rickettsia infections

Summary

Summary: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.

Top Publications

  1. Perotti M, Clarke H, Turner B, Braig H. Rickettsia as obligate and mycetomic bacteria. FASEB J. 2006;20:2372-4 pubmed
    ..In two phylogenetically distant psocopteran species, Rickettsia are shown to be associated with four transitional stages from free bacteria, infected cells, through single mycetocytes to organ-forming mycetomes. ..
  2. Jensenius M, Davis X, von Sonnenburg F, Schwartz E, Keystone J, Leder K, et al. Multicenter GeoSentinel analysis of rickettsial diseases in international travelers, 1996-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1791-8 pubmed publisher
    ..More than 90% of patients with rickettsial disease were treated with doxycycline, 43 (15.4%) were hospitalized, and 4 had a complicated course, including 1 fatal case of scrub typhus encephalitis acquired in Thailand. ..
  3. Horta M, Labruna M, Pinter A, Linardi P, Schumaker T. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007;102:793-801 pubmed
    ..parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas. ..
  4. Hii S, Kopp S, Thompson M, O Leary C, Rees R, Traub R. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from Northern Territory, Australia. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:198 pubmed publisher
    ..felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT...
  5. Bechah Y, Socolovschi C, Raoult D. Identification of rickettsial infections by using cutaneous swab specimens and PCR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:83-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Specimens from eschars in guinea pigs were positive for rickettsiae as long as lesions were present. Optimal storage temperature for specimens was 4 degrees C for 3 days. ..
  6. Walker D, Ismail N. Emerging and re-emerging rickettsioses: endothelial cell infection and early disease events. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:375-86 pubmed publisher
  7. López Del P J, Abarca V K, Azócar A T. [Clinical and serological evidence of canine rickettsiosis in Chile]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2007;24:189-93 pubmed
    ..Co-infection with two tickborne agents: Rickettsia and Anaplasma, is documented. Molecular studies are needed to confirm the rickettsial species present in Chile. The zoonotic role of these infections must be also studied. ..
  8. Tomassone L, Conte V, Parrilla G, De Meneghi D. Rickettsia infection in dogs and Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:953-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the use of canine serology as risk indicator for SF rickettsioses...
  9. Caron J, Rolain J, Mura F, Guillot B, Raoult D, Bessis D. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae infection and retinal vasculitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:683-4 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications87

  1. Silveira I, Pacheco R, Szabó M, Ramos H, Labruna M. Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1111-3 pubmed publisher
    ..An R. parkeri isolate was successfully established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the agent was performed by DNA sequencing of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB. ..
  2. Ishiguro F, Takada N, Fujita H, Noji Y, Yano Y, Iwasaki H. Survey of the vectorial competence of ticks in an endemic area of spotted fever group rickettsioses in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2008;52:305-9 pubmed publisher
    ..japonica showed greater homology to R. japonica than to R. helvetica or R. asiatica. The present results indicate that it is most likely that the vector tick of R. helvetica infection in Fukui Prefecture is I. monospinosus. ..
  3. Ogawa M, Matsumoto K, Parola P, Philippe P, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Expression of rOmpA and rOmpB protein in Rickettsia massiliae during the Rhipicephalus turanicus life cycle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:352-6 pubmed
    ..The expression of rOmpB did not change with temperature or the stages of the tick life cycle. In contrast, rOmpA was less expressed during the larval stage. ..
  4. Fortes F, Silveira I, Moraes Filho J, Leite R, Bonacim J, Biondo A, et al. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2010;19:222-7 pubmed
    ..circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil...
  5. Galvão M, Zavala Velazquez J, Zavala Castro J, Mafra C, Calic S, Walker D. Rickettsia felis in the Americas. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:156-8 pubmed
    ..The authors describe their work in the Americas in Rickettsia felis cases in humans and the presence of Rickettsia felis in vectors...
  6. Unsworth N, Graves S, Nguyen C, Kemp G, Graham J, Stenos J. Markers of exposure to spotted fever rickettsiae in patients with chronic illness, including fatigue, in two Australian populations. QJM. 2008;101:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known whether the presence of rickettsiae is causally related to the patients' chronic illnesses, or reactivation of a latent rickettsial infection. ..
  7. Graves S, Stenos J. Rickettsioses in Australia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1166:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..honei, strain "marmionii") in eastern Australia; Rickettsia felis, Western Australia; eight new RFG rickettsiae from ticks (of unknown pathogenicity); and two nonhuman pathogens in A. platys (dogs) and A. marginale (cattle). ..
  8. de Sousa R, Duque L, Anes M, Poças J, Torgal J, Bacellar F, et al. Lymphangitis in a Portuguese patient infected with Rickettsia sibirica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:529-30 pubmed publisher
  9. Kaabia N, Letaief A. Characterization of rickettsial diseases in a hospital-based population in central Tunisia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1166:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Doxycycline should be prescribed in patients with acute fever and skin rash, especially in hot seasons. These rickettsioses were characterized by benign prognosis. More skin biopsies are needed to identify other SFG rickettsies. ..
  10. Santibanez S, Ibarra V, Portillo A, Blanco J, Martinez de Artola V, Guerrero A, et al. Evaluation of IgG antibody response against Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia slovaca in patients with DEBONEL/TIBOLA. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:570-2 pubmed
    ..slovaca antigen allowed the diagnoses in 18 of the 31 patients (58%), and 17 patients (55%) were diagnosed with this disease using R. conorii antigen. Therefore, using R. slovaca as antigen did not improve the sensitivity of the assay...
  11. Bechah Y, Capo C, Mege J, Raoult D. Rickettsial diseases: from Rickettsia-arthropod relationships to pathophysiology and animal models. Future Microbiol. 2008;3:223-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These models may be useful for analyzing the pathogenesis of rickettsioses, especially epidemic typhus, evaluating new therapeutic molecules and vaccine candidates, and preventing future outbreaks. ..
  12. Hii S, Kopp S, Abdad M, Thompson M, O Leary C, Rees R, et al. Molecular evidence supports the role of dogs as potential reservoirs for Rickettsia felis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..felis. A high prevalence of R. felis in dogs in our study suggests that dogs may act as an important reservoir host for R. felis and as a potential source of human rickettsial infection. ..
  13. Aguirrebengoa K, Portillo A, Santibáñez S, Marin J, Montejo M, Oteo J. Human Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:528-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Mediannikov O, Matsumoto K, Samoylenko I, Drancourt M, Roux V, Rydkina E, et al. Rickettsia raoultii sp. nov., a spotted fever group rickettsia associated with Dermacentor ticks in Europe and Russia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:1635-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This rickettsia also exhibited a serotype distinct from previously described Rickettsia species. The type strain of Rickettsia raoultii sp. nov. is strain Khabarovsk(T) (=CSUR R3(T) =ATCC VR-1596(T)). ..
  15. Zhang L, Jin J, Fu X, Raoult D, Fournier P. Genetic differentiation of Chinese isolates of Rickettsia sibirica by partial ompA gene sequencing and multispacer typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2465-7 pubmed
    ..sibirica subsp. sibirica type strain, 246. These were widely distributed in China in humans and different tick species. We emphasize the importance of surveying the distribution of R. sibirica in China...
  16. Gaywee J, Sunyakumthorn P, Rodkvamtook W, Ruang Areerate T, Mason C, Sirisopana N. Human infection with Rickettsia sp. related to R. japonica, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:657-9 pubmed
  17. Fournier P, Zhu Y, Yu X, Raoult D. Proposal to create subspecies of Rickettsia sibirica and an emended description of Rickettsia sibirica. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:597-606 pubmed
    ..sibirica subsp. nov. (type strain = 2-4-6, ATCC VR-541(T)), and R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae subsp. nov. (type strain = HA-91, ATCC VR-1526(T)). The description of R. sibirica is emended to accommodate the two subspecies...
  18. Ortuño A, Quesada M, López Claessens S, Castella J, Sanfeliu I, Anton E, et al. The role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the eco-epidemiology of R. slovaca in Northeastern Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:59-64 pubmed
    ..Twelve of 23 wild boar were seropositive to R. slovaca. Results suggested wild boar are exposed to R. slovaca infection and this pathogen is well established in the wild cycle of D. marginatus in our area...
  19. Macaluso K, Pornwiroon W, Popov V, Foil L. Identification of Rickettsia felis in the salivary glands of cat fleas. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..felis plasmid confirmed the morphological identification of R. felis in cat flea salivary glands. This is the first report of R. felis in tissues critical for horizontal transmission of rickettsiae...
  20. Renvoise A, Raoult D. [An update on rickettsiosis]. Med Mal Infect. 2009;39:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these diseases are benign, others may be potentially fatal. Clinicians must therefore be aware of them. These issues are reviewed...
  21. Selmi M, Bertolotti L, Tomassone L, Mannelli A. Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and tick-borne lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:817-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the ticks, 17 were Dermacentor marginatus; 6 (35.3%) of these were identified by sequence analysis as containing Rickettsia slovaca. Tick-borne lympadenopathy occurs in this area...
  22. de Sousa R, Barata C, Vitorino L, Santos Silva M, Carrapato C, Torgal J, et al. Rickettsia sibirica isolation from a patient and detection in ticks, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1103-8 pubmed
    ..We describe also the first PCR detection of a new Rickettsia strain that is related to R. sibirica...
  23. Labruna M. Ecology of rickettsia in South America. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1166:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In Brazil, capybaras and opossums are the most probable amplifier hosts for R. rickettsii, among A. cajennense ticks, and small rodents for A. aureolatum...
  24. Thepparit C, Sunyakumthorn P, Guillotte M, Popov V, Foil L, Macaluso K. Isolation of a rickettsial pathogen from a non-hematophagous arthropod. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16396 pubmed publisher
    ..felis provides an excellent model for the study of rickettsial pathogenesis and transmission. In addition, this study is the first isolation of a rickettsial pathogen from a non-hematophagous arthropod...
  25. Parola P, Soula G, Gazin P, Foucault C, Delmont J, Brouqui P. Fever in travelers returning from tropical areas: prospective observational study of 613 cases hospitalised in Marseilles, France, 1999-2003. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2006;4:61-70 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of this situation requires an understanding of the common etiologies, which are associated with the demographics of travelers and the destinations...
  26. Pacheco R, Moraes Filho J, Nava S, Brandao P, Richtzenhain L, Labruna M. Detection of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia in Amblyomma parvum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;43:63-71 pubmed
    ..strain Argentina as a human pathogen is unknown. Further studies are needed to obtain tissue-cultured isolates of Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina, in order to better characterize it and to determine its taxonomic status as a new species...
  27. Sumner J, Durden L, Goddard J, Stromdahl E, Clark K, Reeves W, et al. Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) and Rickettsia parkeri, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:751-3 pubmed
    ..maculatum may be responsible for additional cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis throughout much of its US range...
  28. Chung M, Lee S, Kim M, Lee J, Kim E, Kim M, et al. Japanese spotted fever, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1122-4 pubmed
    ..The isolated rickettsia from the patient was identified as Rickettsia japonica by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes...
  29. Jado I, Oteo J, Aldamiz M, Gil H, Escudero R, Ibarra V, et al. Rickettsia monacensis and human disease, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding increases the number of recognized human rickettsial pathogens and expands the known geographic distribution of Mediterranean spotted fever-like cases...
  30. Blanc G, Ogata H, Robert C, Audic S, Claverie J, Raoult D. Lateral gene transfer between obligate intracellular bacteria: evidence from the Rickettsia massiliae genome. Genome Res. 2007;17:1657-64 pubmed
    ..Further analysis of the genomic sequences identifies additional candidates of LGT between Rickettsia. Our study indicates that recent LGT between obligate intracellular Rickettsia is more common than previously thought...
  31. Jado I, Escudero R, Gil H, Jiménez Alonso M, Sousa R, Garcia Perez A, et al. Molecular method for identification of Rickettsia species in clinical and environmental samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4572-6 pubmed
    ..The method is highly sensitive and specific in identifying Rickettsia species from both patient and environmental samples. The generic approach used allowed us to identify new pathogens...
  32. La Scola B, Bechah Y, Lepidi H, Raoult D. Prediction of rickettsial skin eschars in humans using an experimental guinea pig model. Microb Pathog. 2009;47:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that skin eschar is the reflect of a local control avoiding extreme virulence...
  33. Bernabeu Wittel M, Del Toro M, Nogueras M, Muniain M, Cardenosa N, Marquez F, et al. Seroepidemiological study of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Rickettsia conorii infection among the population of southern Spain. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:375-81 pubmed
    ..3; 95%CI 3.7-23.2), and participation in outdoor activities (OR=7.2; 95%CI 1.4-38.5). The results confirm the widespread prevalence of past infection due to R. felis, R. typhi, and R. conorii in the population of southern Spain...
  34. Blanco J, Oteo J. Rickettsiosis in Europe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:26-33 pubmed
    ..Other rickettsioses exist that have not yet been implicated in human pathology. We should consider that climate changes and other factors could contribute to the emergence and reemergence of other new diseases...
  35. Richards A, Jiang J, Omulo S, Dare R, Abdirahman K, Ali A, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The 6 febrile patients' symptoms included headache; nausea; and muscle, back, and joint pain. None of the patients had a skin rash...
  36. Venzal J, Estrada Pena A, Portillo A, Mangold A, Castro O, de Souza C, et al. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2012;54:131-4 pubmed
    ..parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay...
  37. Premaratna R, Rajapakse R, Chandrasena T, Nanayakkara D, Bandara N, Kularatna S, et al. Contribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lankan patients with fever who responded to empirical doxycycline treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:368-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that greater use of doxycycline appears justified for patients with undiagnosed fever in settings where rickettsial diseases are endemic or re-emerging with inadequate diagnostic facilities...
  38. Cazorla C, Socolovschi C, Jensenius M, Parola P. Tick-borne diseases: tick-borne spotted fever rickettsioses in Africa. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:531-44, ix-x pubmed publisher
    ..africae, seven distinct species of tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be human pathogens. A combination of clinical alertness and molecular tools such as PCR base detection of DNA and sequencing help to describe new diseases...
  39. Porta F, Nieto E, Creus B, Espín T, Casanova F, Sala I, et al. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy: a new infectious disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:618-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of patients with tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA)...
  40. Ibarra V, Oteo J, Portillo A, Santibanez S, Blanco J, Metola L, et al. Rickettsia slovaca infection: DEBONEL/TIBOLA. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:206-14 pubmed
    ..strains RpA4, DnS14, and DnS28. All ticks removed from patients were PCR-positive. Sequencing showed 8 of them identified as R. slovaca and 2 as Rickettsia sp. strains RpA4, DnS14, and DnS28...
  41. Angerami R, Resende M, Feltrin A, Katz G, Nascimento E, Stucchi R, et al. Brazilian spotted fever: a case series from an endemic area in southeastern Brazil: clinical aspects. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:252-4 pubmed
    ..The presence of the classical triad of fever, rash, and headache as described in RMSF was observed in fever than half (35.2%) of our patients...
  42. Madison G, Kim Schluger L, Braverman S, Nicholson W, Wormser G. Hepatitis in association with rickettsialpox. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we describe two patients with rickettsialpox who had acute hepatitis that resolved completely. In the appropriate clinical setting, rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis...
  43. Lee N, Ip M, Wong B, Lui G, Tsang O, Lai J, et al. Risk factors associated with life-threatening rickettsial infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:973-8 pubmed
    ..014). Treatment with fluoroquinolone/clarithromycin did not correlate with clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). Early empirical doxycycline therapy should be considered if clinico-epidemiologic signs of rickettsial infections are present...
  44. Shapiro M, Fritz C, Tait K, Paddock C, Nicholson W, Abramowicz K, et al. Rickettsia 364D: a newly recognized cause of eschar-associated illness in California. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Four spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) are known to infect humans in the United States. A member of the SFGR designated 364D and detected in Dermacentor occidentalis ticks has not previously been identified as a human pathogen...
  45. Johnston S, Glaser C, Padgett K, Wadford D, Espinosa A, Espinosa N, et al. Rickettsia spp. 364D causing a cluster of eschar-associated illness, California. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1036-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Antigenic similarity among rickettsiae leads to cross-reactive antibody responses; definitive diagnosis requires molecular methods. ..
  46. Venzal J, Pérez Martínez L, Félix M, Portillo A, Blanco J, Oteo J. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from Uruguay. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:305-8 pubmed
    ..This is the second species of Rickettsia identified in Uruguay in the past 2 years using molecular approaches, and it is helping to clarify the etiology of rickettsial diseases in the region...
  47. Labruna M, Ogrzewalska M, Moraes Filho J, Lepe P, Gallegos J, Lopez J. Rickettsia fells in Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1794-5 pubmed publisher
  48. de Sousa R, Edouard Fournier P, Santos Silva M, Amaro F, Bacellar F, Raoult D. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi and two genotypes closely related to Bartonella elizabethae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:727-31 pubmed
    ..Our findings emphasize the potential risk of flea-transmitted infections in mainland Portugal and the Madeira archipelago, and extend our knowledge of the potential flea vectors of human pathogens...
  49. Guglielmone A, Beati L, Barros Battesti D, Labruna M, Nava S, Venzal J, et al. Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South America. Exp Appl Acarol. 2006;40:83-100 pubmed
    ..Indeed, there is only one record of an Ixodes collected while feeding on man for all South America...
  50. Elfving K, Lindblom A, Nilsson K. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection among tick-bitten patients and blood donors in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:74-7 pubmed
    ..Owing to a known occurrence of immunological cross-reactivites, however, the results must be cautiously interpreted with regard to species of Rickettsia involved...
  51. Reif K, Stout R, Henry G, Foil L, Macaluso K. Prevalence and infection load dynamics of Rickettsia felis in actively feeding cat fleas. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2805 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis...
  52. Reif K, Macaluso K. Ecology of Rickettsia felis: a review. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:723-36 pubmed
    ..felis including the known distribution and arthropods infected; transmission mechanisms; current understanding of vertebrate infection and human disease; and the tools available to further examine R. felis...
  53. Syhavong B, Rasachack B, Smythe L, Rolain J, Roque Afonso A, Jenjaroen K, et al. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis...
  54. García García J, Portillo A, Núñez M, Santibáñez S, Castro B, Oteo J. A patient from Argentina infected with Rickettsia massiliae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:691-2 pubmed publisher
    ..After treatment with doxycycline for 12 days, her symptoms resolved. Rickettsia massiliae infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a biopsy specimen of the eschar...
  55. Baldridge G, Burkhardt N, Labruna M, Pacheco R, Paddock C, Williamson P, et al. Wide dispersal and possible multiple origins of low-copy-number plasmids in rickettsia species associated with blood-feeding arthropods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1718-31 pubmed publisher
  56. Oliveira K, Oliveira L, Dias C, Silva A, Almeida M, Almada G, et al. Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:191-4 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil...
  57. Wieten R, Hovius J, Groen E, van der Wal A, de Vries P, Beersma M, et al. Molecular diagnostics of Rickettsia africae infection in travelers returning from South Africa to The Netherlands. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these typically occur late in the course of the disease, and a mild clinical course or early antibiotic treatment can diminish antibody production...
  58. Silva N, Eremeeva M, Rozental T, Ribeiro G, Paddock C, Ramos E, et al. Eschar-associated spotted fever rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiologic agent is most related to Rickettsia parkeri, R. africae, and R. sibirica and probably widely distributed from Sao Paulo to Bahia in the Atlantic Forest...
  59. Abramowicz K, Rood M, Krueger L, Eremeeva M. Urban focus of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in Los Angeles, California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, respectively. Although R. typhi still circulates in urban Los Angeles in the classic Oriental flea-rat cycle, R. felis is more prevalent, even in this association...
  60. Hawley J, Shaw S, Lappin M. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:258-62 pubmed
    ..Of the 92 pairs, 62 of 92 (67.4%) flea extracts and none of the cat blood samples were positive for R felis DNA...
  61. Hanaoka N, Matsutani M, Kawabata H, Yamamoto S, Fujita H, Sakata A, et al. Diagnostic assay for Rickettsia japonica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1994-7 pubmed publisher
    ..japonica genome project. The target ORF was present only in R. japonica-related strains...
  62. Walker D, Paddock C, Dumler J. Emerging and re-emerging tick-transmitted rickettsial and ehrlichial infections. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:1345-61, x pubmed publisher
    ..Globally, many of these bacteria have been named but the genetic differences among them are often small, and many of their clinical manifestations may not be distinguishable diagnostically...
  63. Parola P, Rovery C, Rolain J, Brouqui P, Davoust B, Raoult D. Rickettsia slovaca and R. raoultii in tick-borne Rickettsioses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the etiologic agent for 65% of 86 patients with TIBOLA/DEBONEL as either Rickettsia slovaca (49/86, 57%) or R. raoultii (7/86, 8%)...
  64. Conti Diaz I, Moraes Filho J, Pacheco R, Labruna M. Serological evidence of Rickettsia parkeri as the etiological agent of rickettsiosis in Uruguay. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51:337-9 pubmed
    ..parkeri is the etiological agent of human cases of spotted fever in Uruguay, a disease that has been recognized in that country as cutaneous-ganglionar rickettsiosis...
  65. Dobler G, Wölfel R. Typhus and other rickettsioses: emerging infections in Germany. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Rickettsioses are diseases caused by rickettsiae, obligate intracellular bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods to humans. They cause various types of spotted fever and typhus...
  66. Paddock C, Finley R, Wright C, Robinson H, Schrodt B, Lane C, et al. Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis and its clinical distinction from Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..parkeri and comment on distinctions between R. parkeri rickettsiosis and other United States rickettsioses...
  67. Kaabia N, Rolain J, Khalifa M, Ben Jazia E, Bahri F, Raoult D, et al. Serologic study of rickettsioses among acute febrile patients in central Tunisia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:176-9 pubmed
    ..We concluded that SFGR, murine typhus, and acute Q fever are common causes of acute isolate fever in summer in central Tunisia and should be investigated systematically in patients with acute fever of unknown origin...
  68. Venzal J, Estrada Pena A, Castro O, De Souza C, Félix M, Nava S, et al. Amblyomma triste Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts and seasonality of the vector of Rickettsia parkeri in Uruguay. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The main animal host for adult A. triste at our study sites was the domestic dog. Humans were afflicted by the tick in rural and suburban settlements where other host animals are scarce or extinct and where dogs are common...
  69. Wang J, Hudson B, Watts M, Karagiannis T, Fisher N, Anderson C, et al. Diagnosis of Queensland tick typhus and African tick bite fever by PCR of lesion swabs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:963-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive...
  70. Jiang J, Stromdahl E, Richards A. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Amblyomma maculatum Gulf Coast ticks collected from humans in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..andeanae, respectively, by newly developed genus- and species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition Rickettsia felis was found in two A. maculatum nucleic acid preparations...
  71. Lepidi H, Fournier P, Raoult D. Histologic features and immunodetection of African tick-bite fever eschar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1332-7 pubmed
    ..Neutrophils in ATBF are a notable component of the host reaction, perhaps because ATBF is a milder disease than the other rickettsioses. Immunohistochemical detection of rickettsial antigens may be useful in diagnosing ATBF...
  72. Romer Y, Seijo A, Crudo F, Nicholson W, Varela Stokes A, Lash R, et al. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis...
  73. Nilsson K. Septicaemia with Rickettsia helvetica in a patient with acute febrile illness, rash and myasthenia. J Infect. 2009;58:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..helvetica in the blood was verified by PCR together with serologic evidence of infection, the patient presented a different clinical picture with acute febrile illness, rash and long-lasting myasthenia...
  74. Unsworth N, Stenos J, Graves S, Faa A, Cox G, Dyer J, et al. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses caused by "marmionii" strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:566-73 pubmed
    ..honei. It has been designated the "marmionii" strain of R. honei, in honor of Australian physician and scientist Barrie Marmion...
  75. Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Sokhna C, Tall A, Diatta G, Bassene H, et al. Rickettsia felis-associated uneruptive fever, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1140-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Using molecular tools, we found evidence for Rickettsia felis-associated illness in the initial days of infection in febrile Senegalese patients without malaria...
  76. Roch N, Epaulard O, Pelloux I, Pavese P, Brion J, Raoult D, et al. African tick bite fever in elderly patients: 8 cases in French tourists returning from South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:e28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases reported in the literature occurred in middle-aged, otherwise-healthy persons and corresponded to benign diseases. The course of African tick bite fever in elderly people is less well documented...
  77. Whitman T, Richards A, Paddock C, Tamminga C, Sniezek P, Jiang J, et al. Rickettsia parkeri infection after tick bite, Virginia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:334-6 pubmed
    ..Rickettsia parkeri was detected and isolated from the eschar. This report represents the second documented case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in a US serviceman in eastern Virginia...
  78. Pérez Osorio C, Zavala Velazquez J, Arias León J, Zavala Castro J. Rickettsia felis as emergent global threat for humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1019-23 pubmed publisher
    ..R. felis has been found throughout the world in several types of ectoparasites; cat fleas appear to be the most common vectors. R. felis infection should be considered an emergent threat to human health...