staphylococcal skin infections

Summary

Summary: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.

Top Publications

  1. Otto M. Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:143-62 pubmed publisher
    ..All these toxins impact disease progression in animal models of USA300 infection. In contrast, the basis of virulence in other CA-MRSA epidemics, which also include PVL-negative strains, is poorly understood...
  2. Tang C, Wang C, Huang C, Chen S, Tseng M, Lo W. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infection. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities of S. aureus strains from AD children and determine the most appropriate choice of antibiotics...
  3. Miller L, Eells S, Taylor A, David M, Ortiz N, Zychowski D, et al. Staphylococcus aureus colonization among household contacts of patients with skin infections: risk factors, strain discordance, and complex ecology. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infections in the U.S. However, epidemiologic characteristics of S. aureus household transmission are poorly understood...
  4. Cho J, Zussman J, Donegan N, Ramos R, Garcia N, Uslan D, et al. Noninvasive in vivo imaging to evaluate immune responses and antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus and USA300 MRSA skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:907-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this S. aureus wound infection model provides a valuable preclinical screening method to investigate cutaneous immune responses and the efficacy of topical antimicrobial therapies...
  5. Mesrati I, Saïdani M, Ennigrou S, Zouari B, Ben Redjeb S. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections. J Hosp Infect. 2010;75:265-8 pubmed
    ..008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus. ..
  6. Cheng A, Dedent A, Schneewind O, Missiakas D. A play in four acts: Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation. Trends Microbiol. 2011;19:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein A and coagulases are distinctive virulence attributes for S. aureus, and humoral immune responses specific for these polypeptides provide protection against abscess formation in animal models of staphylococcal disease...
  7. Saxena S, Thompson P, Birger R, Bottle A, Spyridis N, Wong I, et al. Increasing skin infections and Staphylococcus aureus complications in children, England, 1997-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:530-3 pubmed publisher
    ..8 to 29.1/1,000 child-years. During the same time period, hospital admissions for Staphylococcus aureus infections rose 49% from 53.4 to 79.3/100,000 child-years...
  8. Lai Y, Cogen A, Radek K, Park H, MacLeod D, Leichtle A, et al. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermidis to activate TLR2 signaling and induce antimicrobial peptide expression, thus enabling the skin to mount an enhanced response to pathogens...
  9. Talan D, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz R, Fosheim G, Limbago B, Albrecht V, et al. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections in US emergency department patients, 2004 and 2008. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Little information exists regarding trends in MRSA prevalence and molecular characteristics or regarding antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. aureus isolates...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Cho J, Pietras E, Garcia N, Ramos R, Farzam D, Monroe H, et al. IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study defines what we believe to be a novel role for IL-17-producing epidermal gammadelta T cells in innate immunity against S. aureus cutaneous infection. ..
  2. Wu D, Wang Q, Yang Y, Geng W, Wang Q, Yu S, et al. Epidemiology and molecular characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from skin/soft tissue infections in a children's hospital in Beijing, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;67:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4% versus 5.9%, P < 0.01).In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are not common among Chinese children with SSTIs. Our findings show that MSSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds...
  3. Li M, Cheung G, Hu J, Wang D, Joo H, Deleo F, et al. Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1866-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
  4. Atanaskova N, Tomecki K. Innovative management of recurrent furunculosis. Dermatol Clin. 2010;28:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Affected patients and their family members must practice good hygiene, predicated with regular hand washing, fomite cleaning, and avoiding contact with contaminated skin...
  5. Kobayashi S, Malachowa N, Whitney A, Braughton K, Gardner D, Long D, et al. Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:937-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that Hla, PSM?, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected...
  6. Forcade N, Parchman M, Jorgensen J, Du L, Nyren N, Treviño L, et al. Prevalence, severity, and treatment of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections in 10 medical clinics in Texas: a South Texas Ambulatory Research Network (STARNet) study. J Am Board Fam Med. 2011;24:543-50 pubmed publisher
  7. Krishna S, Miller L. Innate and adaptive immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:261-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we will discuss the recent discoveries involving IL-17-mediated responses, which provide a key link between cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses against S. aureus skin infections...
  8. Gonzalez D, Okumura C, Hollands A, Kersten R, Akong Moore K, Pence M, et al. Novel phenol-soluble modulin derivatives in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus identified through imaging mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that IMS can serve as a useful tool to go beyond genome predictions and expand our understanding of the important family of small peptide virulence factors...
  9. Nimmo G. USA300 abroad: global spread of a virulent strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It is now a major international epidemic strain, but whether it will supplant established community-associated strains in other countries remains to be seen...
  10. Landrum M, Neumann C, Cook C, Chukwuma U, Ellis M, Hospenthal D, et al. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus blood and skin and soft tissue infections in the US military health system, 2005-2010. JAMA. 2012;308:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are reported as decreasing, but recent rates of community-onset S. aureus infections are less known...
  11. Masiuk H, Kopron K, Grumann D, Goerke C, Kolata J, Jursa Kulesza J, et al. Association of recurrent furunculosis with Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results make a case for the determination of luk-PV in recurrent soft tissue infections with methicillin-sensitive as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus...
  12. Tracy L, Furuno J, Harris A, Singer M, Langenberg P, Roghmann M. Staphylococcus aureus infections in US veterans, Maryland, USA, 1999-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Incidence of all S. aureus infections significantly increased (p<0.001), driven by noninvasive, MRSA, and community-onset infections (p<0.001); incidence of invasive S. aureus infection significantly decreased (p<0.001)...
  13. Frei C, Makos B, Daniels K, Oramasionwu C. Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections as a common cause of hospitalization in United States children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1967-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Since then, possible risk factors for contracting CA-MRSA have been hypothesized, but supporting studies are limited...
  14. Joo H, Cheung G, Otto M. Antimicrobial activity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is caused by phenol-soluble modulin derivatives. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8933-40 pubmed publisher
  15. Park J, Friendship R, Poljak Z, Weese J, Dewey C. An investigation of exudative epidermitis (greasy pig disease) and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases. Can Vet J. 2013;54:139-44 pubmed
    ..Similar resistance was noted among S. aureus isolates. Antimicrobial resistance has become a problem in the treatment of EE in Ontario. ..
  16. Vaska V, Nimmo G, Jones M, Grimwood K, Paterson D. Increases in Australian cutaneous abscess hospitalisations: 1999-2008. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:93-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05. Increases in hospitalisation for cutaneous abscess treatment have occurred in Australia during the last decade. Research into the underlying causes and prevention of these infections is a public health priority...
  17. Balma Mena A, Lara Corrales I, Zeller J, Richardson S, McGavin M, Weinstein M, et al. Colonization with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50:682-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus is a common complication of atopic dermatitis (AD). The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection (MRSA) in the AD population is unknown...
  18. Fritz S, Camins B, Eisenstein K, Fritz J, Epplin E, Burnham C, et al. Effectiveness of measures to eradicate Staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with community-associated skin and soft-tissue infections: a randomized trial. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite a paucity of evidence, decolonization measures are prescribed for outpatients with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI)...
  19. Hota B, Lyles R, Rim J, Popovich K, Rice T, Aroutcheva A, et al. Predictors of clinical virulence in community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: the importance of USA300 and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to evaluate if the USA300 strain of CO-MRSA causes more severe infections than other MRSA (ie, USA100, -500, -800, and others) strains...
  20. Dukic V, Lauderdale D, Wilder J, Daum R, David M. Epidemics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52722 pubmed publisher
    ..This increase has not been geographically homogeneous, and appears to have occurred earlier in children than adults...
  21. Wang X, Towers S, Panchanathan S, Chowell G. A population based study of seasonality of skin and soft tissue infections: implications for the spread of CA-MRSA. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60872 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found a significant correlation between the temporal variation in SSTI incidence and mean temperature and specific humidity. Our findings could have potential implications on prevention and control efforts against CA-MRSA...
  22. Ray G, Suaya J, Baxter R. Microbiology of skin and soft tissue infections in the age of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In SSTI episodes with a culture-confirmed pathogen, MRSA increased from 5% in 1998 to 9% in 2001 to 42% in 2005, decreasing to 37% in 2009. These data can inform the choice of antibiotics for treatment of SSTIs...
  23. Fritz S, Hogan P, Camins B, Ainsworth A, Patrick C, Martin M, et al. Mupirocin and chlorhexidine resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in patients with community-onset skin and soft tissue infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus isolates recovered from outpatients, but eradication efforts were less successful in patients carrying a mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strain at baseline...
  24. Fritz S, Hogan P, Hayek G, Eisenstein K, Rodriguez M, Epplin E, et al. Household versus individual approaches to eradication of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in children: a randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Community-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections often affect multiple members of a household. We compared 2 approaches to S. aureus eradication: decolonizing the entire household versus decolonizing the index case alone...
  25. Miller L, Cho J. Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infections. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:505-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review describes these new insights and discusses their potential impact on immune-based therapies and vaccination strategies. ..
  26. Cheung G, Wang R, Khan B, Sturdevant D, Otto M. Role of the accessory gene regulator agr in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1927-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that agr functionality is critical for CA-MRSA disease and indicate that an adaptation of the agr regulon contributed to the evolution of highly pathogenic CA-MRSA...
  27. Kim M, Granick J, Kwok C, Walker N, Borjesson D, Curry F, et al. Neutrophil survival and c-kit(+)-progenitor proliferation in Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds promote resolution. Blood. 2011;117:3343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the abscess environment provides a niche capable of regulating PMN survival and local proliferation of bone marrow-derived c-kit(+)-progenitor cells...
  28. Odell C. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;22:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibiotic sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from SSTIs has changed over time in many geographic locations. Whether antibiotics are needed in the management of skin abscesses, and, if so, when, is controversial...
  29. Shallcross L, Williams K, Hopkins S, Aldridge R, Johnson A, Hayward A. Panton-Valentine leukocidin associated staphylococcal disease: a cross-sectional study at a London hospital, England. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1644-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration should be given to current infection control strategy, which advocates household contact screening and decolonization on the assumption that PVL-associated disease is rare...
  30. Kennedy A, Bubeck Wardenburg J, Gardner D, Long D, Whitney A, Braughton K, et al. Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1050-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Hla is a potential target for therapeutics or vaccines designed to moderate severe S. aureus skin infections...
  31. Bae I, Tonthat G, Stryjewski M, Rude T, Reilly L, Barriere S, et al. Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multination. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3952-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI. ..
  32. Creech C, Beekmann S, Chen Y, Polgreen P. Variability among pediatric infectious diseases specialists in the treatment and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:270-2 pubmed publisher
  33. Hurdle J, Yendapally R, Sun D, Lee R. Evaluation of analogs of reutericyclin as prospective candidates for treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4028-31 pubmed publisher
    The potential for reutericyclin derivatives to be used as topical antibiotics to treat staphylococcal skin infections was investigated. All reutericyclins inhibited the growth of clinical isolates of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
  34. Hayward A, Knott F, Petersen I, Livermore D, Duckworth G, Islam A, et al. Increasing hospitalizations and general practice prescriptions for community-onset staphylococcal disease, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These trends are of concern given the international emergence of invasive community-onset staphylococcal infections...
  35. Szumowski J, Cohen D, Kanaya F, Mayer K. Treatment and outcomes of infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at an ambulatory clinic. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:423-8 pubmed
    ..TMP-SMX appears to be an appropriate empirical antibiotic for suspected MRSA SSTI, especially where clindamycin resistance is common...
  36. Schlievert P, Case L, Strandberg K, Abrams B, Leung D. Superantigen profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Superantigens may offer selective advantages for colonization of patients. ..
  37. Johnson J, Khoie T, Shurland S, Kreisel K, Stine O, Roghmann M. Skin and soft tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1195-200 pubmed
    ..5). The increase in community-associated MRSA infections and the overall increase in SSTIs in our population suggest that USA300 is becoming more virulent and has a greater propensity to cause SSTIs. ..
  38. Hilliard J, Fernandez J, Melton J, Macielag M, Goldschmidt R, Bush K, et al. In vivo activity of the pyrrolopyrazolyl-substituted oxazolidinone RWJ-416457. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2028-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that RWJ-416457 is a promising new oxazolidinone with efficacy in S. aureus or S. pneumoniae mouse infection models. ..
  39. Rajendran P, Young D, Maurer T, Chambers H, Perdreau Remington F, Ro P, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cephalexin for treatment of uncomplicated skin abscesses in a population at risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4044-8 pubmed
    ..1% cure rate observed in the cephalexin arm provide strong evidence that antibiotics may be unnecessary after surgical drainage of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue abscesses caused by community strains of MRSA. ..
  40. Cohen A, Shuler C, McAllister S, Fosheim G, Brown M, Abercrombie D, et al. Methamphetamine use and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..10, 95% confidence interval 1.55-16.79). MRSA caused most SSTIs in this population. Transmission of MRSA may be occurring among methamphetamine users in this community. ..
  41. Montgomery C, Boyle Vavra S, Daum R. The arginine catabolic mobile element is not associated with enhanced virulence in experimental invasive disease caused by the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genetic background. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2650-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nor was the presence of ACME associated with increased dermonecrosis in a model of skin infection. We conclude that ACME is not necessary for virulence in rodent models of CA-MRSA USA300 pneumonia or skin infection. ..
  42. Bannoehr J, Ben Zakour N, Waller A, Guardabassi L, Thoday K, Van Den Broek A, et al. Population genetic structure of the Staphylococcus intermedius group: insights into agr diversification and the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8685-92 pubmed
    ..pseudintermedius clones found on different continents. Taken together, these data have resolved the population genetic structure of the S. intermedius group, resulting in new insights into its ancient and recent evolution. ..
  43. Bubeck Wardenburg J, Palazzolo Ballance A, Otto M, Schneewind O, Deleo F. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not a virulence determinant in murine models of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented in this report support the observation that PVL does not contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infection of mice. ..
  44. Fergie J, Purcell K. The treatment of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:67-8 pubmed
  45. Dryden M. Skin and soft tissue infection: microbiology and epidemiology. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34 Suppl 1:S2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors that may affect the microbial cause include underlying disease such as diabetes or immune dysfunction; hospital attendance, injecting drug use, travel, animal contact and environmental contamination. ..
  46. Bashir A, Mujahid T, Jehan N. Antibiotic resistance profile: isolation and characterization of clinical isolates of staphylococci from patients with community-acquired skin infections. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007;20:299-304 pubmed
    ..8% efficacy, then vancomycin with 81.2% efficacy, novobiocin with 63.6% efficacy, erythromycin with 42.4% efficacy and then bacitracin with 27.8% efficacy...
  47. Fazakerley J, Nuttall T, Sales D, Schmidt V, Carter S, Hart C, et al. Staphylococcal colonization of mucosal and lesional skin sites in atopic and healthy dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2009;20:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that S. intermedius carriage is more prevalent in atopic dogs compared to healthy dogs and that to identify staphylococcal carriers both the nasal mucosa and the perineum should be sampled...
  48. Tenover F, Goering R. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300: origin and epidemiology. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of the MRSA USA300 strain type represents a unique biological success story...
  49. Park S, Rich J, Hanses F, Lee J. Defects in innate immunity predispose C57BL/6J-Leprdb/Leprdb mice to infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that diabetic db/db mice are more susceptible to staphylococcal infection than their nondiabetic littermates and that persistent hyperglycemia modulates innate immunity in the diabetic host...
  50. Jahamy H, Ganga R, Al Raiy B, Shemes S, Nagappan V, Sharma M, et al. Staphylococcus aureus skin/soft-tissue infections: the impact of SCCmec type and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PVL is implicated in abscess formation but not bacteremia. Bacteremia is likely related to host condition and/or other virulence factors that were not studied...
  51. Ho P, Cheung C, Mak G, Tse C, Ng T, Cheung C, et al. Molecular epidemiology and household transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hong Kong. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:145-51 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CA-MRSA has a propensity to spread within families. Our findings showed that CA-MRSA strains in Hong Kong have diverse genetic backgrounds...
  52. Kairam N, Silverman M, Salo D, Baorto E, Lee B, Amato C. Cutaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a suburban community hospital pediatric emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2011;41:460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited data exist on MRSA rates in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in suburban community hospital pediatric emergency departments (PED)...
  53. Pallin D, Egan D, Pelletier A, Espinola J, Hooper D, Camargo C. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51:291-8 pubmed publisher
  54. David M, Rudolph K, Hennessy T, Boyle Vavra S, Daum R. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, rural southwestern Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1% were ST8. Among 120 prospective isolates, 57.5% were clindamycin resistant. CA-MRSA epidemiology in southwestern Alaska differs from that in the lower 48 states; ST8 strains were rarely identified and clindamycin resistance was common...
  55. Fontanilla J, Kirkland K, Talbot E, Powell K, Schwartzman J, Goering R, et al. Outbreak of skin infections in college football team members due to an unusual strain of community-acquired methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:609-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the strain is a community-associated USA300 MRSA strain that lost methicillin resistance but retained important virulence factors...
  56. Kedzierska A, Kapinska Mrowiecka M, Czubak Macugowska M, Wojcik K, Kedzierska J. Susceptibility testing and resistance phenotype detection in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis, with apparent and recurrent skin colonization. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:1290-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Dryden M. Complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, risk factors, and presentation. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2008;9 Suppl 1:s3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing cause of these infections, particularly in certain countries. Surgeons and other healthcare providers need to understand cSSTIs and manage them effectively...
  58. Schlievert P, Strandberg K, Lin Y, Peterson M, Leung D. Secreted virulence factor comparison between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and its relevance to atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:39-49 pubmed publisher
  59. Capparelli R, Ventimiglia I, Palumbo D, Nicodemo D, Salvatore P, Amoroso M, et al. Expression of recombinant puroindolines for the treatment of staphylococcal skin infections (acne vulgaris). J Biotechnol. 2007;128:606-14 pubmed
    ..Our preliminary results suggest that recombinant puroindolines deserve further attention as alternatives to the conventional antibiotics in the control of S. epidermidis skin infections...
  60. Gelatti L, Sukiennik T, Becker A, Inoue F, do Carmo M, Castrucci F, et al. [Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2009;42:458-60 pubmed
    ..The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis...
  61. Yoong P, Pier G. Antibody-mediated enhancement of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the high rates of primary and recurring MRSA infections in humans, it appears that antibodies to PVL might contribute to host susceptibility to infection...
  62. Daum R. Clinical practice. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:380-90 pubmed
  63. Szczesiul J, Shermock K, Murtaza U, Siberry G. No decrease in clindamycin susceptibility despite increased use of clindamycin for pediatric community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:852-4 pubmed
    ..Despite a significant increase in empiric clindamycin use, 97% of community-associated-MRSA isolates retained susceptibility to clindamycin...
  64. Chung H, Jeon H, Sung H, Kim M, Hong S. Epidemiological characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with eczematous atopic dermatitis lesions. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:991-5 pubmed publisher
  65. Liu C, Graber C, Karr M, Diep B, Basuino L, Schwartz B, et al. A population-based study of the incidence and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in San Francisco, 2004-2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1637-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to perform a population-based survey of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA disease in San Francisco, California...
  66. Tinelli M, Monaco M, Vimercati M, Ceraminiello A, Pantosti A. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections, Northern Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:250-7 pubmed
    ..The PVL-positive MSSA strain resembles typical community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus in its ability to cause prolonged community and hospital outbreaks of skin infections...
  67. Stryjewski M, Chambers H. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46 Suppl 5:S368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Dalbavancin, telavancin, and ceftobiprole are investigational agents that may expand our therapeutic options for the treatment of SSTI caused by MRSA...
  68. Larsen A, Stegger M, Böcher S, Sørum M, Monnet D, Skov R. Emergence and characterization of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus infections in Denmark, 1999 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of the isolates. The emergence of CA-MRSA in Denmark was caused by diverse strains, both well-known and new CA-MRSA strains. The results suggest multiple introductions of MRSA as an important source for CA-MRSA infections in Denmark...