rickettsiaceae infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.

Top Publications

  1. Sanders S, Di Costanzo D, Leach J, Levy H, Srinivasan K, Zaki S, et al. Rickettsialpox in a patient with HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:286-9 pubmed
    ..Rickettsialpox is easily treated and may resemble more serious cutaneous eruptions in patients infected with HIV. This diagnosis should be considered in immunocompromised city-dwellers, with fever and a papulovesicular rash...
  2. Clark M, Anderson C, Cande J, Karr T. Widespread prevalence of wolbachia in laboratory stocks and the implications for Drosophila research. Genetics. 2005;170:1667-75 pubmed
    ..In addition to this cautionary message, the infection status of stock centers may provide further opportunities to study the genetic basis of host/symbiosis...
  3. Madison G, Kim Schluger L, Braverman S, Nicholson W, Wormser G. Hepatitis in association with rickettsialpox. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we describe two patients with rickettsialpox who had acute hepatitis that resolved completely. In the appropriate clinical setting, rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis...
  4. Ozturk M, Gunes T, Kose M, Coker C, Radulovic S. Rickettsialpox in Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1498-9 pubmed
  5. Harcombe W, Hoffmann A. Wolbachia effects in Drosophila melanogaster: in search of fitness benefits. J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;87:45-50 pubmed
    ..The absence of nutrition or stress effects suggests that other processes maintain wMel frequencies in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster...
  6. Bandi C, Dunn A, Hurst G, Rigaud T. Inherited microorganisms, sex-specific virulence and reproductive parasitism. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:88-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss whether some parasites of vertebrates might show sex-specific virulence...
  7. Engelstädter J, Telschow A, Hammerstein P. Infection dynamics of different Wolbachia-types within one host population. J Theor Biol. 2004;231:345-55 pubmed
    ..Computer simulations confirmed these findings for the general models. We discuss our results with respect to the prevalence of the Wolbachia-types considered here and the emergence of PI- from CI-Wolbachia...
  8. Paddock C, Koss T, Eremeeva M, Dasch G, Zaki S, Sumner J. Isolation of Rickettsia akari from eschars of patients with rickettsialpox. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:732-8 pubmed
    ..This work emphasizes the importance and utility of culture-and molecular-based methods for the diagnosis of rickettsialpox and other eschar-associated illnesses...
  9. Hoffmann A, Hercus M, Dagher H. Population dynamics of the Wolbachia infection causing cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;148:221-31 pubmed
    ..Simple models suggest that the infection probably provides a fitness benefit for the host in order to persist in populations. The exact nature of this benefit remains elusive...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Gray G, Rodier G, Matras Maslin V, Honein M, Ismail E, Botros B, et al. Serologic evidence of respiratory and rickettsial infections among Somali refugees. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;52:349-53 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, R. typhi, R. conorii, and Cox. burnetii, respectively. These data suggest that the studied pathogens may be endemic in displaced populations living in the Horn of Africa...
  2. Krusell A, Comer J, Sexton D. Rickettsialpox in North Carolina: a case report. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:727-8 pubmed
    ..Including rickettsialpox in the evaluation of patients with eschars or vesicular rashes is likely to extend the recognized geographic distribution of Rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of this disease...
  3. Letaief A, Yacoub S, Dupont H, Le Cam C, Ghachem L, Jemni L, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of rickettsial infections among blood donors in central Tunisia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995;89:266-8 pubmed
    ..No significant difference was detected between urban and rural areas. This study confirmed the endemicity of rickettsioses, and revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever, in central Tunisia...
  4. Kremer N, Voronin D, Charif D, Mavingui P, Mollereau B, Vavre F. Wolbachia interferes with ferritin expression and iron metabolism in insects. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000630 pubmed publisher
    ..By impacting the general physiology of the host, the presence of a symbiont may select for host compensatory mechanisms, which extends the possible consequences of persistent endosymbiont on the evolution of their hosts...
  5. Chen D, Purcell A. Occurrence and transmission of facultative endosymbionts in aphids. Curr Microbiol. 1997;34:220-5 pubmed
    ..Both PASS and PAR were maintained in the offspring of some of the injected mother aphids via high rate of maternal transmission. ..
  6. Mattioli R, Bah M, Reibel R, Jongejan F. Cowdria ruminantium antibodies in acaricide-treated and untreated cattle exposed to Amblyomma variegatum ticks in The Gambia. Exp Appl Acarol. 2000;24:957-69 pubmed
    ..002) in untreated animals than in previously treated cattle. These results provide a support for designing A. variegatum and heartwater control strategies, if necessary, in The Gambia in relation to cattle breeds...
  7. Slater L, Welch D, Min K. Rochalimaea henselae causes bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:602-6 pubmed
    ..Bacillary peliosis hepatis seemed likely to have the same etiologic agent as bacillary angiomatosis. We sought these pathologic changes in patients from whom R henselae was cultivated...
  8. Perez Avraham G, Yagupsky P, Schlaeffer F, Borer A, Caiserman S, Riesenberg K. Zoonotic infections as causes of hospitalization among febrile Bedouin patients in southern Israel. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:301-3 pubmed
    ..Blood cultures and multiple serological tests should be used in the investigation of fever in such patients and tetracycline should be considered for initial empirical treatment...
  9. Sun S, Cline T. Effects of Wolbachia infection and ovarian tumor mutations on Sex-lethal germline functioning in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;181:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly Sxl and otu work together in the female germline. These studies of meiosis in Sxl mutant females revealed that X chromosome recombination is considerably more sensitive than autosomal recombination to reduced Sxl activity. ..
  10. Salgado F, Marquez M, Rivero A, Santos J, Bosch R, Falces A. [Bacillary angiomatosis: report of 2 cases]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1994;12:293-6 pubmed
    ..2) Biopsy is the only differential diagnostic method for this disease with other processes with similar clinical appearance and different prognosis as in Kaposi sarcoma which may even coexist in these patients. ..
  11. Woldehiwet Z, Carter S, Dare C. Purification of Cytoecetes phagocytophila, the causative agent of tick-borne fever, from infected ovine blood. J Comp Pathol. 1991;105:431-8 pubmed
    ..Cell-free C. phagocytophila remained infective to susceptible sheep for 6 months when kept at -114 degrees C in sucrose phosphate buffer with 10 per cent dimethylsulphoxide as a cryopreservative. ..
  12. Paddock C, Zaki S, Koss T, Singleton J, Sumner J, Comer J, et al. Rickettsialpox in New York City: a persistent urban zoonosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:36-44 pubmed
  13. Kho K, Koh F, Hasan L, Wong L, Kisomi M, Bulgiba A, et al. Rickettsial seropositivity in the indigenous community and animal farm workers, and vector surveillance in Peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017;6:e18 pubmed publisher
  14. Rancès E, Ye Y, Woolfit M, McGraw E, O Neill S. The relative importance of innate immune priming in Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002548 pubmed publisher
  15. Bottieau E, Clerinx J, Van den Enden E, Van Esbroeck M, Colebunders R, Van Gompel A, et al. Fever after a stay in the tropics: diagnostic predictors of the leading tropical conditions. Medicine (Baltimore). 2007;86:18-25 pubmed
    ..The initial clinical and laboratory assessment can help in selecting appropriate investigations and empiric treatments for patients with imported fever. ..
  16. Raoult D, Fournier P, Eremeeva M, Graves S, Kelly P, Oteo J, et al. Naming of Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:1-12 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we review taxonomic rules and appropriate approaches to valid naming of rickettsial species and the diseases they cause...
  17. Pearce C, Conrad M, Nolan P, Fishbein D, Dawson J. Ehrlichiosis: a cause of bone marrow hypoplasia in humans. Am J Hematol. 1988;28:53-5 pubmed
    ..However, prompt antibiotic therapy is advised prior to serologic studies, especially in immunocompromised individuals, splenectomized persons, and patients with AIDS-who may develop a more overwhelming rickettsial infection. ..
  18. Le Clec h W, Braquart Varnier C, Raimond M, Ferdy J, Bouchon D, Sicard M. High virulence of Wolbachia after host switching: when autophagy hurts. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002844 pubmed publisher
    ..This change in virulence likely results from the autophagic response of the host, strongly altering its tolerance to the symbiont and turning it into a deadly pathogen. ..
  19. Hackstadt T. The diverse habitats of obligate intracellular parasites. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1998;1:82-7 pubmed
    ..Intracellular niches inhabited by obligate intracellular parasites include the cytoplasm, arrested early endosomes, lysosomes, and vesicles that do not fuse with the endosomal compartment but intersect with an exocytic pathway. ..
  20. Taylor M. Wolbachia in the inflammatory pathogenesis of human filariasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:444-9 pubmed
    ..The use of antibiotic therapy to target Wolbachia of filarial parasites may therefore provide a means to prevent the development of filarial pathology. ..
  21. Zheng Y, Ren P, Wang J, Wang Y. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19512 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role Hira plays in the interaction of Wolbachia and its insect host. ..
  22. Regnery R, Anderson B, Clarridge J, Rodriguez Barradas M, Jones D, Carr J. Characterization of a novel Rochalimaea species, R. henselae sp. nov., isolated from blood of a febrile, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:265-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that the novel species be referred to as Rochalimaea henselae sp. now. ..
  23. Letaief A. Epidemiology of rickettsioses in North Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:34-41 pubmed
    ..conorii or viral infection. In addition to typhus surveillance, future studies have to determine which spotted fever group rickettsiae are prevalent in vectors and in human pathology. ..
  24. Relman D, Loutit J, Schmidt T, Falkow S, Tompkins L. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1573-80 pubmed
    ..The agent is often visualized in tissue sections of lesions with Warthin-Starry staining, but the bacillus has not been successfully cultured or identified. This bacillus may also cause cat scratch disease...
  25. Martinez T, Meltzer M, Perry B, Burridge M, Mahan S. The effect of subclinical experimental Cowdria ruminantium infection in ewes on the growth and milk consumption of pre-weaning lambs. Prev Vet Med. 1999;41:105-18 pubmed
    ..ruminantium--a situation likely to occur in an endemically stable state. Hence, maintenance of endemic stability would be a suitable control option for heartwater. ..
  26. Botelho Nevers E, Raoult D. Fever of unknown origin due to rickettsioses. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2007;21:997-1011, ix pubmed
    ..In this context, even without confirmation of diagnosis, treatment with doxycycline should be used. ..
  27. Muramatsu Y, Maruyama M, Yanase T, Ueno H, Morita C. Improved method for preparation of samples for the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Coxiella burnetii in milk using immunomagnetic separation. Vet Microbiol. 1996;51:179-85 pubmed
    ..IMS represents a novel approach to the isolation of microorganism from milk. The combination of IMS and PCR analysis has an adequate sensitivity for detection of C. burnetii. ..
  28. Goldman D, Artenstein A, Bolan C. Human ehrlichiosis: a newly recognized tick-borne disease. Am Fam Physician. 1992;46:199-208 pubmed
    ..Therapy must be initiated empirically in suspected cases. Both ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever respond well to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, but not to penicillins or cephalosporins. ..
  29. Berrada Z, Telford S. Burden of tick-borne infections on American companion animals. Top Companion Anim Med. 2009;24:175-81 pubmed publisher
  30. Davis A, Devore J, Milanovich J, Cecala K, Maerz J, Yabsley M. New findings from an old pathogen: intraerythrocytic bacteria (family Anaplasmatacea) in red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus. Ecohealth. 2009;6:219-28 pubmed publisher
  31. Perry B, Schmidtmann E, Rice R, Hansen J, Fletcher M, Turner E, et al. Epidemiology of Potomac horse fever: an investigation into the possible role of non-equine mammals. Vet Rec. 1989;125:83-6 pubmed
    ..The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of current understanding of the transmission of Potomac horse fever and of the epidemiology of other related ehrlichial diseases. ..
  32. Chapman A, Bakken J, Folk S, Paddock C, Bloch K, Krusell A, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis--United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-27 pubmed
  33. Akgoz A, Mukundan S, Lee T. Imaging of rickettsial, spirochetal, and parasitic infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:633-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Being familiar with clinical presentation and imaging findings of these infections is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment especially in patients who live in or have a travel history to endemic regions or are immunocompromised...
  34. de Crespigny F, Pitt T, Wedell N. Increased male mating rate in Drosophila is associated with Wolbachia infection. J Evol Biol. 2006;19:1964-72 pubmed
    ..Increased male mating rates also have implications for the transmission of Wolbachia...
  35. Saini R, Pui J, Burgin S. Rickettsialpox: report of three cases and a review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:S137-42 pubmed
    ..It is thus important for clinicians to be familiar with rickettsialpox. We report 3 cases and review the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory findings, differential diagnosis, and management of this disease...
  36. Koehler J, Quinn F, Berger T, LeBoit P, Tappero J. Isolation of Rochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1625-31 pubmed
    ..A newly described gram-negative organism, Rochalimaea henselae, has been associated with cutaneous bacillary angiomatosis, but no organism has been isolated and cultivated directly from cutaneous tissue...
  37. Hermans P, Hart C, Trees A. In vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;47:659-63 pubmed
    ..Of the five antibiotics tested, doxycycline, oxytetracycline and rifampicin showed good activity (MICs of 0.0625, 4 and 0.0625 mg/L, respectively) whereas ciprofloxacin and penicillin were shown to have no effect...
  38. Welch D, Pickett D, Slater L, Steigerwalt A, Brenner D. Rochalimaea henselae sp. nov., a cause of septicemia, bacillary angiomatosis, and parenchymal bacillary peliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:275-80 pubmed
    ..Prolonged fever with bacteremia or vascular proliferative lesions are clinical manifestations of the agent...
  39. Hoerauf A. Mansonella perstans--the importance of an endosymbiont. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1502-4 pubmed publisher
  40. Xi Z, Khoo C, Dobson S. Interspecific transfer of Wolbachia into the mosquito disease vector Aedes albopictus. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:1317-22 pubmed
    ..We discuss the results in relation to developing appropriate Wolbachia-infected mosquito strains for population replacement and population suppression strategies...
  41. Eng T, Harkess J, Fishbein D, Dawson J, Greene C, Redus M, et al. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1988. JAMA. 1990;264:2251-8 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in the interval from initiation of antibiotic therapy to the first day of defervescence between patients treated with tetracyclines and those treated with chloramphenicol...
  42. Olchowy T, Ames T, Molitor T. Serodiagnosis of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis in selected groups of horses in Minnesota. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990;196:1967-70 pubmed
  43. Smith P, Pizarro P, Ojeda P, Contreras J, Oyanedel S, Larenas J. Routes of entry of Piscirickettsia salmonis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;37:165-72 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that the main entry sites are through the skin and gills and that the oral route may not be the normal method by which P. salmonis initiates infection of salmonids...
  44. Xin L, Shelite T, Gong B, Mendell N, Soong L, Fang R, et al. Systemic treatment with CpG-B after sublethal rickettsial infection induces mouse death through indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34062 pubmed publisher
  45. Erwin J, Fitak R, Dwyer J, Morrison J, Culver M. Molecular detection of bacteria in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in northern crested caracaras (Caracara cheriway). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of these pathogens demonstrates that these birds are potential hosts; however, the low prevalence of infections suggests that these populations likely do not function as an ecological reservoir. ..
  46. Lee J, Park H, Jung K, Jang W, Koh S, Kang S, et al. Identification of the spotted fever group rickettsiae detected from Haemaphysalis longicornis in Korea. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:301-4 pubmed
    ..7 to 100%) with that of R. japonica YH, and that from 1 tick (tick no. 48) was identical with that of R. rickettsii R, suggesting that SFG rickettsiae exists in Korea. This is the first documentation of SFG rickettsiae in Korea...
  47. Doan Wiggins L. Tick-borne diseases. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1991;9:303-25 pubmed
    ..Early and specific therapy is a principal factor in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases...
  48. Endersby N, White V, Chan J, Hurst T, Rasic G, Miller A, et al. Evidence of cryptic genetic lineages within Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse). Infect Genet Evol. 2013;18:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to the possibility that Ae. notoscriptus is a complex of species, highlighting the need to understand physiological and ecological differences that may influence future control strategies. ..
  49. Valbuena G, Walker D. Infection of the endothelium by members of the order Rickettsiales. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:1071-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of these bacteria in relevant in vivo models is likely to offer new insights into the physiology of the endothelium that have not been revealed by other models...
  50. Dobson S, Fox C, Jiggins F. The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems. Proc Biol Sci. 2002;269:437-45 pubmed
  51. Walker D, Hudnall S, Szaniawski W, Feng H. Monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical diagnosis of rickettsialpox: the macrophage is the principal target. Mod Pathol. 1999;12:529-33 pubmed
  52. Hoskins J, Breitschwerdt E, Gaunt S, French T, Burgdorfer W. Antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia platys, and spotted fever group rickettsiae in Louisiana dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 1988;2:55-9 pubmed
    ..Of 86 dogs tested, 44.2% were seronegative to E canis, E platys, and SFG rickettsiae...
  53. Comer J, Paddock C, Childs J. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:91-118 pubmed
  54. Chidiac C, Mouton Y. Quinolones in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by intracellular pathogens. Infection. 1991;19 Suppl 7:S365-71 pubmed
    ..Considering the in vitro and experimental studies, quinolones should play an important role in the treatment of LRTI caused by intracellular pathogens, and prospective controlled studies are strongly recommended...
  55. Kelly P, Mason P, Rhode C, Dziva F, Matthewman L. Transient infections of goats with a novel spotted fever group rickettsia from Zimbabwe. Res Vet Sci. 1991;51:268-71 pubmed
    ..Rickettsaemia was detected only on day 3 after exposure to infected ticks. Immunosuppression failed to induce recrudescence of the rickettsaemia...
  56. Obexer Ruff G, Fluri A, Hein W, Lazary S, Peterhans E, Bertoni G. Caprine T-cell receptor variable beta-chain (TCRV beta) repertoire analysis and potential applications in cowdriosis immune response studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;849:321-6 pubmed
    ..e., the Creole goat. There the TCR V beta repertoire analysis and kinetic study of the cowdriosis model will provide insight into the type of the immune response and the status of protection during the immunization process and challenge...
  57. Coulibaly Y, Dembele B, Diallo A, Lipner E, Doumbia S, Coulibaly S, et al. A randomized trial of doxycycline for Mansonella perstans infection. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..perstans is refractory to standard antifilarial therapies. The recent discovery of bacterial endosymbionts (e.g., wolbachia) in most filarial species, including M. perstans, provides new therapeutic options for reducing microfilaremia...
  58. Myers S, Sexton D. Dermatologic manifestations of arthropod-borne diseases. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1994;8:689-712 pubmed
    ..In other arthropod-borne infections, the appearance or evolution of the skin rash may be characteristic enough to suggest the proper diagnosis...
  59. Karr T, Yang W, Feder M. Overcoming cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila. Proc Biol Sci. 1998;265:391-5 pubmed
    ..This restoration of fertility in premated infected males could have important implications for Wolbachia transmission and persistence in nature and for its exploitation as an agent of biological pest control...
  60. Wu J, Huang D, Pang K, Tyring S. Rickettsial infections around the world, part 2: rickettsialpox, the typhus group, and bioterrorism. J Cutan Med Surg. 2005;9:105-15 pubmed
  61. Koss T, Carter E, Grossman M, Silvers D, Rabinowitz A, Singleton J, et al. Increased detection of rickettsialpox in a New York City hospital following the anthrax outbreak of 2001: use of immunohistochemistry for the rapid confirmation of cases in an era of bioterrorism. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:1545-52 pubmed
    ..The cluster of cutaneous anthrax cases from bioterrorism in October 2001 likely heightened awareness of and concern for cutaneous eschars...
  62. Almendras F, Fuentealba I, Frederick Markham R, Speare D. Pathogenesis of liver lesions caused by experimental infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000;12:552-7 pubmed
    ..The tropism of P. salmonis for endothelial cells explains the vascular lesions observed in SRS, whereas hepatic lesions are due to ischemic necrosis and direct injury by intracytoplasmic organisms...
  63. Watt G, Parola P. Scrub typhus and tropical rickettsioses. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:429-36 pubmed
    ..An update of recent research findings is therefore particularly timely for the nonspecialist physician...
  64. Lee H, Ko W, Lee H, Chen H. Clinical manifestations and complications of rickettsiosis in southern Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2002;101:385-92 pubmed
    ..This study describes the clinical manifestations and complications of cases of rickettsial infections treated at a medical center in southern Taiwan...
  65. Hise A, Daehnel K, Gillette Ferguson I, Cho E, McGarry H, Taylor M, et al. Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, TLR6, MyD88, and Mal, but not TLR4, TRIF, or TRAM. J Immunol. 2007;178:1068-76 pubmed
    ..These results establish that the innate inflammatory pathways activated by endosymbiotic Wolbachia in B. malayi and O. volvulus filaria are dependent on TLR2-TLR6 interactions and are mediated by adaptor molecules MyD88 and TIRAP/Mal...
  66. Olano J. Rickettsial infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:187-96 pubmed
    ..Our knowledge on rickettsial pathogenesis will continue to expand in the near future as new research tools become available...
  67. Volkmann L, Fischer K, Taylor M, Hoerauf A. Antibiotic therapy in murine filariasis (Litomosoides sigmodontis): comparative effects of doxycycline and rifampicin on Wolbachia and filarial viability. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:392-401 pubmed
  68. Zavala Castro J, Zavala Velazquez J, Peniche Lara G, Sulú Uicab J. Human rickettsialpox, southeastern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1665-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health...
  69. House M, Bartholomew J, Winton J, Fryer J. Relative virulence of three isolates of Piscirickettsia salmonis for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;35:107-13 pubmed
    ..These differences in virulence among the isolates were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), and are important for the management of affected stocks of fish...
  70. Bleck T. Central nervous system involvement in Rickettsial diseases. Neurol Clin. 1999;17:801-12 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis of RMSF and related disorders includes other conditions that produce vasculitis, most importantly meningococcemia. The rickettsial disorders are usually treated effectively with tetracycline derivatives...
  71. Chauvatcharin N, Ahantarig A, Baimai V, Kittayapong P. Bacteriophage WO-B and Wolbachia in natural mosquito hosts: infection incidence, transmission mode and relative density. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:2451-61 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the idea of utilizing these bacteriophages as transformation vectors still needs more investigation and is likely to be unfeasible...
  72. des Vignes F, Levin M, Fish D. Comparative vector competence of Dermacentor variabilis and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Med Entomol. 1999;36:182-5 pubmed
    ..Evidence of transmission was not observed in any of 9 mice exposed to D. variabilis nymphs. These results demonstrate that although I. scapularis is a competent vector of the agent of the HGF, D. variabilis is not...
  73. Keysary A, Eremeeva M, Leitner M, Din A, Wikswo M, Mumcuoglu K, et al. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:919-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed...
  74. Collett M, Doyle A, Reyers F, Kruse T, Fabian B. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis and concurrent ehrlichiosis in a dog. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1987;58:197-202 pubmed
    ..Cortical atrophy with T-cell depletion of lymph nodes as well as splenic lymphoid follicular atrophy, typical of chronic ehrlichiosis-induced cell mediated immunosuppression, could have predisposed to the fatal disseminated cryptococcis...
  75. Poinsot D, Bourtzis K, Markakis G, Savakis C, Mercot H. Wolbachia transfer from Drosophila melanogaster into D. simulans: Host effect and cytoplasmic incompatibility relationships. Genetics. 1998;150:227-37 pubmed
    ..It would also confirm other results indicating that the factor responsible for CI induction in males is distinct from the factor responsible for CI rescue in females...
  76. Mott J, Muramatsu Y, Seaton E, Martin C, Reed S, Rikihisa Y. Molecular analysis of Neorickettsia risticii in adult aquatic insects in Pennsylvania, in horses infected by ingestion of insects, and isolated in cell culture. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:690-3 pubmed
    ..16S rRNA and 51-kDa antigen gene sequences from blood, isolates, and caddis flies fed to the horses were identical, proving oral transmission of N. risticii from caddis flies to horses...
  77. Eperon G, Peter O, Socolovschi C, Loutan L, Parola P. [Rickettsial diseases in Switzerland, update for the general practitioner]. Rev Med Suisse. 2012;8:978-82, 984-5 pubmed
    ..PCR can give the diagnosis in acute phase. However empirical treatment should be prescribed as soon as diagnosis is suspected. No vaccine is currently available and use of repellent is still the best way of prevention...
  78. Dawson J, Fishbein D, Eng T, Redus M, Green N. Diagnosis of human ehrlichiosis with the indirect fluorescent antibody test: kinetics and specificity. J Infect Dis. 1990;162:91-5 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize that patients suspected of having a tick-borne infection should be tested for antibodies to E. canis as well as for those to other rickettsiae...
  79. Rasgon J, Scott T. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the California Culex pipiens mosquito species complex: parameter estimates and infection dynamics in natural populations. Genetics. 2003;165:2029-38 pubmed
    ..If certain technical hurdles can be overcome, our data indicate that Wolbachia can invade vector populations as part of an applied transgenic strategy for vector-borne disease reduction...
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