA) has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks of impetigo and its emergence has been associated with increased use of topical fusidic acid...
  26. Darmstadt G, Osendarp S, Ahmed S, Feldman C, van Raaij J, Baqui A, et al. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:407-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6% had at least 1 episode of impetigo compared with 19.6% of the infants of mothers in the placebo group (P = 0.01)...
  27. Rijnders M, Wolffs P, Hopstaken R, den Heyer M, Bruggeman C, Stobberingh E. Spread of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC) in general practice patients in the south of The Netherlands. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the susceptibility to fusidic acid, mupirocin and retapamulin of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal and wound swabs...
  28. Shi D, Higuchi W, Takano T, Saito K, Ozaki K, Takano M, et al. Bullous impetigo in children infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus alone or in combination with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: analysis of genetic characteristics, including assessment of exfoliative toxin gene carriage. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1972-4 pubmed publisher
    Among bullous impetigo isolates, exfoliative toxin (ET) gene carriage was found in 61.5% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates versus 90.6% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates...
  29. Barton L, Friedman A. Impetigo: a reassessment of etiology and therapy. Pediatr Dermatol. 1987;4:185-8 pubmed
    Traditional concepts regarding the bacteriology and therapy of nonbullous impetigo have been reexamined...
  30. Liu Y, Kong F, Zhang X, Brown M, Ma L, Yang Y. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with impetigo in China from 2003 to 2007 shows community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be uncommon and heterogeneous. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:1347-50 pubmed publisher
    The number of patients with impetigo caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasing.
  31. Yamaguchi T, Yokota Y, Terajima J, Hayashi T, Aepfelbacher M, Ohara M, et al. Clonal association of Staphylococcus aureus causing bullous impetigo and the emergence of new methicillin-resistant clonal groups in Kansai district in Japan. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1511-6 pubmed
    ..performed to reveal the clonal association of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with bullous impetigo. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with cluster analysis, genetic and phenotypic characterizations, and ..
  32. Razmjou R, Willemsen S, Koning S, Oranje A, Schellevis F, van der Wouden J. Determinants of regional differences in the incidence of impetigo. Environ Res. 2009;109:590-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo is a common contagious skin infection, mostly seen in children and caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A B-hemolytic Streptococcus...
  33. Tong S, Andrews R, Kearns T, Gundjirryirr R, McDonald M, Currie B, et al. Trimethopim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Paediatr Child Health. 2010;46:131-3 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children...
  34. Koning S, Mohammedamin R, van der Wouden J, van Suijlekom Smit L, Schellevis F, Thomas S. Impetigo: incidence and treatment in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001--results from two national surveys. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:239-43 pubmed
    b>Impetigo is a common skin infection in children. The epidemiology is relatively unknown, and the choice of treatment is subject to debate.
  35. Criado P, Costa A, Vasconcellos C, Oliveira Ramos R, Silva C, Souza S. Tinea faciei in an infant caused by Microsporum gypseum simulating a dry impetigo. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22:536-8 pubmed
    ..The initial examination led us to the clinical diagnosis of impetigo. The mycologic studies found an uncommon dermatophyte agent, Microsporum gypseum...
  36. Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Schnell B, Hoekstra R, Rahbar M, Keswick B. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:430-5 pubmed
    ..2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1...
  37. Brown J, Shriner D, Schwartz R, Janniger C. Impetigo: an update. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:251-5 pubmed
  38. Nakaminami H, Noguchi N, Ikeda M, Hasui M, Sato M, Yamamoto S, et al. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 273 exfoliative toxin-encoding-gene-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with impetigo in Japan. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..273 Staphylococcus aureus isolates positive for the exfoliative toxin-encoding gene obtained from patients with impetigo in Japan in 2006 were studied. The mecA gene was detected in 74 meticillin-resistant S...
  39. Nishijim S, Ohshima S, Higashida T, Nakaya H, Kurokawa I. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from impetigo patients between 1994 and 2000. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:23-5 pubmed
    The incidence of strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to the antimicrobial agents used in treating impetigo has been increasing.
  40. Luewan S, Sirichotiyakul S, Tongsong T. Recurrent impetigo herpetiformis successfully treated with methotrexate: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:661-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Impetigo herpetiformis is a rare disease and its occurrence is specific for pregnancy. The lesions are characterized by sterile, pustular eruptions...
  41. Hisata K, Ito T, Matsunaga N, Komatsu M, Jin J, Li S, et al. Dissemination of multiple MRSA clones among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from Japanese children with impetigo. J Infect Chemother. 2011;17:609-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In 3 months we have characterized 17 MRSA strains isolated from children with impetigo at a Japanese hospital...
  42. Loffeld A, Davies P, Lewis A, Moss C. Seasonal occurrence of impetigo: a retrospective 8-year review (1996-2003). Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30:512-4 pubmed
    b>Impetigo, a common skin infection, has shown seasonal variation in African, Australian and Indian studies. We investigated seasonal variation of impetigo in a UK paediatric population...
  43. Yoshida K, Sakurai Y, Kawahara S, Takeda T, Ishikawa T, Murakami T, et al. Anaphylaxis to polyvinylpyrrolidone in povidone-iodine for impetigo contagiosum in a boy with atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;146:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is thought to play a role in the underlying mechanism. We examined the usefulness of the histamine release test (HRT) for definite diagnosis of PVP allergy...
  44. Brightman L, Stefanato C, Bhawan J, Phillips T. Third-trimester impetigo herpetiformis treated with cyclosporine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:S62-4 pubmed
  45. Elliot A, Cross K, Smith G, Burgess I, Fleming D. The association between impetigo, insect bites and air temperature: a retrospective 5-year study (1999-2003) using morbidity data collected from a sentinel general practice network database. Fam Pract. 2006;23:490-6 pubmed
    b>Impetigo is one of the commonest childhood skin infections. Insect bites are commonly implicated in the development of impetigo...
  46. Sakota V, Fry A, Lietman T, Facklam R, Li Z, Beall B. Genetically diverse group A streptococci from children in far-western Nepal share high genetic relatedness with isolates from other countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2160-6 pubmed
    ..Similarly, since most (40/51) strain types were highly related to strains found elsewhere, it is likely that a major fraction of the existing GAS clonal complexes have been discovered...
  47. Oranje A, Chosidow O, Sacchidanand S, Todd G, Singh K, Scangarella N, et al. Topical retapamulin ointment, 1%, versus sodium fusidate ointment, 2%, for impetigo: a randomized, observer-blinded, noninferiority study. Dermatology. 2007;215:331-40 pubmed
    ..Retapamulin is a novel pleuromutilin antibacterial developed for topical use...
  48. Rørtveit S, Rortveit G. Impetigo in epidemic and nonepidemic phases: an incidence study over 4(1/2) years in a general population. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:100-5 pubmed
    Little is known about incidence and natural variation of impetigo in general populations.
  49. Carpo B, Verallo Rowell V, Kabara J. Novel antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared with conventional antibiotics against organisms from skin infections: an in vitro study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:991-8 pubmed
    ..Monolaurin needs further pharmacokinetic studies to better understand its novel mechanisms of action, toxicity, drug interactions, and proper dosing in order to proceed to in vivo clinical studies. ..
  50. Prevost G, Couppie P, Monteil H. Staphylococcal epidermolysins. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:71-6 pubmed
    Staphylococcal epidermolysins are the major causative toxins of bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. This disease is characterized by the splitting of the epidermis between two cell layers resulting in exfoliation...
  51. Pittet D. Clean hands reduce the burden of disease. Lancet. 2005;366:185-7 pubmed
  52. Nishifuji K, Shimizu A, Ishiko A, Iwasaki T, Amagai M. Removal of amino-terminal extracellular domains of desmoglein 1 by staphylococcal exfoliative toxin is sufficient to initiate epidermal blister formation. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;59:184-91 pubmed publisher
    In both bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), exfoliative toxins (ETs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus cause superficial intraepidermal blisters...
  53. Lundsten E, Morgan A, Andrews R. A 23-year-old Hispanic migrant fieldworker who presents with a painful rash on his limbs, trunk, and face. Guttate psoriasis. JAAPA. 2007;20:72 pubmed
  54. Lin J, Wu C, Hsia S, Chiu C. Bullous impetigo: a rare presentation in fulminant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:318-20 pubmed
    ..However, bullous impetigo is invariably considered to be a staphylococcal disease...
  55. Pruksakorn S, Sittisombut N, Phornphutkul C, Pruksachatkunakorn C, Good M, Brandt E. Epidemiological analysis of non-M-typeable group A Streptococcus isolates from a Thai population in northern Thailand. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1250-4 pubmed
    ..The emm genes from 53 GAS isolates, collected between 1985 and 1995 from individuals with pharyngitis, impetigo, acute RF (ARF), RHD, or meningitis as well as from individuals without infections, were amplified by PCR and ..
  56. Bielan B. What's your assessment? Contact dermatitis. Dermatol Nurs. 2004;16:514, 528 pubmed
  57. Urth T, Juul G, Skov R, Schønheyder H. Spread of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST80-IV clone in a Danish community. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26:144-9 pubmed
    ..The objective is to extend knowledge of MRSA in a community setting where a nosocomial link could effectively be ruled out...
  58. Anderson H, Miller C, KEMP E, Huntington M. Bullous impetigo associated with Abiotrophia defectiva in an immunocompetent adult. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:1029-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here what we believe is the first case of bullous impetigo associated with this organism.